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FIRST editi 

on, published in three volumes, 1768— 



, , ten , 




,, eighteen , 




,, twenty , 

, 1801- 



,, twenty , 




,, twenty , 




,, twenty-one , 




,, twenty-two , 




,, twenty-five , 




, ninth edition and eleven 

supplementary volumes, 




, published in twenty-nine volume 

:s, 1910- 



in all countries subscribing to the 

Bern Convention 



of the 

All rights reserved 










New York 

Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. 

342 Madison Avenue 

Copyright, in the United States of America, 1910, 


The Encyclopedia Britannica Company. 




A. B. R. 

A. B. W. K. 

A. Ca. 

A. E. H. L. 

A. E. S. 

A. Ge. 
A. Go.* 
A. G. B.* 

A. G, D. 
A. H. Sm. 


Author of Text Book 




















. H.* 

on\ Fruit. 


Alfred Barton Rendle, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., F.L.S. 
Keeper, Department of Botany, British Museum. 
Classification of Flowering Plants; &c. 

Sir Alexander Blackie William Kennedy, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Emeritus Professor of Engineering, University College, London. 
Engineer to Board of Ordnance. 

Arthur Cayley, LL.D., F.R.S. 

See the biographical article, Cayley, Arthur. 

Augustus Edward Hough Love, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Sedleian Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University of Oxford. 
Fellow of Queen's College; formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge 
Secretary to the London Mathematical Society. 

Arthur Everett Shipley, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Master of Christ's College, Cambridge. Reader in Zoology, Cambridge University 
Joint-editor of the Cambridge Natural History. 

Sir Archibald Geikie, LL.D. 

See the biographical article, Geikie, Sir A. 

Rev. Alexander Gordon, M.A. 

Lecturer on Church History in the University of Manchester. 

Hon. Archibald Graeme Bell, M.Inst. C.E. 

Director of Public Works and Inspector of Mines, Trinidad. Member of Executive 
and Legislative Councils, Inst. C.E. 

Arthur George Doughty, C.M.G., M.A., Litt.D., F.R.,Hist.S. 

Dominion Archivist of Canada. Member of the Geographical Board of Canada. 
Author of The Cradle of New France; &c. Joint-editor of Documents relating 
to the Constitutional History of Canada. V. 

Arthur Hamilton Smith, M.A., F.S.A. f 

Keeper of the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities in the British Museum. J Gem 
Member of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of Catalogue j 
of Greek Sculpture in the British Museum ; &c. 

Rev. Allen Menzies, D.D. 

Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism, University of St Andrews. Author 
of History of Religion ; &c. Editor of Review of Theology and Philosophy. 

Agnes Mary Clerke. 

See the biographical article, Clerke, Agnes M. 

Alfred Newton, F.R.S. 

See the biographical article, Newton, Alfred. 

Alfred Neave Brayshaw, LL.B. 

Author of Bible Notes on the Hebrew Prophets. 

Alfred North Whitehead, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Fellow and Lecturer in Mathematics, Trinity College, Cambridge. 
A Treatise on Universal Algebra; &c. 

Consulting 1 Friction. 

-! Gauss. 
Hon. J Function: Functions of 

Real Variables. 



Franck, Sebastian; Gallars. 

J Georgetown, British 
[ Guiana. 

4 Frontenac et Palluau. 

II. (in part). 


Free Church of Scotland 

(in part). 


f Frigate-Bird; Gadwall; 
IGannet; Gare Fowl. 

S Friends, Society of. 


, , , Geometry: VI. 

Author of A aMVIL 


Alexander Ross Clarke, C.B., F.R.S. . 

Colonel, Royal Engineers. Royal Medallist, Royal Society, 1887. In charge ot ] Geodesy (in part). 
the trigonometrical operations of the Ordnance Survey, 1854-1881. 

Alexander Stuart Murray, LL.D. 

See the biographical article, Murray, Alexander Stuart. 

Arthur William Holland. 

Formerly Scholar of St John's College, 

1 A complete list, showing all individual contributors, 

■I Gem: II. (in part). 

Frederick II., Roman 

French Revolution: 

Republican Calendar; 
Germany: History (in part) 
I and Bibliography. 
appears in the final volume. 

Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray's Inn 



. W. 

















C. F. A. 

C. H. Ha. 
C. K. S. 
C. Mi. 
C. M. K. 

C. PI. 
C. R. B. 

C. R. C. 

C. T.* 

G. We. 

C. W. W. 

D. C. 
D. F. T. 


Adolphus William Ward, Litt.D., LL.D. 
See the biographical article, Ward, A. W. 

Hon. Bertrand Arthur William Russell, M.A., F.R.S. 

Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of Foundations of 
Geometry ; Principles of Mathematics ; &c. 

Bertha Surtees Philpotts, M.A. (Dublin). 

Formerly Librarian of Girton College, Cambridge. 

Charles Bemont, Litt.D. (Oxon.). 

See the biographical article, Bemont, C. 

Hon. Carroll Davidson Wright. 
See the biographical article, Wright, 


Garrick, David (in part). 

Geometry: VI. (in part), 


Hon. Carroll Davidson. 

Charles Everitt, M.A., F.C.S., F.G.S., F.R.A.S. 
Sometime Scholar of Magdalen College, Oxford. 

Charles Francis Atkinson. 

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London 
(Royal Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour. 

Carlton Huntley Hayes, A.M., Ph.D. 

Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City, 
of the American Historical Association. 

Member -i 

Germany: Archaeology. 

Fustel De Coulanges; 
. Gascony. 

Friendly Societies: 

United Slates. 

Geometry: History. 

Franco-German War 

(in part); 
French Revolutionary 

Wars: Military 

Germany: Army; 
< Gibraltar: History. 

Gelasius II. 

Author of Sixty Years of Victorian Literature ; Immortal \ Gaskell, Elizabeth. 


Free Ports. 

Clement King Shorter. 
Editor of The Sphere. 
Memories ; The Brontes, Life and, Letters ; &c. 

Chedomille Mijatovich. 

Senator of the Kingdom of Servia. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipoten- 
tiary of the King of Servia to the Court of St James's, 1895-1900 and 1902-1903. 

Sir Charles Malcolm Kennedy, K.C.M.G., C.B. (1831-1908). 

Head of Commercial Department, Foreign Office, 1872-1893. Lecturer on Inter- 
national Law, University College, Bristol. Commissioner in the Levant, 1870-1871, 
at Paris, 1872-1886. Plenipotentiary, Treaty of the Hague, 1882. Editor 
of Kennedy's Ethnological and Linguistic Essays; Diplomacy and International 

Christian Pfister, D.-es.-L. f Franks* 

Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author I ' 

of Etudes sur le regne de Robert le Pieux; Le Duche merovingien d' Alsace et la legende 1 Freflegona; 

dc Sainte-Odile. I Germanic Laws, Early. 

Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A., D.Litt., F.R.G.S., F.R.Hist.S. 

Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow 
of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. 
Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of 
Henry the Navigator ; The Dawn of Modern Geography ; &c. 

Gerard of Cremona. 

Claude Regnier Conder, LL.D. 

Colonel, Royal Engineers. Formerly in command of Survey of Palestine. Author 
of The City of Jerusalem ; The Bible and the East ; The Hittites and their Language ; &c. 

Galilee (in part); 
Galilee, Sea of (in part). 

Rev. Charles Taylor, M.A., D.D., LL.D. (1840-1908). f 

Formerly Master of St John's College, Cambridge. Vice-Chancellor, Cambridge -j Geometrical Continuity. 
University, 1887-1888. Author of Geometrical Conies; &c. (. 

Cecil Weatherly. 

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. 



Galilee, Sea of (in part). 

Sir Charles William Wilson, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. (1836-1907). 

Major-General, Royal Engineers. Secretary to the North American Boundary 
Commission, 1858-1862. British Commissioner on the Servian Boundary Com- 
mission. Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, 1886-1894. Director-General" 
of Military Education, 1895-1898. Author of From Korti to Khartoum; Life of 
Lord Clive; &c. 

Dugald Clerk, M.Inst.C.E., F.R.S. f 

Director of the National Gas Engine Co., Ltd. Inventor of the Clerk Cycle GasK Gas Engine. 
Engine. L 

Donald Francis Tovey. f 

Balliol College, Oxford. Author of Essays in Musical Analysis, comprising The \ Fugue. 
Classical Concerto, The Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical 1 
works. L 

David Hannay. ("French Revolutionary Wars: 

Formerly British Vice-consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of Royal < Naval Operations. 
Navy, 1217-1688; Life of Emilio Castelar ; &c. t 



E. Br. 

E. B. EI. 

El* C« Oa 

E. E. 
E. J. D. 
E. 0.* 

E. Pr. 

E. W. B. 

F. C. C. 
F. C. M. 

F. F.* 

F. G. M. B. 
F. H. B. 
F. J. H. 

F. N. M. 
F. R. C. 


R. H. 











Formerly \ Fulk, King ot Jerusalem. 

Franciscans; Friar. 

j Gibson, John. 

j Fryxell; Garland, John. 



Gastric Ulcer. 

Ernest Barker, M.A. 

Fellow of, and Lecturer in Modern History at, St John's College, Oxford. 
Fellow and Tutor of Merton College. Craven Scholar, 1895. 

Edwin Bailey Elliott, M.A., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 

Waynflete Professor of Pure Mathematics, and Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. .1 (j eome + rv m 
Formerly Fellow of Queen's College, Oxford. President of London Mathematical ] ueomelr J» »». 
Society, 1896-1898. Author of Algebra of Quantics; &c. 

Right Rev. Edward Cuthbert Butler; O.S.B., D.Litt. (Dublin). 

Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of " The Lausiac History of Palladius 

in Cambridge Texts and Studies. 

Lady Eastlake. 

See the biographical article, Eastlake, Sir C. L. 

Edmund Gosse, LL.D. 

See the biographical article, Gosse, Edmund. 

Edward Joseph Dent, M.A., Mus.Bac. 

Formerly Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. 

Edmund Owen, M.B., F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc. _ f 

Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the Children's Hospital, J 
Great Ormond Street ; late Examiner in Surgery at the Universities of Cambridge, j 
Durham and London. Author of A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students. I 

Edgar Prestage. f 

Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester. J Gar^aOJ 
Commendador Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon | Garrett. 
Royal Academy of Sciences and Lisbon Geographical Society ; &c. *- 

Sir Edward William Brabrook, C.B., F.S.A. f 

Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln's Inn. Chief Registrar of Friendly Societies, 1891-1904. J um~_.ii,. Cn-! B ti„« 
Author of Building Societies; Provident Societies and Industrial Welfare; Institutions \ * nBnttl y societies. 

of Thrift; &c. I 

Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare, M.A., D.Th. (Geissen). 

Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. 
Author of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle; Myth, Magic and Morals; &c. 

Francis Charles Montague, M.A. 

Astor Professor of European History, University College, London. Formerly 
Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford. Author of Limits cf Individual Liberty; chapters 
in Cambridge Modern History; &c. 

Sir James Fortescue-Flannery, Bart., M.P., M.Inst.C.E. 

Ex- President of the Institute of Marine Engineers. M.P. for the Maldon Division 
of Essex, 1910. M.P. for the Shipley Division of Yorkshire, 1895-1906. 

Frederick George Meeson Beck, M.A. 

Fellow and Lecturer in Classics, Clare College, Cambridge. 

Francis Henry Butler, M.A. 

Worcester College, Oxford. Associate of Royal School of Mines. 

Francis John Haverfield, M.A., LL.D., F.S.A. 

Camden Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Fellow of 
Brasenose College. Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Censor, Student, ■ 
Tutor and Librarian of Christ Church, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1906-1907. 
Author of Monographs on Roman History, especially Roman Britain ; &c. 

Colonel Frederic Natusch Maude, C.B. 

Lecturer in Military History, Manchester University. Author of War and the 
World's Policy; The Leipzig Campaign; The Jena Campaign. 

Frank R. Cana. 

Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union. 

Friedrich Robert Helmert, Ph.D., D.Ing. 

Professor of Geodesy, University of Berlin. 

Francis Storr. 

Editor of the Journal of Education, London. Officer d'Acaddmie (Paris). 

Frederick William Rudler, I.S.O., F.G.S. 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879-1902. 
President of the Geologists' Association, 1 887-1 889. 

Rev. George Edmundson, M.A., F.R.Hist.S. 

Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1909. 

Georg Lunge. 

See the biographical article. Lunge, G. 

George Saintsbury, D.C.L., LL.D. 

See the biographical article, Saintsbury, G. 

Funeral Rites. 
-j French Revolution. 
Fuel: Liquid. 

("Germany: Ethnography and 
\ Early History. 

■j Frankincense; Galls. 


J Franco-German War 

(_ (in part). 

French Congo; 
German East Africa; 
German South-West 

-j Geodesy (in part). 


Games, Classical. 

J Garnet; 
[Gem: I. 

1 Gelderland (Duchy). 

J Fuel: Gaseous; 

\ Gas: Manufacture, II. 

("French Literature; 
\ Gautier. 



G. W. T. 
H. B. W. 

H. Ch. 

H. C. L. 
H. F. Ba. 

H. L. C. 












H. W. C. D. 

H. W. S. 

I. A. 

J. A. P. 

J. A. H. 




B. MeM 




G. C. 


J. G. R. 

Author of 4 Fuel: Solid. 

Rev. Griffiths Wheeler Thatcher, M.A., B.D. f 

Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and i GhazalL 
Old Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford. I 

Hilary Bauermann, F.G.S. (d. 1909). 

Formerly Lecturer on Metallurgy at the Ordnance College, Woolwich. 

A Treatise on the Metallurgy of Iron. I, 

Horace Bolingbroke Woodward, F.R.S., F.G.S. f 

Late Assistant Director, Geological Survey of England and Wales. Wollaston J Qaudry. 
Medallist, Geological Society. Author of The History of the Geological Society of 1 " 

London; &c. *- 

Hugh Chisholm, M.A. f Gambetta; 

Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the nth edition-^ Garnett, Richard; 
of the Encyclopaedia Britannica; Co-editor of the 10th edition. I George IV. {in part). 

Hon. Henry Cabot Lodge. 

See the biographical article, Lodge, Henry Cabot. 

Henry Frederick Baker, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Fellow and Lecturer of St John's College, Cambridge. 

Mathematics in the University. Author of Abel's Theorem and the Allied Theory ; &c, 

Hugh Longbourne Callendar, F.R.S. , LL.D. 

Professor of Physics, Royal College of Science, London. Formerly Professor of - 
Physics in MacGill College, Montreal, and in University College, London. 

Hugh Mitchell. 

Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. 

H. Marshall Ward, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. (d. 1905). 

Formerly Professor of Botany, Cambridge. President of the British Mycological 
Society. Author of Timber and Some of its Diseases; The Oak; Sack's Lectures on' 
the Physiology of Plants ; Diseases in Plants ; &c. 

Henry Nicol. 

Hugh Robert Mill, D.Sc, LL.D. 

Director of British Rainfall Organization. Editor of British Rainfall. Formerly 
President of the Royal Meteorological Society. Hon. Member of Vienna Geographi- 
cal Society. Hon. Corresponding Member of Geographical Societies of Paris, 
Berlin, Budapest, St Petersburg, Amsterdam, &c. _ Author of The Realm of Nature; 
The International Geography; &c. 

Henry William Carless Davis, M.A. 

Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, 
1895-1902. Author of England under the Normans and Angevins; Charlemagne. 

J. Gallatin. 

f Function: Functions of 
Cayley .Lecturer m -J Com p lex Variables. 


Gibraltar {in part). 

Fungi {in part). 

French Language {in part). 


Geoffrey, Archbishop of 

Geoffrey of Monmouth; 

Gervase of Canterbury; 
Gervase of Tilbury. 


H. Wickham Steed. -- 

Correspondent of The Times at Rome (1897-1902) and Vienna. 

Israel Abrahams, M.A. "v _ _ ._ 

Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature in the University of Cambridge. 
Formerly President, Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short 
History of Jewish Literature; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages; Judaism; &c. 

John Ambrose Fleming, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Pender Professor of Electrical Engineering in the University of London. Fellow 
of University College, London. Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge, 
and Lecturer on Applied Mechanics in the University. Author of Magnets and 
Electric Currents. 


Frank, Jakob; 
Frankel, Zecharias; 
Frankl, Ludwig A.; 
Friedmann, Meir; 
Gaon; Geiger {in part); 


John Allen Howe, B.Sc 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. 
The Geology of Building Stones. 

John Bagnall Bury, LL.D., D.C.L. 

See the biographical article, Bury, J. B. 

John Bach McMaster, LL.D. 

Professor of American History in the University of Pennsylvania. 
A History of the People of the United States ; &c. 

Author of -j Fuller's Earth. 

Gibbon, Edward. 

Author of J Garfield, James Abram. 

-j Gardiner, Stephen. 

James Gairdner, LL.D., C.B. 

See the biographical article, Gairdner, J. 

John George Clark Anderson, M.A. f 

Censor and Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford. Formerly Fellow of Lincoln College ; J Galatia. 
Craven Fellow, Oxford, 1896. Conington Prizeman, 1893. [ 

John George Robertson, M.A., Ph.D. 

Prolessor of German, University of London. 
ture ; Schiller after a Century ; &c. 

f Freiligrath; 
Author of History of German Litem- -j German Literature. 



J. Hn. 

J. H. Gr. 

J. H. H. 
J. H. R. 

J. HI. R. 

J. Mt. 
J. P.-B. 
J. Si. 
J. S. Bl. 

J. S. F. 

J. T. Be. 
J. T. C. 

J. V. B. 
J. Ws. 

J. W. He. 

K. S. 

L. D. 
L. H.* 

L. J. S. 

L. V. 
M. G. 

M. N. T. 

Justus Hashagen, Ph.D. 

Privat-dozent in Medieval and Modern History, University of Bonn. 
Das Rheinland und die franzosische Herrschaft. 

[Frederick Augustus I, 
Author of "I and II.; 

L Frederick William I. 

Fellow j Geometry, V. 
-f Fust. 

John Hilton Grace, M.A., F.R.S. 

Lecturer in Mathematics at Peterhouse and Pembroke College, Cambridge, 
of Peterhouse. 

John Henry Hessels, M.A. 

Author of Gutenberg: an Historical Investigation. 

John Horace Round, M.A., LL.D. (Edin.). f 

Author of Feudal England; Studies in Peerage and Family History; Peerage and A Geoffrey De Montbray. 
Pedigree; &c. L 

John Holland Rose, M.A., Litt.D. r 

Christ's College, Cambridge. Lecturer on Modern History to the Cambridge J (i aT( i an » 
University Local Lectures Syndicate. Author of Life of Napoleon I. ; Napoleonic 1 uarQane - 
Studies ; The Development of the European Nations ; The Life of Pitt ; &c. L 

James Moffatt, M.A., D.D. 

Jowett Lecturer, London, 1907. 

Author of Historical New Testament ; &c. 

James George Joseph Penderel-Brodhurst. 
Editor of the Guardian (London). 

James Sime, M.A. (1843-1895). 

Author of A History of Germany ; &c. 

John Sutherland Black, M.A., LL.D. 

Assistant Editor 9th edition Encyclopaedia Britannica. 
Encyclopaedia Biblica. 

Joint-editor of 

j Galatians, Epistle to the. 
-I Furniture. 

/Frederick the Great 

1 {in part). 

[Free Church of Scotland 

the 1 (in part). 

John Smith Flett, D.Sc, F.G.S. f 

Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in Edin- J Fulgurite; 
burgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby 1 Gabbro. 
Medallist of the Geological Society of London. I 

John T. Bealby. f 

Joint-author of Stanford's Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical A Georgia (Russia), (in pari), 
Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin's Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c. I 

Joseph Thomas Cunningham, M.A., F.Z.S. r 

Lecturer on Zoology at the South-Western Polytechnic, London. Formerly J Ga s tr noda 
Fellow of University College, Oxford. Assistant Professor of Natural History in 1 uttsvlo l" JU< *' 
the University of Edinburgh. Naturalist to the Marine Biological Association. L 

James Vernon Bartlet, M.A., D.D. (St. Andrews). f 

Professor of Church History, Mansfield College, Oxford. Author of The Apostolic 1 Frommel. 
Age; &c. I 

Lecturer on Horticulture to the Middlesex County Council. Author of Practical \ F ™^ and Flower Farming 

Guide to Garden Plants; French Market Gardening; &c. |_ U' w part). 

James Wycliffe Headlam, M.A. 

Staff Inspector of Secondary Schools under the Board of Education. Formerly 
Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. Professor of Greek and Ancient History at 
Queen's College, London. Author of Bismarck and the Foundation of the German 
Empire; &c. 

Kathleen Schlesinger. r 

Author of The Instruments of the Orchestra; &c. Editor of the Portfolio of Musical J Free Reeo Vl « r ator; 
A rchaeology. y Geige. 

Frederick III. of Prussia; 
Germany: History (in part). 

Louis Duchesne. 

See the biographical article, Duchesne, L. M. O. 

A Gelasius I. 

Louis Halphen, D.-es.-L. f Fulk Nerra; 

Principal of the course of the Faculty of Letters in the University of Bordeaux. J Geoffrey, Count Of Anjou; 
Author of Le Comte d' 'Anjou au XI' siecle; Recueil des acies angevines; &c. Geoffrev Plantaganet 

Leonard James Spencer, M.A. r 

Assistant in Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar J Ra1 e na 
of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the | 
Mineralogical Magazine. I 

Linda Mary Villari. 

See the biographical article, Villari, Pasquale. 

Moses Gaster, Ph.D. 

Chief Rabbi of the Sephardic communities of England. Vice-President, Zionist 
Congress, 1898, 1899, 1900. Ilchester Lecturer at Oxford on Slavonic and Byzan- , . 
tine Literature, 1886 and 1891. President, Folk-lore Society of England. Vice- \ Ghica. 
President, Anglo-Jewish Association. Author of History of Rumanian Popular 
Literature; A New Hebrew Fragment of Ben-Sira; The Hebrew Version of the 
Secretum Secretorum of A ristotle. I 

Marcus Niebuhr Tod, M.A. f 

Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Epigraphy, -j Gerousia. 
Joint-author of Catalogue of the Sparta Museum. L 

f Frederick III. King of 
1 Sicily. 


0. Ba. 

0. H. 
P. A. 

P. A. A. 
P. GL 

P. La. 

R. Ad. 

R. A. S. M. 

R. Ca. 

R. H. Q. 

R. N. B. 

R. P.S. 

R. We.i 


St. c. 
S. R. G. 

T. As. 

Genealogy: Modern. 

Oswald Barron, F.S.A. 

Editor of The Ancestor, 1902^1905. Hon. Genealogist to Standing Council of the 
Honourable Society of the Baronetage. 

Olaus Magnus Friedrich Henrici, Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S. . 

Professor of Mechanics and Mathematics in the Central Technical College of the J r^™,,,*™ 1 T1 „_., Tn 
City and Guilds of London Institute. Author of Vectors and Rotors; Congruent | ** eome "y> *•> "•» ami "!• 
Figures; &c. L 

Paul Daniel Alphandery. I* 

Professor of the History of Dogma, Ecole pratique des hautes Etudes, Sorbonne, -j Fraticelli 
Paris. Author of Les Idees morales chez les heterodoxes latines au debut du XIII' 
siecle. *• 

Philip A. Ashworth, M.A., Doc.Juris. [ 

New College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Translator of H. R. von Gneist's History A. Germany: Geography, 
of the English Constitution. L 

Peter Giles, M.A., LL.D., Litt.D. r 

Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University J r. 
Reader in Comparative Philology. Formerly Secretary of the Cambridge Philo- 1 
logical Society. Author of Manual of Comparative Philology ; &c. I 

Philip Lake, M.A., F.G.S. f 

Lecturer on Physical and Regional Geography in Cambridge University. Formerly J «,„_,„ . r 1 

of the Geological Survey of India. Author of Monograph of British Cambrian \ uerman y- Geology. 
Trilobites. Translator and editor of Kayser's Comparative Geology. I 

Paul Meyer. 

See the biographical article, Meyer, M. P. H. L 

Robert Adamson, LL.D. 

See the biographical article. Adamson, Robert. 

A French Language (in part). 

A Gassendi (in part). 

Robert Alexander Stewart Macalister, M.A., F.S.A. 

St John's College, Cambridge. Director of Excavations for the Palestine Explora- - 
tion Fund. 

Robert Carruthers, LL.D. (1799-1878). 

Editor of the Inverness Courier, 1 828-1 878. Part-editor of Chambers's Cyclopaedia 
of English Literature; Lecturer at the Philosophical Institution, Edinburgh." 
Author of History of Huntingdon ; Life of Pope. 

Rev. Robert Hebert Quick, M.A., (1831-1891). 

Trinity College, Cambridge. Formerly Lecturer on Education, 
Cambridge. Author of Essays on Educational Reformers. 

Gadara; Galilee (in part); 
Galilee, Sea of (in part); 
Gerasa; Gerizim; 
Gezer; Gibeon. 

Garriek, David (in part). 

University of A Froebel. 

Richard Lydekker, F.R.S., F.Z.S., F.G.S. 

Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874-1882. Author of. 
Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in British Museum; The Deer 
of all Lands ; &c. 

Robert Nisbet Bain (d. 1909). 

Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883-1909. Author of Scandinavia, the Political 
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FRANCISCANS (otherwise called Friars Minor, or Minorites; 
also the Seraphic Order ; and in England Grey Friars, from the 
colourofthehabit, which , however, is now brown rather than grey) , 
a religious order founded by St Francis of Assisi {q.v.). It was 
in 1 206 that St Francis left his father's house and devoted himself 
to a life of poverty and to the service of the Door, the sick and the 
lepers; and in 1200 that he felt the call to add preaching to his 
other ministrations, and to lead a life in the closest imitation of 
Christ's life. Within a few weeks disciples began to join them- 
selves to him; the condition was that they should dispose of 
all their possessions. When their number was twelve Francis 
led the little flock to Rome to obtain the pope's sanction for their 
undertaking. Innocent III. received them kindly, but with 
some misgivings as to the feasibility of the proposed manner of 
life; these difficulties were overcome, and the pope accorded a 
provisional approval by word of mouth: they were to become 
clerics and to elect a superior. Francis was elected and made 
a promise of obedience to the pope, and the others promised 
obedience to Francis. 

This formal inauguration of the institute was in 1 209 or (as 
seems more probable) 12 10. Francis and his associates were 
first known as " Penitents of Assisi," and then Francis chose the 
title of " Minors." On their return to Assisi they obtained from 
the Benedictine abbey on Mount Subasio the use of the little 
chapel of St Mary of the Angels, called the Portiuncula, in the 
plain below Assisi, which became the cradle and headquarters of 
the order. Around the Portiuncula they built themselves huts 
of branches and twigs, but they had no fixed abode; they 
wandered in pairs over the country, dressed in the ordinary 
clothes of the peasants, working in the fields to earn their daily 
bread, sleeping in barns or in the hedgerows or in the porches of 
the churches, mixing with the labourers and the poor, with the 
lepers and the outcasts, ever joyous — the " joculatores " or 
"jongleurs " of God — ever carrying out their mission of preaching 
to the lowly and to the wretched religion and repentance and 
the kingdom of God. The key-note of the movement was the 
imitation of the public life of Christ, especially the poverty of 
Christ. Francis and his disciples were to aim at possessing 
nothing, absolutely nothing, so far as was compatible with life; 
they were to earn their bread from day to day by the work of their 
hands, and only when they could not do so were they to beg; 

XI. I 

they were to make no provision for the morrow, lay by no store, 
accumulate no capital, possess no land; their clothes should be 
the poorest and their dwellings the meanest; they were forbidden 
to receive or to handle money. On the other hand they were 
bound only to the fast observed in those days by pious Christians, 
and were allowed to eat meat — the rule said they should eat 
whatever was set before them; no austerities were imposed, 
beyond those inseparable from the manner of life they lived. 

Thus the institute in its original conception was quite different 
from the monastic institute, Benedictine or Canon Regular. 
It was a confraternity rather than an order, and there was no 
formal novitiate, no organization. But the number of brothers 
increased with extraordinary rapidity, and the field of work 
soon extended itself beyond the neighbourhood of Assisi and even 
beyond Umbria — within three or four years there were settle- 
ments in Perugia, Cortona, Pisa, Florence and elsewhere, and 
missions to the Saracens and Moors were attempted by Francis 
himself. About 12 17 Franciscan missions set out for Germany, 
France, Spain, Hungary and the Holy Land; and in 12 19 a 
number of provinces were formed, each governed by a provincial 
minister. These developments, whereby the little band of 
Umbrian apostles had grown into an institute spread all over 
Europe and even penetrating to the East, and numbering 
thousands of members, rendered impossible the continuance of 
the original free organization whereby Francis's word and ex- 
ample were the sufficient practical rule of life for all: it was 
necessary as a condition of efficiency and even of existence and 
permanence that some kind of organization should be provided. 
From an early date yearly meetings or chapters had been held 
at the Portiuncula, at first attended by the whole body of friars; 
but as the institute extended this became unworkable, and after 
1 2 19 the chapter consisted only of the officials, provincial 
ministers and others. During Francis's absence in the East 
(1219-1220) a deliberate movement was initiated by the two 
vicars whom he had left in charge of the order, towards assimilat- 
ing it to the monastic orders. Francis hurried back, bringing 
with him Elias of Cortona, the provincial minister of Syria, 
and immediately summoned an extraordinary general chapter 
(September 1220). Before it met he had an interview on the 
situation with Cardinal Hugolino of Ostia (afterwards Gregory 
IX.), the great friend and supporter of both Francis and Dominic, 



and he went to Honorius III. at Orvieto and begged thatHugolino 
should be appointed the official protector of the order. The 
request was granted, and a bull was issued formally approving 
the order of Friars Minor, and decreeing that before admission 
every one must pass a year's novitiate, and that after profession 
it was not lawful to leave the order. By this bull the Friars Minor 
were constituted an order in the technical sense of the word. 
When the chapter assembled, Francis, no doubt from a genuine 
feeling that he was not able to govern a great world-wide order, 
practically abdicated the post of minister-general by appointing 
a vicar, and the policy of turning the Friars Minor into a great 
religious order was consistently pursued, especially by Elias, 
who a year later became Francis's vicar. 

St Francis's attitude towards this change is of primary importance 
for the interpretation of Franciscan history. There can be little 
doubt that his affections never altered from his first love, and that 
he looked back regretfully on the " Umbrian idyll " that had passed 
away; on the other hand, there seems to be no reason for doubting 
that he saw that the methods of the early days were now no longer 
possible, and that he acquiesced in the inevitable. This seems to 
be Professor Goetz's view, who holds that Sabatier's picture of 
Francis's agonized sadness at witnessing the destruction of his great 
creation going on under his eyes, has no counterpart in fact, and who 
rejects the view that the changes were forced on Francis against . 
his tetter judgment by Hugolino and Elias (see " Note on Sources " 
at end of article Francis of Assisi; also Elias of Cortona) ; 
Goetz holds that the only conflict was the inevitable one between 
in unrealizable ideal and its practical working among average men. 
i5ut there does seem to be evidence that Francis deplored tendencies 
towards a departure from the severe simplicity of life and from the 
strict observance of poverty which he considered the ground-idea 
of his institute. In the final redaction of his Rule made in 1223 and 
in his Testament, made after it, he again clearly asserts his mind 
on these subjects, especially on poverty; and in the Testament he 
forbids any glosses in the interpretation of the Rule, declaring that 
it is to be taken simply as it stands. Sabatier's view as to the differ- 
ence between the " First Rule " and that of 1223 is part of his 
general theory, and is, to say the least, a grave exaggeration. No 
doubt the First Rule, which is fully four times as long, gives a better 
picture of St Francis's mind and character; the later Rule has been 
formed from the earlier by the elimination of the frequent scripture 
texts and the edificatory element ; but the greater portion of it stood 
almost verbally in the earlier. 

On Francis's death in 1226 the government of the order rested 
in the hands of Elias until the chapter of 1227. At this chapter 
Elias was not elected minister-general; the building of the great 
basilica and monastery at Assisi was so manifest a violation of 
St Francis's ideas and precepts that it produced a reaction, and 
John Parenti became St Francis's first successor. He held fast 
to St Francis's ideas, but was not a strong man. At the chapter 
of 1230 a discussion arose concerning the binding force of St 
Francis's Testament, and the interpretation of certain portions 
of the Rule, especially concerning poverty, and it was determined 
to submit the questions to Pope Gregory IX., who had been St 
Francis's friend and had helped in the final redaction of the Rule. 
He issued a bull, Quo elongati, which declared that as the Testa- 
ment had not received the sanction of the general chapter it 
was not binding on the order, and also allowed trustees to hold 
and administer money for the order. John Parenti and those 
who wished to maintain St Francis's institute intact were greatly 
disturbed by these relaxations; but a majority of the chapter of 
1232, by a sort of coup d'etat, proclaimed Elias minister-general, 
and John retired, though in those days the office was for life. 
Under Elias the order entered on a period of extraordinary 
extension and prosperity: the number of friars in all parts of the 
world increased wonderfully, new provinces were formed, new 
missions to the heathen organized, the Franciscans entered the 
universities and vied with the Dominicans as teachers of theology 
and canon law, and as a body they became influential in church 
and state. With all this side of Elias's policy the great bulk of 
the order sympathized; but his rule was despotic and tyrannical 
and his private life was lax — at least according to any Franciscan 
standard, for no charge of grave irregularity was ever brought 
against him. And so a widespread movement against his govern- 
ment arose, the backbone of which was the university element 
at Paris and Oxford, and at a dramatic scene in a chapter held 
in the presence of Gregory IX. Elias was deposed (1239). 

The story of these first years after St Francis's death is best told 
by Ed. Lempp, Frere £.lie de Cortone (1901) (but see the warning 
at the end of the article Elias of Cortona). 

At this time the Franciscans were divided into three parties: 
there were the Zealots, or Spirituals, who called for a literal 
observance of St Francis's Rule and Testament; they deplored 
all the developments since 1219, and protested against turning 
the institute into an order, the frequentation of the universities 
and the pursuit of learning; in a word, they wished to restore 
the life to what it had been during the first few years— the 
hermitages and the huts of twigs, and the care of the lepers and 
the nomadic preaching. The Zealots were few in' number but of 
great consequence from the fact that to them belonged most of 
the first disciples and the most intimate companions of St Francis. 
They had been grievously persecuted under Elias — Br. Leo and 
others had been scourged, several had been imprisoned, one 
while trying to escape was accidentally killed, and Br. Bernard, 
the " first disciple," passed a year in hiding in the forests and 
mountains hunted like a wild beast. At the other extreme was 
a party of relaxation, that abandoned any serious effort to practise 
Franciscan poverty and simplicity of life. Between these two 
stood the great middle party of moderates, who desired indeed 
that the Franciscans should be really poor and simple in their 
manner of life, and really pious, but on the other hand approved 
of the development of the Order on the lines of other orders, 
of the acquisition of influence, of the cultivation of theology and 
other sciences, and of the frequenting of the universities. 

The questions of principle at issue in these controversies is reason- 
ably and clearly stated, from the modern Capuchin standpoint, in 
the "Introductory Essay" to The Friars and how they came to 
England, by Fr. Cuthbert (1903). 

The moderate party was by far the largest, and embraced 
nearly all the friars of France, England and Germany. It was 
the Moderates and not the Zealots that brought about Elias's 
deposition, and the next general ministers belonged to this party. 
Further relaxations of the law of poverty, however, caused a 
reaction, and John of Parma, one of the Zealots, became minister- 
general, 1247-1257. Under him the more extreme of the Zealots 
took up and exaggerated the theories of the Eternal Gospel of 
the Calabrian Cistercian abbot Joachim of Fiore (Floris) ; some of 
their writings were condemned as heretical, and John of Parma, 
who was implicated in these apocalyptic tendencies, had to resign. 
He was succeeded by St Bonaventura (1257-1274), one of the 
best type of the middle party. He was a man of high character, 
a theologian, a mystic, a holy man and a strong ruler. He set 
himself with determination to effect a working compromise, 
and proceeded with firmness against the extremists on both 
sides. But controversy and recrimination and persecution had 
stiffened the more ardent among the Zealots into obstinate 
fanatics — some of them threw themselves into a movement 
that may best be briefly described as a recrudescence of Mon- 
tanism (see Emile Gebhart's Italie mystique, 1899, cc. v. 
and vi.), and developed into a number of sects, some on the 
fringe of Catholic Christianity and others beyond its pale. But 
the majority of the Zealot party, or Spirituals, did not go so far, 
and adopted as the principle of Franciscan poverty the formula 
" a poor and scanty use " (usus pauper el tenuis) of earthly goods, 
as opposed to the " moderate use " advocated by the less strict 
party. The question thus posed came before the Council of 
Vienne, 1312, and was determined, on the whole, decidedly in 
favour of the stricter view. Some of the French Zealots were not 
satisfied and formed a semi-schismatical body in Provence; 
twenty-five of them were tried before the Inquisition, and four 
were burned alive at Marseilles as obstinate heretics, 1318. After 
this the schism in the Order subsided. But the disintegrating 
forces produced by the Great Schism and by the other disorders 
of the 14th century caused among the Franciscans the same 
relaxations and corruptions, and also the same reactions and 
reform movements, as among the other orders. 

The chief of these reforms was that of the Observants, which 
began at Foligno about 1370. The Observant reform was on 
the basis of the " poor and scanty use " of worldly goods, 
but it was organized as an order and its members freely pursued 


theological studies; thus it did not represent the position of the 
original Zealot party, nor was it the continuation of it. The 
Observant reform spread widely throughout Italy and into 
France, Spain and Germany. The great promoters of the move- 
ment were St Bernardine of Siena and St John Capistran. The 
council of Constance, 1415, allowed the French Observant 
friaries to be ruled by a vicar of their own, under the minister- 
general, and the same privilege was soon accorded to other 
countries. By the end of the middle ages the Observants had 
some 1400 houses divided into 50 provinces. This movement 
produced a "half-reform" among the Conventuals or friars of 
the mitigated observance; it also called forth a number of lesser 
imitations or congregations of strict observance. 

After many attempts had been made to bring about a working 
union among the many observances, in 1517 Leo X. divided the 
Franciscan order into two distinct and independent bodies, 
each with its own minister-general, its own provinces and 
provincials and its own general chapter: (1) The Conventuals, 
who were authorized to use the various papal dispensations in 
regard to the observance of poverty, and were allowed to possess 
property and fixed income, corporately, like the monastic orders: 
(2) The Observants, who were bound to as close an observance 
of St Francis's Rule in regard to poverty and all else as was 
practically possible. 

At this time a great number of the Conventuals went over to 
the Observants, who have ever since been by far the more 
numerous and influential branch of the order. Among the 
Observants in the course of the sixteenth century arose various 
reforms, each striving to approach more and more nearly to St 
Francis's ideal; the chief of these reforms were the Alcantarines 
in Spain (St Peter of Alcantara, St Teresa's friend, d. 1562), 
the Riformati in Italy and the Recollects in France: all of these 
were semi-independent congregations. The Capuchins {q.v.), 
established c. 1525, who claim to be the reform which approaches 
nearest in its conception to the original type, became a distinct 
order of Franciscans in 1610. Finally Leo XIII. grouped the 
Franciscans into three bodies or orders — the Conventuals; the 
Observants, embracing all branches of the strict observance, 
except the Capuchins; and the Capuchins — which together 
constitute the " First Order." For the " Second Order," or the 
nuns, see Clara, St, and Clares, Poor; and for the "Third 
Order " see Tertiaries. Many of the Tertiaries live a fully 
monastic life in community under the usual vows, and are formed 
into Congregations of Regular Tertiaries, both men and women. 
They have been and»are still very numerous, and give themselves 
up to education, to the care of the sick and of orphans and to 
good works of all kinds. 

No order has had so stormy an internal history as the Francis- 
cans; yet in spite of all the troubles and dissensions and strivings 
that have marred Franciscan history, the Friars Minor of every 
kind have in each age faithfully and zealously carried on St 
Francis's great work of ministering to the spiritual needs of the 
poor. Always recruited in large measure from among the poor, 
they have ever been the order of the poor, and in their preaching 
and missions and ministrations they have ever laid themselves 
out to meet the needs of the poor. Another great work of the 
Franciscans throughout the whole course of their history has 
been their missions to the Mahommedans, both in western Asia 
and in North Africa, and to the heathens in China, Japan and 
India, and North and South America; a great number of J.he 
friars were martyred. The news of the martyrdom of five of 
his friars in Morocco was one of the joys of St Francis's closing 
years. Many of these missions exist to this day. In the Univer- 
sities, too, the Franciscans made themselves felt alongside of 
the Dominicans, and created a rival school of theology, wherein, 
as contrasted with the Aristotelianism of the Dominican school, 
the Platonism of the early Christian doctors has been perpetuated. 
The Franciscans came to England in 1224 and immediately 
made foundations in Canterbury, London and Oxford; by the 
middle of the century there were fifty friaries and over 1200 
friars in England; at the Dissolution there were some 66 Fran- 
ciscan friaries, whereof some six belonged to the Observants 

(for list see Catholic Dictionary and F. A. Gasquet's English 
Monastic Life, 1004). Though nearly all the English houses 
belonged to what has been called the " middle party," as a 
matter of fact they practised great poverty, and the com- 
missioners of Henry VIII. often remark that the Franciscan 
Friary was the poorest of the religious houses of a town. The 
English province was one of the most remarkable in the order, 
especially in intellectual achievement; it produced Friar 
Roger Bacon, and, with the single exception of St Bonaventure, 
all the greatest doctors of the Franciscan theological school — 
Alexander Hales, Duns Scotus and Occam. 

The Franciscans have always been the most numerous by 
far of the religious orders; it is estimated that about the period 
of the Reformation the Friars Minor must have numbered 
nearly 100,000. At the present day the statistics are roughly 
(including lay-brothers): Observants, 15,000, Conventuals, 
1500; to these should be added 9500 Capuchins, making the 
total number of Franciscan friars about 26,000. There are various 
houses of Observants and Capuchins in England and Ireland ; and 
the old Irish Conventuals survived the penal times and still exist. 

There have been four Franciscan popes: Nicholas IV. (1288- 
1292), Sixtus IV. (1471-1484), Sixtus V. (1585-1590), Clement 
XIV. (1769-1774); the three last were Conventuals. 

The great source for Franciscan history is Wadding's Annates; 
it has been many times continued, and now extends in 25 vols. fol. 
to the year 1622. The story is also told by Helyot, Hist, des ordres 
religieux (17 14), vol. vii. Abridgments, with references to recent 
literature, will be found in Max Heimbucher, Orden und Kongrega- 
tionen (1896), i. §§ 37-51; in Wetzer und Welte, Kirckenlexicon 
(2nd ed\), articles " Armut (III.)," " Franciscaner orden" (this 
article contains the best account of the inner history and the polity 
of the order up to 1886); in Herzog, Realencyklopddie (3rd ed.), 
articles " Franz von Assisi " (fullest references to literature up to 
1899), " Fraticellen." Of modern critical studies on Franciscan 
origins, K. Miiller's Anfdnge des Minoritenordens und der Buss- 
bruderschaften (1885), and various articles by F. Ehrle in Archiv fur 
Litteratur- und Kirchengeschichte des Mittelalters and Zeitschrift fur 
Katholische Theologie, deserve special mention. Eccleston's charm- 
ing chronicle of " The Coming of the Friars Minor into England " 
has been translated into English by the Capuchin Fr. Cuthbert, 
who has prefixed an Introductory Essay giving by far the best 
account in English of " the Spirit and Genius of the Franciscan 
Friars " {The Friars and how they came to England, 1903). Fuller in- 
formation on the English Franciscans will be found in A. G. Little's 
Grey Friars in Oxford (Oxford Hist. Soc., 1892). (E. C. B.) 

FRANCK. The name of Franck has been given indiscriminately 
but improperly to painters of the school of Antwerp who belong 
to the families of Francken (q.v.) and Vrancx (q.v.). One artist 
truly entitled to be called Franck is Gabriel, who entered the 
gild of Antwerp in 1605, became its president in 1636 and died 
in 1639. But his works cannot now be traced. 

FRANCK, C&SAR (182 2-1 890), French musical composer, a 
Belgian by birth, who came of German stock, was born at 
Liege on the 10th of December 1822. Though one of the most 
remarkable of modern composers, C6sar Franck laboured for 
many years in comparative obscurity. After some preliminary 
studies at Liege he came to Paris in 1837 and entered the con- 
servatoire. He at once obtained the first prize for piano, trans- 
posing a fugue at sight to the astonishment of the professors, 
for he was only fifteen. He won the prize for the organ in 1841, 
after which he settled down in the French capital as teacher 
of the' piano. His earliest compositions date from this period, 
and include four trios for piano and strings, besides several 
piano pieces. Ruth, a biblical cantata was produced with 
success at the Conservatoire in 1846. An opera entitled Le 
Valet de ferme was written about this time, but has never been 
performed. For many years Franck led a retired life, devoting 
himself to teaching and to his duties as organist, first at Saint- 
Jean-Saint-Francois, then at Ste Clotilde, where he acquired 
a great reputation as an improviser. He also wrote a mass, 
heard in 1861, and a quantity of motets, organ pieces and other 
works of a religious character. 

Franck was appointed professor of the organ at the Paris 
conservatoire, in succession to Benoist, his old master, in 1872, 
and the following year he Was naturalized a Frenchman. Until 
then he was esteemed as a clever and conscientious musician, 


but he was now about to prove his title to something more. 
A revival of his early oratorio, Ruth, had brought his name 
again before the public, and this was followed by the production 
of Redemption, a work for solo, chorus and orchestra, given 
under the direction of M. Colonne on the ioth of April 1873. 
The unconventionally of the music rather disconcerted the 
general public, but the work nevertheless made its mark, and 
Franck became the central figure of an enthusiastic circle of 
pupils and adherents whose devotion atoned for the comparative 
indifference of the masses. His creative power now manifested 
itself in a series of works of varied kinds, and the name of Franck 
began gradually to emerge from its obscurity. The following 
is an enumeration of his subsequent compositions: Rebecca 
(1881), a biblical idyll for solo, chorus and orchestra; Les 
Beatitudes, an oratorio composed between 1870 and 1880, 
perhaps his greatest work; the symphonic poems, Les £olides 
(1876), Le Chasseur maudit (1883), Les Djinns (1884), for piano 
and orchestra; Psyche (1888), for orchestra and chorus; 
symphonic variations for piano and orchestra (1885); symphony 
in D (1889); quintet for piano and strings (1880); sonata for 
piano and violin (1886); string quartet (1889); prelude, choral 
and fugue for piano (1884); prelude, aria and finale for piano 
(1889); various songs, notably "La Procession" and "Les 
Cloches du Soir." Franck also composed two four-act operas, 
Hulda and Ghiselle, both of which were produced at Monte 
Carlo after his death, which took place in Paris on the 8th of 
November 1890. The second of these was left by the master 
in an unfinished state, and the instrumentation was completed 
by several of his pupils. 

Cesar Franck's influence on younger French composers has 
been very great. Yet his music is German in character rather 
than French. A more sincere, modest, self-respecting composer 
probably never existed. In the centre of the brilliant French 
capital he was able to lead a laborious existence consecrated 
to his threefold career of organist, teacher and composer. He 
never sought to gain the suffrages of the public by unworthy 
concessions, but kept straight on his path, ever mindful of an 
ideal to be reached and never swerving therefrom. A statue 
was erected to the memory of Cesar Franck in Paris on the 
22nd of October 1904, the occasion producing a panegyric from 
Alfred Bruneau, in which he speaks of the composer's works as 
" cathedrals in sound." 

FRANCK, or Frank [latinized Francus], SEBASTIAN (c. 
1499-c. 1543), German freethinker, was born about 1499 at 
Donauworth, whence he constantly styled himself Franck von 
jW'ord. He entered the university of Ingoldstadt (March 26, 
1 51 5), and proceeded thence to the Dominican College, incor- 
porated with the university, at Heidelberg. Here he met his 
subsequent antagonists, Bucer and Frecht, with whom he seems 
to have attended the Augsburg conference (October 1518) at 
which Luther declared himself a true son of the Church. He 
afterwards reckoned the Leipzig disputation (June- July 1519) 
and the burning of the papal bull (December 1520) as the begin- 
ning of the Reformation. Having taken priest's orders, he held in 
1524 a cure in the neighbourhood of Augsburg, but soon (1525) 
went over to the Reformed party at Nuremberg and became 
preacher at Gustenfelden. His first work (finished September 
1527) was a German translation with additions (1528) of the first 
part of the Diallage, or Conciliatio locorum Scripturae,. directed 
against Sacramentarians and Anabaptists by Andrew Althamer, 
then deacon of St Sebald's at Nuremberg. On the 17th of March 
1528 he married Ottilie .Beham, a gifted lady, whose brothers, 
pupils of Albrecht Diirer, had got into trouble through Anabaptist 
leanings. In the same year he wrote a very popular treatise 
against drunkenness. In 1529 he produced a free version 
(Klagbrief der armen Diirftigen in England) of the famous Supply- 
cacyon of the Beggers, written abroad (1528?) by Simon Fish. 
Franck, in his preface, says the original was in English; else- 
where he says it was in Latin; the theory that his German was 
really the original is unwarrantable. Advance in his religious 
ideas led him to seek the freer atmosphere of Strassburg in the 
autumn of 1529. To his translation (153°) of a Latin Chronicle 

and Description of Turkey, by a Transylvanian captive, which 
had been prefaced by Luther, he added an appendix holding up 
the Turks as in many respects an example to Christians, and 
presenting, in lieu of the restrictions of Lutheran, Zwinglian 
and Anabaptist sects, the vision of an invisible spiritual church, 
universal in its scope. To this ideal he remained faithful. At 
Strassburg began his intimacy with Caspar Schwenkfeld, a con- 
genial spirit. Here, too, he published, in 1S31, his most im» 
portant work, the Chronica, Zeitbuch und Geschichtsbibel, largely 
a compilation on the basis of the Nuremberg Chronicle (1493), 
and in its treatment of social and religious questions connected 
with the Reformation, exhibiting a strong sympathy with 
heretics, and an unexampled fairness to all kinds of freedom in 
opinion. It is too much to call him " the first of German 
historians "; he is a forerunner of Gottfried Arnold, with more 
vigour and directness of purpose. Driven from Strassburg by 
the authorities, after a short imprisonment in December 1531, 
he tried to make a living in 1532 as a soapboiler at Esslingen, 
removing in 1533 for a better market to Ulm, where (October 28, 
1 534) he was admitted as a burgess. 

His Weltbuch, a supplement to his Chronica, was printed at 
Tubingen in 1534; the publication, in the same year, of his 
Paradoxa at Ulm brought him into trouble with the authorities. 
An order for his banishment was withdrawn on his promise to 
submit future works for censure. Not interpreting this as apply- 
ing to works printed outside Ulm, he published in 1538 at Augs- 
burg his Guldin A rch (with pagan parallels to Christian sentiments) 
and at Frankfort his Germaniae chronicon, with the result that he 
had to leave Ulm in January 1539. He seems henceforth to have 
had no settled abode. At Basel he found work as a printer, and 
here, probably, it was that he died in the winter of 1542-1543. 
He had published in 1539 his Kriegbuchlein des Friedens (pseu- 
donymous), his Schrifflliche und ganz griindliche Auslegung des 
64 Psalms, and his Das verbiitschierte mit sieben Siegeln ver- 
schlossene Buch (a biblical index, exhibiting the dissonance of 
Scripture); in 1541 his Spruchwdrter (a collection of proverbs, 
several times reprinted with variations); in 1542 a new edition 
of his Paradoxa; and some smaller works. 

Franck combined the humanist's passion for freedom with the 
mystic's devotion to the religion of the spirit. His breadth of 
human sympathy led him to positions which the comparative 
study of religions has made familiar, but for which his age 
was unprepared. Luther contemptuously dismissed him as a 
" devil's mouth." Pastor Frecht of Nuremberg pursued him 
with bitter zeal. But his courage did not fail him, and in his 
last year, in a public Latin letter, he exhorted his friend John 
Campanus to maintain freedom of thought in face of the charge 
of heresy. 

See Hegler, in Hauck's Realencyklopadie (1899); C. A. Hase, 
Sebastian Franck von Word (1869); J. F. Smith, in Theological 
Review (April 1874); E. Tausch, Sebastian Franck von Donauworth 
und seine Lehrer (1893). (A. Go.*) 

FRANCKE, AUGUST HERMANN (1663-1727), German Pro- 
testant divine, was born on the 22nd of March 1663 at Liibeck. 
He was educated at the gymnasium in Gotha, and afterwards at 
the universities of Erfurt, Kiel, where he came under the influence 
of the pietist Christian Kortholt (1633-1694), and Leipzig. 
During his student career he made a special study of Hebrew and 
Greek; and in order to learn Hebrew more thoroughly, he for 
some time put himself under the instructions of Rabbi Ezra 
Edzardi at Hamburg. He graduated at Leipzig, where in 1685 
he became a Privatdozent. A year later, by the help of his friend 
P. Anton, and with the approval and encouragement of P. J, 
Spener, he founded the Collegium Philobiblicum, at which a 
number of graduates were accustomed to meet for the systematic 
study of the Bible, philologically and practically. He next passed 
some months at Liineburg as assistant or curate to the learned 
superintendent, C. H. Sandhagen (1639-1697), and there his 
religious life was remarkably quickened, and deepened. On 
leaving Liineburg he spent some time in Hamburg, where he 
became a teacher, in a private school, and made the acquaintance 
of Nikolaus Lange (1659-1720). After a long visit to Spener, 


who was at that time a court preacher in Dresden, he returned 
to Leipzig in the spring of 1689, and began to give Bible lectures 
of an exegetical and practical kind, at the same time resuming 
the Collegium Philobiblicum of earlier days. He soon became 
popular as a lecturer; but the peculiarities of his teaching almost 
immediately aroused a violent opposition on the part of the 
university authorities; and before the end of the year he was 
interdicted from lecturing on the ground of his alleged pietism. 
Thus it was that Francke's name first came to be publicly 
associated with that of Spener, and with pietism. Prohibited 
from lecturing in Leipzig, Francke in 1690 found work at Erfurt 
as " deacon " of one of the city churches. Here his evangelistic 
fervour attracted multitudes to his preaching, including Roman 
Catholics, but at the same time excited the anger of his opponents ; 
and the result of their opposition was that after a ministry of 
fifteen months he was commanded by the civil authorities 
(27th of September 1691) to leave Erfurt within forty-eight 
hours. The same year witnessed the expulsion of Spener from 

In December, through Spener's influence, Francke accepted 
an invitation to fill the chair of Greek and oriental languages 
in the new university of Halle, which was at that time being 
organized by the elector Frederick III. of Brandenburg; and at 
the same time, the chair having no salary attached to it, he was 
appointed pastor of Glaucha in the immediate neighbourhood 
of the town. He afterwards became professor of theology. Here, 
for the next thirty-six years, until his death on the 8th of June 
1727, he continued to discharge the twofold office of pastor and 
professor with rare energy and success. At the very outset of 
his labours he had been profoundly impressed with a sense of his 
responsibility towards the numerous outcast children who were 
growing up around him in ignorance and crime. After a number 
of tentative plans, he resolved in 1695 to institute what is often 
called a " ragged school," supported by public charity. A single 
room was at first sufficient, but within a year it was found 
necessary to purchase a house, to which another was added in 
1697. In 1698 there were 100 orphans under his charge to be 
clothed and fed, besides 500 children who were taught as day 
scholars. The schools grew in importance and are still known as 
the Francke'sche Stiftungen. The education given was strictly 
religious. Hebrew was included, while the Greek and Latin 
classics were neglected; the Homilies of Macarius took the place 
of Thucydides. The same principle was consistently applied in 
his university teaching. Even as professor of Greek he had given 
great prominence in his lectures to the study of the Scriptures; 
but he found a much more congenial sphere when, in 1698, he 
was appointed to the chair of theology. Yet his first courses 
of lectures in that department were readings and expositions of 
the Old and New Testament; and to this, as also to hermeneutics, 
he always attached special importance, believing that for theology 
a sound exegesis was the one indispensable requisite. " Theo- 
logus nascitur in scripturis," he used to say; but during his 
occupancy of the theological chair he lectured at various times 
upon other branches of theology also. Amongst his colleagues 
were Paul Anton (1661-1730), Joachim J. Breithaupt (1658-1732) 
and Joachim Lange (1670-1744), — men like-minded with him- 
self. Through their influence upon the students, Halle became 
a centre from which pietism (q.v.) became very widely diffused 
over Germany. 

His principal contributions to theological literature were : Mann- 
ductio ad lectionem Scripturae Sacrae (1693); Praelectiones herme- 
neuticae (171 7); Commentatio de scopo librorum Vete.ris et Novi 
Testamenti (1724); and Lectiones paraenelicae (1726-1736). The 
Manuductio was translated into English in 1813, under the title A 
Guide to the Reading and Study of the Holy Scriptures. An account 
of his orphanage, entitled Segensvolle Fussstapfen, &c. (1709), which 
subsequently passed through several editions, has also been partially 
translated, under the title The Footsteps of Divine Providence: 
or, The bountiful Hand of Heaven defraying the Expenses of Faith. 
See H. E. F. Guericke's A. H. Francke (1827), which has been trans- 
lated into English (The Life of A. H. Francke, 1837); Gustave 
Kramer's Beitrdge zur Geschichte A. H. Francke's (1861), and Neue 
Beilrage (1875); A. Stein, A. H. Francke (3rd ed., 1894); article 
in Herzog-Hauck's Realencyklopadie (ed. 1899); Knuth, Die 
Francke' schen Sliftungen (2nd ed., 1903). 

FRANCKEN. Eleven painters of this family cultivated their 
art in Antwerp during the 16th and 17th centuries. Several 
of these were related to each other, whilst many bore the same 
Christian name in succession. Hence unavoidable confusion in 
the subsequent classification of paintings not widely differing 
in style or execution. When Franz Francken the first found a 
rival in Franz Francken the second, he described himself as the 
"elder," in contradistinction to his son, who signed himself 
the " younger." But when Franz the second was threatened 
with competition from Franz the third, he took the name of 
" the elder," whilst Franz the third adopted that of Franz " the 

It is possible, though not by any means easy, to sift the works 
of these artists. The eldest of the Franckens, Nicholas of 
Herenthals, died at Antwerp in 1596, with nothing but the 
reputation of having been a painter. None of his works remain. 
He bequeathed his art to three children. Jerom Francken, the 
eldest son, after leaving his father's house, studied under Franz 
Floris, whom he afterwards served as an assistant, and wandered, 
about 1 560, to Paris. In 1 566 he was one of the masters employed 
to decorate the palace of Fontainebleau, and in 1574 he obtained 
the appointment of court painter from Henry III., who had just 
returned from Poland and visited Titian at Venice. In 1603, 
when Van Mander wrote his biography of Flemish artists, Jerom 
Francken was still in Paris living in the then aristocratic 
Faubourg St Germain. Among his earliest works we should 
distinguish a " Nativity " in the Dresden museum, executed in co- 
operation with Franz Floris. Another of his important pieces 
is the " Abdication of Charles V." in the Amsterdam museum. 
Equally interesting is a "Portrait of a Falconer," dated 1558, in 
the Brunswick gallery. In style these pieces all recall Franz 
Floris. Franz, the second son of Nicholas of Herenthals, is to 
be kept in memory as Franz Francken the first. He was born 
about 1544, matriculated at Antwerp in 1567, and died there in 
1616. He, too, studied under Floris, and never settled abroad, 
or lost the hard and gaudy style which he inherited from his 
master. Several of his pictures are in the museum of Antwerp; 
one dated. 1597 in the Dresden museum represents " Christ on 
the Road to Golgotha," and is signed by him as D. 6 (Den ouden) 
F. Franck. Ambrose, the third son of Nicholas of Herenthals, 
has bequeathed to us more specimens of his skill than Jerom or 
Franz the first. He first started as a partner with Jerom at 
Fontainebleau, then he returned to Antwerp, where he passed 
for his gild in 1573, and he lived at Antwerp till 1618. His 
best works are the " Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes " and the 
" Martyrdom of St Crispin," both large and ambitious com- 
positions in the Antwerp museum. In both these pieces a fair 
amount of power is displayed, but marred by want of atmosphere 
and shadow or by hardness of line and gaudiness of tone. There 
is not a trace in the three painters named of the influence of the 
revival which took place under the lead of Rubens. Franz 
Francken the first trained three sons to his profession, the eldest 
of whom, though he practised as a master of gild at Antwerp 
from 1600 to 1610, left no visible trace of his labours behind. 
Jerom the second took service with his uncle Ambrose. He 
was born in 1578, passed for his gild in 1607, and in 1620 
produced that curious picture of " Horatius Codes defending 
the Sublician Bridge " which still hangs in the Antwerp museum. 
The third son of Franz Francken the first is Franz Francken 
the second, who signed himself in pictures till 1616" theyounger," 
from 1630 till his death " the elder " F. Francken. These 
pictures are usually of a small size, and are found in considerable 
numbers in continental collections. Franz Francken the second 
was born in 1581. In 1605 he entered the gild, of which he 
subsequently became the president, and in 1642 he died. His 
earliest composition is the " Crucifixion " in the Belvedere at 
Vienna, dated 1606. His latest compositions as " the younger" 
F. Francken are the " Adoration of the Virgin " (1616) in the 
gallery of Amsterdam, and the " Woman taken in Adultery " 
(1628) in Dresden. From 1616 to 1630 many of his pieces are 
signed F. Francken; then come the " Seven Works of Charity " 
(1630) at Munich, signed " the elder F. F.," the " Prodigal Son " 


(1633) at the Louvre, and other almost countless examples. 
It is in F. Francken the second's style that we first have evidence 
of the struggle which necessarily arose when the old customs, 
hardened by Van Orley and Floris, or Breughel and De Vos, 
were swept away by Rubens. But F. Francken the second, as 
before observed, always clung to small surfaces; and though 
he gained some of the freedom of the moderns, he lost but little 
of the dryness or gaudiness of the earlier Italo-Flemish revivalists. 
F. Francken the third, the last of his name who deserves to be 
recorded, passed in the Antwerp gild in 1639 an d died at Antwerp 
in 1667. His practice was chiefly confined to adding figures to 
the architectural or landscape pieces of other artists. As Franz 
Pourbus sometimes put in the portrait figures for Franz Francken 
the second, so Franz Francken the third often introduced the 
necessary personages into the works of Pieter Neefs the younger 
(museums of St Petersburg, Dresden and the Hague). In a 
" Moses striking the Rock," dated 1654, of the Augsburg gallery, 
this last of the Franckens signs D. 6 (Den ouden) F. Franck. 
In the pictures of this artist we most clearly discern the effects of 
Rubens's example. 

FRANCO-GERMAN WAR (1870-1871). The victories of 
Prussia in 1866 over the Austrians and their German allies (see 
Seven Weeks' War) rendered it evident to the statesmen and 
soldiers of France that a struggle between the two nations could 
only be a question of time. Army reforms were at once under- 
taken, and measures were initiated in France to place the 
armament and equipment of the troops on a level with the 
requirements of the times. The chassepot, a new breech- 
loading rifle, immensely superior to the Prussian needle-gun, 
was issued; the artillery trains were thoroughly overhauled, 
and a new machine-gun, the mitrailleuse, from which much was 
expected,' introduced. Wide schemes of reorganization (due 
mainly to Marshal Niel) were set in motion, and, since these 
required time to mature, recourse was had to foreign alliances 
in the hope of delaying the impending rupture. In the first 
week of June 1870, General Lebrun, as a confidential agent of 
the emperor Napoleon III., was sent to Vienna to concert a 
plan of joint operations with Austria against Prussia. Italy 
was also to be included in the alliance, and it was agreed that 
in case of hostilities the French armies should concentrate in 
northern Bavaria, where the Austrians and Italians were to 
join them, and the whole immense army thus formed should 
march via Jena on Berlin. To what extent Austria and Italy 
committed themselves to this scheme remains uncertain, but 
that the emperor Napoleon believed in their bona fides is beyond 

Whether the plan was betrayed to Prussia is also uncertain, 
and almost immaterial, for Moltke's plans were based on an 
accurate estimate of the time it would take Austria to mobilize 
and on the effect of a series of victories on French soil. At any 
rate Moltke was not taken into Bismarck's confidence in the 
affair of Ems in July 1870, and it is to be presumed that the 
chancellor had already satisfied himself that the schemes of 
operations prepared by the chief of the General Staff fully 
provided against all eventualities. These schemes were founded 
on Clausewitz's view of the objects to be pursued in a war against 
France — in the first place the defeat of the French field armies 
and in the second the occupation of Paris. On these lines plans 
for the strategic deployment of the Prussian army were prepared 
by the General Staff and kept up to date year by year as fresh 
circumstances (e.g. the co-operation of the minor German armies) 
arose and new means of communication came into existence. 
The campaign was actually opened on a revise of 1868-1869, 
to which was added, on the 6th of May 1870, a secret memo- 
randum for the General Staff. 

Under the German organization then existing the preliminary 
to all active operations was of necessity full and complete 
mobilization. Then followed transport by road and rail to the 
line selected for the " strategic deployment," and it was essential 
that no part of these operations should be disturbed by action 
on the part of the enemy. But no such delay imposed itself of 
necessity upon the French, and a vigorous offensive was so much 

in harmony with their traditions that the German plan had to 
be framed so as to meet such emergencies. On the whole, 
Moltke concluded that the enemy could not undertake . 

this offensive before the eighth day after mobilization, deploy? 
At that date about five French army corps (150,000 meat 
men) could be collected near Metz, and two corps of the 
(70,000) near Strassburg; and as it was six days' march araofcs" 
from Metz to the Rhine, no serious attack could be 
delivered before the fourteenth day, by which day it could be met 
by superior forces near Kirchheimbolanden. Since, however, the 
transport of the bulk of the Prussian forces could not begin till the 
ninth day, their ultimate line of detrainment need not be fixed 
until the French plans were disclosed, and, as it was important 
to strike at the earliest moment possible, the deployment was 
provisionally fixed to be beyond the Rhine on the line Wittlich- 
Neunkirchen-Landau. Of the thirteen North German corps three 
had to be left behind to guard the eastern frontier and the 
coast, one other, the VIII., was practically on the ground already 
and could concentrate by road, and the remaining nine were 
distributed to the nine through railway lines available. These 
ten corps were grouped in three armies, and as the French might 
violate Belgian neutrality or endeavour to break into southern 
Germany, two corps (Prussian Guard and Saxon XII. corps) 
were temporarily held back at a central position around Mainz, 
whence they could move rapidly up or down the Rhine valley. 
If Belgian neutrality remained unmolested, the reserve would join 
the III. army on the left wing, giving it a two to one superiority 
over its adversary; all three armies would then wheel to the 
right and combine in an effort to force the French army into a 
decisive battle on the Saar on or about the twenty-third day. 
As in this wheel the army on the right formed the pivot and was 
required only to stand fast, two corps only were allotted to it; 
two corps for the present formed the III. army, and the remaining 
five were assigned to the II. army in the centre. 

When (i6th-r7th July) the South German states decided to 
throw in their lot with the rest, their three corps were allotted to 
the III. army, the Guards and Saxons to the II. army, whilst 
the three corps originally left behind were finally distributed 
one to each army, so that up to the investment of Metz the order 
of battle was as follows: 

Headquarters : 

(General v. Moltke, chief of staff). 

(I. corps, v. Manteuffel) 
VII. „ v. Zastrow 

VIII. ,, v. Goeben 

(1st) and 3rd cavalry divisions 

Total . . 85,000 

Guard Pr. August of Wiirttem- 
(II. corps, v. Fransecky) 
III. „ v. Alvensleben II. 

The king of Prussia 

I. Army: f 

General v. Steinmetz J 

(C. of S., v. Sperling) 1 

II. Army: 
Prince Frederick Charles - 
(C. of S., v. Stiehle) 

III. Army: 
crown prince of Prussia 
(C. of S., v. Blumenthal) 

IV. ,, v. Alvensleben I. 
IX. „ v. Manstein 
X. „ v. Voigts-Rhetz 
XII. ■ ,, (Saxons) crown prince 

of Saxony 
5th and 6th cavalry divisions 

Total . . 210,000 
V. corps, v. Kirchbach 
(VI.) „ v. Tiimpling 
XI. „ v. Bose 

I. Bavarian, v. der Tann 

II. „ v. Hartmann 

S te m bergdiv.j vWerder 

L (2nd) and 4th cavalry divisions 

Total . . 180,000 

Grand Total . . 475,000 
(The units within brackets were those at first retained in Germany.) 

On the French side no such plan of operations was in existence 
when on the night of the 15th of July Krieg mobil was telegraphed 
all over Prussia. An outline scheme had indeed been Positions 
prepared as a basis for agreement with Austria and of the -■■ 
Italy, but practically no details were fixed, and the French 
troops were without transport and supplies. Never- /orces - 
theless, since speed was the essence of the contract, the troops 


1st corps 
5th corps 
2nd corps 
4th corps 

3rd corps 
6th corps 
7th corps 

If therefo 

were hurried up without waiting for their reserves, and delivered, 
as Moltke had foreseen, just where the lie of the railways and 
convenience of temporary supply dictated, and the Prussian 
Intelligence Department was able to inform Moltke on the 22nd 
of July (seventh day of mobilization) that the French stood 
from right to left in the following order, on or near the frontier: 

. Marshal MacMahon, duke of Magenta, Strassburg 

. General de Failly, Saargemund and Bitche 

. General Frossard, St Avoid 

. General de Ladmirault, Thionville 

With, behind them: 

. Marshal Bazaine, Metz 

. General Bourbaki, Nancy 

. Marshal Canrobert, Chalons 

. General Felix Douay, Belfort 

e they began a forward movement on the 23rd 
(eighth day) the case foreseen by Moltke had arisen, and it became 
necessary to detrain the II. army upon the Rhine. Without 
waiting for further confirmation of this intelligence, Moltke, with 
the consent of the king, altered the arrangements accordingly, 
a decision which, though foreseen, exercised the gravest influence 
on the course of events. As it happened this decision was pre- 
mature, for the French could not yet move. Supply trains had 
to be organized by requisition from the inhabitants, and even 
arms and ammunition procured for such reserves as had succeeded 
in joining. Nevertheless, by almost superhuman exertions 
on the part cf the railways and administrative services, all 
essential deficiencies were made good, and by the 28th of July 
(13th day) the troops had received all that was absolutely indis- 
pensable and might well have been led against the enemy, who, 
thanks to Moltke's premature action, were for the moment at 
a very serious disadvantage. But the French generals were 
unequal to their responsibilities. It is now clear that, had the 
great Napoleon and his marshals been in command, they would 
have made light of the want of cooking pots, cholera belts, &c, 
and, by a series of rapid marches, would have concentrated 
odds of at least three to one upon the heads of the Prussian 
columns as they struggled through the defiles of the Hardt, and 
won a victory whose political results might well have proved 

To meet this pressing danger, which came to his knowledge 
during the course of the 29th, Moltke sent a confidential staff 
officer, Colonel v. Verdy du Vernois, to the III. army to impress 
upon the crown prince the necessity of an immediate advance to 
distract the enemy's attention from the I. and II. armies; but, 
like the French generals, the crown prince pleaded that he could 
not move until his trains were complete. Fortunately for the 
Germans, the French intelligence service not only failed to 
inform the staff of this extraordinary opportunity, but it allowed 
itself to be hypnotized by the most amazing rumours. In 
imagination they saw armies of 100,000 men behind every forest, 
and, to guard against these dangers, the French troops were 
marched and counter-marched along the frontiers in the vain 
hope of discovering an ideal defensive position which should 
afford full scope to the power of their new weapons. 

As these delays were exerting a most unfavourable effect on 
public opinion not only in France but throughout Europe, the 
emperor decided on the 1st of August to initiate a movement 
towards the Saar, chiefly as a guarantee of good faith to the 
Austrians and Italians. 

On this day the French corps held the following positions from 
right to left: 

. Hagenau 

. Forbach 

. St Avoid 

. Bouzonville 

. Bitche 

. Chalons 

. Belfort and Colmar 

. near Metz 

1st corps 
2nd corps 
3rd corps 
4th corps 
5th corps 
6th corps 
7th corps 
Guard . 

The French 2nd corps was directed to advance on the following 
morning direct on Saarbnicken, supported on the flanks by two 
divisions from the 5th and 3rd corps. The order was duly carried 
out, and the Prussians (one battalion, two squadrons and a 

battery), seeing the overwhelming numbers opposed to them, 
fell back fighting and vanished to the northward, having 
given a very excellent example of steadiness and dis- 
cipline to their enemy. 1 The latter contented them- ^j£f ot 
selves by occupying Saarbnicken and its suburb St briicken. 
Johann, and here, as far as the troops were concerned, 
the incident closed. Its effect, however, proved far-reaching. 
The Prussian staff could not conceive that nothing lay behind 
this display of five whole divisions, and immediately took steps 
to meet the expected danger. In their excitement, although they 
had announced the beginning of the action to the king's head- 
quarters at Mainz, they forgot to notify the close and its results, 
so that Moltke was not in possession of the facts till noon on the 
3rd of August. Meanwhile, Steinmetz, left without instructions 
and fearing for the safety of the II. army, the heads of whose 
columns were still in the defiles of the Hardt, moved the I. army 
from the neighbourhood of Merzig obliquely to his left front, so 
as to strike the flank of the French army if it continued its 
march towards Kaiserslautern, in which direction it appeared to 
be heading. 

Whilst this order was in process of execution, Moltke, aware 
that the II. army was behind time in its march, issued instructions 
to Steinmetz for the 4th of August which entailed 
a withdrawal to the rear, the idea being that both p? !ac l' 
armies should, if the French advanced, fight a defensive Frederick 
battle in a selected position farther back. Steinmetz Charles 
obeyed, though bitterly resenting the idea of retreat. ^C^'"'"' 
This movement, further, drew his left across the roads 
reserved for the right column of the II. army, and on receipt 
of a peremptory order from Prince Frederick Charles to evacuate 
the road, Steinmetz telegraphed for instructions direct to the 
king, over Moltke's head. In reply he received a telegram from 
Moltke, ordering him to clear the road at once, and couched 
in terms which he considered as a severe reprimand. An ex- 
planatory letter, meant to soften the rebuke, was delayed in 
transmission and did not reach him till too late to modify the 
orders he had already issued. It must be remembered that 
Steinmetz at the front was in a better position to judge the 
apparent situation than was Moltke at Mainz, and that all 
through the day of the 5th of August he had received intelli- 
gence indicating a change of attitude in the French army. 

The news of the German victory at Weissenburg on the 4th 
(see below) had in fact completely paralysed the French head- 
quarters, and orders were issued by them during the 
course of the 5th to concentrate the whole army of the ? a f ? 0/ 
Rhine on the selected position of Cadenbronn. As a eren." 
preliminary, Frossard's corps withdrew from Saar- 
briicken and began to entrench a position on the Spicheren 
heights, 3000 yds. to the southward. Steinmetz, therefore, being 
quite unaware of the scheme for a great battle on the Saar about 
the 1 2th of August, felt that the situation would best be met, 
and the letter of his instructions strictly obeyed, by moving his 
whole command forward to the line of the Saar, and orders to 
this effect were issued on the evening of the 5th. In pursuance 
of these orders, the advance guard of the 14th division (Lieutenant 
General von Kameke) reached Saarbnicken about 9 a.m. on 
the 6th, where the Germans found to their amazement that the 
bridges were intact. To secure this advantage was the obvious 
duty of the commander on the spot, and he at once ordered his 
troops to occupy a line of low heights beyond the town to 
serve as a bridge-head. As the leading troops deployed on the 
heights Frossard's guns on the Spicheren Plateau opened fire, 
and the advanced guard battery replied. The sound of these 
guns unchained the whole fighting instinct carefully developed 
by a long course of Prussian manoeuvre training. Everywhere, 
generals and troops hurried towards the cannon thunder. 
Kameke, even more in the dark than Steinmetz as to Moltke's 
intentions and the strength of his adversaries, attacked at once, 
precisely as he would have done at manoeuvres, and in half an 
hour his men were committed beyond recall. As each fresh unit 
reached the field it was hurried into action where its services 
1 This was the celebrated " baptSme de feu " of the prince imperial. 



were most needed, and each fresh general as he arrived took a 
new view of the combat and issued new orders. On the other 
side, Frossard, knowing the strength of his position, called on 
his neighbours for support, and determined to hold his ground. 
Victory seemed certain. There were sufficient troops within 
easy reach to have ensured a crushing numerical superiority. 
But the other generals had not been trained to mutual support, 
and thought only of their own immediate security, and their 
staffs were too inexperienced to act upon even good intentions; 
and, finding himself in the course.of the afternoon left to his own 
devices, Frossard began gradually to withdraw, even before the 
pressure of the 13th German division on his left flank (about 
8 p.m.) compelled his retirement. When darkness ended the 
battle the Prussians were scarcely aware of their victory. Stein- 
metz, who had reached the field about 6 p.m., rode back to his 
headquarters without issuing any orders, while the troops 
bivouacked where they stood, the units of three army corps 
being mixed up in almost inextricable confusion. But whereas 
out of 42,900 Prussians with 120 guns, who in the morning lay 
within striking distance of the enemy, no fewer than 27,000, 
with 78 guns were actually engaged; of the French, out of 64,000 
with 210 guns only 24,000 with go guns took part in the action. 
Meanwhile on the German left wing the III. army had begun 
its advance. Early on the 4th of August it crossed the frontier 
and fell upon a French detachment under Abel Douay, 
Mioa of ^jj^jj had. been placed near Weissenburg, partly to 
burg. cover the Pigeonnier pass, but principally to consume 

the supplies accumulated in the little dismantled 
fortress, as these could not easily be moved. Against this force 
of under 4000 men of all arms, the Germans brought into action 
successively portions of three corps, in all over 25,000 men with 
90 guns. After six hours' fighting, in which the Germans lost 
some 1500 men, the gallant remnant of the French withdrew 
deliberately and in good order, notwithstanding the death of 
their leader at the critical moment. The Germans were so elated 
by their victory over the enemy, whose strength they naturally 
overestimated, that "they forgot to send cavalry in pursuit, and 
thus entirely lost touch with the enemy. 

Next day the advance was resumed, the two Bavarian corps 
moving via Mattstall through the foothills of the Vosges, the 
V. corps on their left towards Preuschdorf, and the XL farther 
to the left again, through the wooded plain of the Rhine valley. 
The 4th cavalry division scouted in advance, and army head- 
quarters moved to Sulz. About noon the advanced patrols 
discovered MacMahon's corps in position on the left bank of the 
Sauer (see Worth: Battle of). As his army was dispersed over 
a wide area, the crown prince determined to devote the 6th to 
concentrating the troops, and, probably to avoid alarming the 
enemy, ordered the cavalry to stand fast. 

At night the outposts of the I. Bavarians and V. corps on the 
Sauer saw the fires of the French encampment and heard the 
noise of railway traffic, and rightly conjectured the approach 
of reinforcements. MacMahon had in fact determined to stand 
in the very formidable position he had selected, and he counted 
on receiving support both from the 7th corps (two divisions of 
which were being railed up from Colmar) and from the 5th corps, 
which lay around Bitche. It was also quite possible, and the 
soundest strategy, to withdraw the bulk of the troops then 
facing the German I. and II. armies to his support, and these 
would reach him by the 8th. He was therefore justified in 
accepting battle, though it was to his interest to delay it as long 
as possible. 

At dawn on the 6th of August the commander of the V. corps 
outposts noticed certain movements in the French lines, and to 
clear up the situation brought his guns into action. 
vr'rffi -^ s at Spicheren, the sound of the guns set the whole 
machinery of battle in motion. The French artillery 
immediately accepted the Prussian challenge. The I. Bavarians, 
having been ordered to be ready to move if they heard artillery 
fire, immediately advanced against the French left, encountering 
presently such a stubborn resistance that parts of their line 
began to give way. The Prussians of the V. corps felt that they 

could not abandon their allies, and von Kirchbach, calling on the 
XL corps for support, attacked with the troops at hand. When 
the crown prince tried to break off the fight it was too late. 
Both sides were feeding troops into the firing line, as and where 
they could lay hands on them. Up to 2 p.m. the French fairly 
held their own, but shortly afterwards their right yielded to the 
overwhelming pressure of the XL corps, and by 3.30 it was 
in full retreat. The centre held on for another hour, but in 
its turn was compelled to yield, and by 4.30 all organized 
resistance was at an end. The debris of the French army was 
hotly pursued by the German divisional squadrons towards 
Reichshofen, where serious panic showed itself. When at this 
stage the supports sent by de Failly from Bitche came on the 
ground they saw the hopelessness of intervention, and retired 
whence they had come. Fortunately for the French , the German 
4th cavalry division, on which the pursuit should have devolved, 
had been forgotten by the German staff, and did not reach the 
front before darkness fell. Out of a total of 82,000 within reach 
of the battlefield, the Germans succeeded in bringing into action 
77,500. The French, who might have had 50,000 on the field, 
deployed only 37,000, and these suffered a collective loss of 
no less than 20,100; some regiments losing up to 90% and still 
retaining some semblance of discipline and order. 

Under cover of darkness the remnants of the French army 
escaped. When at length the 4th cavalry division had succeeded 
in forcing .a way through the confusion of the battlefield, 
all touch with the enemy had been lost, and being without 
firearms the troopers were checked by the French stragglers 
in the woods and the villages, and thus failed to establish the 
true line of retreat of the French. Ultimately the latter, having 
gained the railway near Luneville, disappeared from the German 
front altogether, and all trace of them was lost until they were 
discovered, about the 26th of August, forming part of the army 
of Chalons, whither they had been conveyed by rail via Paris. 
This is a remarkable example of the strategical value of railways 
to an army operating in its own country. 

In the absence of all resistance, the III. army now proceeded 
to carry out the original programme of marches laid down in 
Moltke's memorandum of the 6th of May, and marching on a 
broad front through a fertile district it reached the line of the 
Moselle in excellent order about the 17th of August, where it 
halted to await the result of the great battle of Gravelotte- 
St Privat. 

We return now to the I. army at Saarbriicken. Its position 
on the morning of the 7 th of August gave cause for the gravest 
anxiety. At daylight a dense fog lay over the country, 
and through the mist sounds of heavy firing came *°^£ oa 
from the direction of Forbach, where French stragglers the Saar. 
had rallied during the night. The confusion on the 
battlefield was appalling, and the troops in no condition to go 
forward. Except the 3rd, 5th and 6th cavalry divisions no 
closed troops were within a day's march; hence Steinmetz 
decided to spend the day in reorganizing his infantry, under 
cover of his available cavalry. But the German cavalry and 
staff were quite new to their task. The 6th cavalry division, 
which had bivouacked on the battlefield, sent on only one 
brigade towards Forbach, retaining the remainder in reserve. 
The 5th, thinking that the 6th had already undertaken all 
that was necessary, withdrew behind the Saar, and the 3rd, 
also behind the Saar, reported that the country in its front was 
unsuited to cavalry movements, and only sent out a few officers' 
patrols. These were well led, but were too few in number, and 
their reports were consequently unconvincing. 

In the course of the day Steinmetz became very uneasy, and 
ultimately he decided to concentrate his army by retiring the 
VII. and VIII. corps behind the river on to the I. (which had 
arrived near Saarlouis), thus clearing the Saarbrucken-Metz 
road for the use of the II. army. But at this moment Prince 
Frederick Charles suddenly modified his views. During the 6th 
of August his scouts had reported considerable French forces 
near Bitche (these were the 5th, de Failly's corps), and early 
in the morning of the 7th he received a telegram from Moltke 


informing him that MacMahon's beaten army was retreating 
on the same place (the troops observed were in fact those which 
had marched to MacMahon's assistance). The prince forthwith 
deflected the march of the Guards, IV. and X. corps, towards 
Rohrbach, whilst the IX. and XII. closed up to supporting 
distance behind them. Thus, as Steinmetz moved away to the 
west and north, Frederick Charles was diverging to the south 
and east, and a great gap was opening in the very centre of the 
German front. This was closed only by the III. corps, still on 
the battle-field, and by portions of the X. near Saargemiind, 1 
whilst within striking distance lay 130,000 French troops, 
prevented only by the incapacity of their chiefs from delivering 
a decisive counter-stroke. 

Fortunately for the Prussians, Moltke at Mainz took a different 
view. Receiving absolutely no intelligence from the front 
during the 7th, he telegraphed orders to the I. and II. armies 
(10.25 v.u.) to halt on the 8th, and impressed on Steinmetz 
the necessity of employing his cavalry to clear up the situation. 
The I. army had already begun the marches ordered by Stein- 
metz. It was now led back practically to its old bivouacs 
amongst the unburied dead. Prince Frederick Charles only 
conformed to Moltke's order with the III. and X. corps; the 
remainder executed their concentration towards the south and 

During the night of the 7th of August Moltke decided that 
the French army must be in retreat towards the Moselle and 
forthwith busied himself with the preparation of fresh tables of 
march for the two armies, his object being to swing up the left 
wing to outflank the enemy from the south. This work, and 
the transfer of headquarters to Homburg, needed time, hence no 
fresh orders were issued to either army, and neither commander 
would incur the responsibility of moving without any. The 
I. army therefore spent a fourth night in bivouac on the battle- 
field. But Constantin von Alvensleben, commanding the III. 
corps, a man of very different stamp from his colleagues, hearing 
at first hand that the French had evacuated St Avoid, set his 
corps in motion early in the morning of the 10th August down 
the St Avold-Metz road, reached St Avoid and obtained con- 
clusive evidence that the French were retreating. 

During the 9th the orders for the advance to the Moselle were 
issued. These were based, not on an exact knowledge of where 
the French army actually stood, but on the opinion 
^tb"" Moltke had formed as to where it ought to have been 
Moselle. on military grounds solely, overlooking the fact that 
the French staff were not free to form military decisions 
but were compelled to bow to political expediency. 

Actually on the 7th of August the emperor had decided to 
attack the Germans on the 8th with the whole Rhine Army, 
but this decision was upset by alarmist reports from the beaten 
army of MacMahon. He then decided to retreat to the Moselle, 
as Moltke had foreseen, and there to draw to himself the remnants 
of MacMahon's army (now near Luneville). At the same time 
he assigned the executive command over the whole Rhine Army 
to Marshal Bazaine. This retreat was begun during the course of 
the 8th and 9th of August; but on the night of the 9th urgent 
telegrams from Paris induced the emperor to suspend the move- 
ment, and during the 10th the whole army took up a strong 
position on the French Nied. 

Meanwhile the II. German army had received its orders to 
march in a line of army corps on a broad front in the general 
direction of Pont-a-Mousson, well to the south of Metz. The 
I. army was to follow by short marches in echelon on the right ; 
only the III. corps was directed on Falkenberg, a day's march 
farther towards Metz along the St Avold-Metz road. The 
movement was begun on the 10th, and towards evening the 
French army was located on the right front of the III. corps. 
This entirely upset Moltke's hypothesis, and called for a complete 
modification of his plans, as the III. corps alone could not be 
expected to resist the impact of Bazaine's five corps. The III. 
corps therefore received orders to stand fast for the moment, 
and the remainder of the II. army was instructed to wheel to the 
1 The II. corps had not yet arrived from Germany. 

right and concentrate for a great battle to the east of Metz on 
the 1 6th or 17th. 

Before, however, these orders had been received the sudden 
retreat of the French completely changed the situation. The 
Germans therefore continued their movement towards the 
Moselle. On the 13th the French took up a fresh position 5 m. 
to the east of Metz, where they were located by the cavalry 
and the advanced guards of the I. army. 

Again Moltke ordered the I. army to observe and hold the 
enemy, whilst the II. was to swing round to the north. The 
cavalry was to scout beyond the Moselle and intercept 
all communication with the heart of France (see Metz). f£.f e l f . 
By this time the whole German army had imbibed the Borny. 
idea that the French were in full retreat and endeavour- 
ing to evade a decisive struggle. When therefore during the 
morning of the 14th their outposts observed signs of retreat 
in the French position, their impatience could no longer be 
restrained; as at Worth and Spicheren, an outpost commander 
brought up his guns, and at the sound of their fire, every unit 
within reach spontaneously got under arms (battle of Colombey- 
Borny). In a short time, with or without orders, the I., VII., 
VIII. and IX. corps were in full march to the battle-field. But 
the French too turned back to fight, and an obstinate engage- 
ment ensued, at the close of which the Germans barely held 
the ground and the French withdrew under cover of the Metz 
forts. ' 

Still, though the fighting had been indecisive, the conviction 
of victory remained with the Germans, and the idea of a French 
retreat became an obsession. To this idea Moltke gave expression 
in his orders issued early on the 15th, in which he laid down 
that the " fruits of the victory " of the previous evening could 
only be reaped by a vigorous pursuit towards the passages of the 
Meuse, where it was hoped the French might yet be overtaken. 
This order, however, did not allow for the hopeless inability of 
the French staff to regulate the movement of congested masses 
of men, horses and vehicles, such as were now accumulated in the 
streets and environs of Metz. Whilst Bazaine had come to no 
definite decision whether to stand and fight or continue to retreat, 
and was merely drifting under the impressions of the moment, 
the Prussian leaders, in particular Prince Frederick Charles, 
saw in imagination the French columns in rapid orderly move- 
ment towards the west, and calculated that at best they could 
not be overtaken short of Verdun. 

In this order of ideas the whole of the II. army, followed on 
its right rear by two-thirds of the I. army (the I. corps being 
detached to observe the eastern side of the fortress), were pushed 
on towards the Moselle, the cavalry far in advance towards the 
Meuse, whilst only the 5th cavalry division was ordered to scout 
towards the Metz- Verdun road, and even that was disseminated 
over far too wide an area. 

Later in the day (15th) Frederick Charles sent orders to the 
III. corps, which was on the right flank of his long line of columns 
and approaching the Moselle at Corny and Noveant, to march 
via Gorze to Mars-la-Tour on the Metz-Verdun road; to the 
X. corps, strung out along the road from Thiaucourt to Pont- 
a-Mousson, to move to Jarny; and for the remainder to push on 
westward to seize the Meuse crossings. No definite information 
as to the French army reached him in time to modify these 

Meanwhile the 5th (Rheinbaben's) cavalry division, at about 
3 p.m. in the afternoon, had come into contact with the French 
cavalry in the vicinity of Mars-la-Tour, and gleaned intelligence 
enough to show that no French infantry had as yet reached 
Rezonville. The commander of the X. corps at Thiaucourt, 
informed of this, became anxious for the security of his flank 
during the next day's march and decided to push out a strong 
flanking detachment under von Caprivi, to support von Rhein- 
baben and maintain touch with the III. corps marching on his 
right rear. 

Von Alvensleben, to whom the 6th cavalry division had mean- 
while been assigned, seems to have received no local intelligence 
whatsoever; and at daybreak on the 16th he began his march 



in two columns, the 6th division on Mars-la-Tour, the 5th 
towards the Rezonville-Vionville plateau. And shortly after 
9.15 a.m. he suddenly discovered the truth. The entire French 
Battle of armv l av on l" s "S^ 1 fl an k) an d ms nearest supports 
vionvilie- were almost a day's march distant. In this crisis he 
Mars-la- made up his mind at once to attack with every 
Tour - available man, and to continue to attack, in the con- 

viction that his audacity would serve to conceal his weakness. 
All day long, therefore, the Brandenburgers of the III. corps, 
supported ultimately by the X. corps and part of the IX., 
attacked again and again. The enemy was thrice their strength, 
but very differently led, and made no adequate use of his 
superiority (battle of Vionville-Mars-la Tour) . 

Meanwhile Prince Frederick Charles, at Pont-a-Mousson, 
was still confident in the French retreat to the Meuse, and had 
even issued orders for the 17th on that assumption. Firing had 
been heard since 0.15 a.m., and about noon Alvensleben's first 
report had reached him, but it was not till after 2 that he 
realized the situation. Then, mounting his horse, he covered 
the 15 m. to Flavigny over crowded and difficult roads within 
the hour, and on his arrival abundantly atoned for his strategic 
errors by his unconquerable determination and tactical skill. 
When darkness put a stop to the fighting, he considered the 
position. Cancelling all previous orders, he called all troops 
within reach to the battle-field and resigned himself to wait for 
them. The situation was indeed critical. The whole French 
army of five corps, only half of which had been engaged, lay in 
front of him. His own army lay scattered over an area of 30 m. 
by 20, and only some 20,000 fresh troops — of the IX. corps — 
could reach the field during the forenoon of the 17 th. 

It August. He did not then know tnat M °l tke nad already inter- 
vened and had ordered the VII., VIII. and II. corps 1 
to his assistance. Daylight revealed the extreme exhaustion of 
both men and horses. The men lay around in hopeless confusion 
amongst the killed and wounded, each where sleep had over- 
taken him, and thus the extent of the actual losses, heavy 
enough, could not be estimated. Across the valley, bugle 
sounds revealed the French already alert, and presently a long 
line of skirmishers approached the Prussian position. But they 
halted just beyond rifle range, and it was soon evident that they 
were only intended to cover a further withdrawal. Presently 
came the welcome intelligence that the reinforcements were well 
on their way. 

About noon the king and Moltke drove up to the ground, 
and there was an animated discussion as to what the French 
would do next. Aware of their withdrawal from his immediate 
front, Prince Frederick Charles reverted to his previous idea 
and insisted that they were in full retreat towards the north, 
and that their entrenchments near Point du Jour and St Hubert 
(see map in article Metz) were at most a rearguard position. 
Moltke was inclined to the same view, but considered the alterna- 
tive possibility of a withdrawal towards Metz, and about 2 p.m. 
orders were issued to meet these divergent opinions. The 
whole army was to be drawn up at 6 a.m. on the 18th in an 
echelon facing north, so as to be ready for action in either 
direction. The king and Moltke then drove to Pont-a-Mousson, 
and the troops bivouacked in a state of readiness. The rest 
of the 17th was spent in restdring order in the shattered III. 
and X. corps, and by nightfall both corps were reported fit for 
action. Strangely enough, there were no organized cavalry 
reconnaissances, and no intelligence of importance was collected 
during the night of the i7th-i8th. 

Early on the 18th the troops began to move into position in 
the following order from left to right: XII. (Saxons), Guards, 
IX., VIII. and VII. The X. and III. were retained in reserve. 

The idea of the French retreat was still uppermost in the 
prince's mind, and the whole army therefore moved north. 
But between 10 and n a.m. part of the truth — viz. that the 
French had their backs to Metz and stood in battle order 

1 Of the I. army the I. corps was retained on the east side of Metz. 
The II. corps belonged to the II. army, but had not yet reached the 

from St Hubert northwards — became evident, and the II. 
army, pivoting on the I., wheeled to the right and moved 
eastward. Suddenly the IX. corps fell right on the Battle ot 
centre of the French line ( Amanvillers) , and a most oraveiotte- 
desperate encounter began, superior control, as before, Saiat 
ceasing after the guns had opened fire. Prince Frederick PH ^ at 
Charles, however, a little farther north, again asserted his tactical 
ability, and about 7 p.m. he brought into position no less than five 
army corps for the final attack. The sudden collapse of French 
resistance, due to the frontal attack of the Guards (St Privat) and 
the turning movement of the Saxons (Roncourt), rendered the 
use of this mass unnecessary, but the resolution to use it was 
there. On the German right (I. army), about Gravelotte, all 
superior leading ceased quite early in the afternoon, and at 
night the French still showed an unbroken front. Until midnight, 
when the prince's victory was reported, the suspense at head- 
quarters was terrible. The I. army was exhausted, no steps 
had been taken to ensure support from the III. army, and the 
IV. corps (II. army) lay inactive 30 m. away. 

This seems a fitting place to discuss the much-disputed point 
of Bazaine's conduct in allowing himself to be driven back into 
Metz when fortune had thrown into his hands the great 
opportunity of the 16th and 17th of August. He inf/iett. 
had been appointed to command on the 10th, but the 
presence of the emperor, who only left the front early on the 
16th, and their dislike of Bazaine, exercised a disturbing influence 
on the headquarters staff officers. During the retreat to Metz 
the marshal had satisfied himself as to the inability of his corps 
commanders to handle their troops, and also as to the ill-will 
of the staff. In the circumstances he felt that a battle in the 
open field could only end in disaster; and, since it was proved 
that the Germans could outmarch him, his army was sure to be 
overtaken and annihilated if he ventured beyond the shelter 
of the fortress. But near Metz he could at least inflict very 
severe punishment on his assailants, and in any case his presence 
in Metz would neutralize a far superior force of the enemy for 
weeks or months. What use the French government might 
choose to make of the breathing space thus secured was their 
business, not his; and subsequent events showed that, had they 
not forced MacMahon's hand, the existence of the latter's 
nucleus army of trained troops might have prevented the 
investment of Paris. Bazaine was condemned by court-martial 
after the war, but if the case were reheard to-day it is certain 
that no charge of treachery could be sustained. 

On the German side the victory at St Privat was at once 
followed up by the headquarters. Early on the 19th the invest- 
ment of Bazaine's army in Metz was commenced. A new army, 
the Army of the Meuse (often called the IV.), was as soon as 
possible formed of all troops not required for the maintenance 
of the investment, and marched off under the command of the 
crown prince of Saxony to discover and destroy the remainder 
of the French field army, which at this moment was known to 
be at Chalons. 

The operations which led to the capture of MacMahon's army 
in Sedan call for little explanation. Given seven corps, each 
capable of averaging 1 5 m. a day for a week in succes- 
sion, opposed to four corps only, shaken by defeat tsedan. 
and unable as a whole to cover more than 5 m. a day, 
the result could hardly be doubtful. But Moltke's method of 
conducting operations left his opponent many openings which 
could only be closed by excessive demands on the marching 
power of the men. Trusting only to his cavalry screen to 
secure information, he was always without any definite fixed 
point about which to manceuvre, for whilst the reports of the 
screen and orders based thereon were being transmitted, the 
enemy was free to move, and generally their movements were 
dictated by political expediency, not by calculable military 

Thus whilst the German army, on a front of nearly 50 m., 
was marching due west on Paris, MacMahon, under political 
pressure, was moving parallel to them, but on a northerly route, 
to attempt the relief of Metz. 



So unexpected was this move and so uncertain the information 
which called attention to it, that Moltke did not venture to 
change at once the direction of march of the whole army, but 
he directed the Army of the Meuse northward on Damvillers 
and ordered Prince Frederick Charles to detach two corps from 
the forces investing Metz to reinforce it. For the moment, 
therefore, MacMahon's move had succeeded, and the opportunity 
existed for Bazaine to break out. But at the critical moment 
the hopeless want of real efficiency in MacMahon's army com- 
pelled the latter so to delay his advance that it became evident 
to the Germans that there was no longer any necessity for the 
III. army to maintain the direction towards Paris, and that 
the probable point of contact between the Meuse army and the 
French lay nearer to the right wing of the III. army than to 
Prince Frederick Charles's investing force before Metz. 

The detachment from the II. army was therefore counter- 
manded, and the whole III. army changed front to the north, 
while the Meuse army headed the French off from the east. 
The latter came into contact with the head of the French columns, 
during the 29th, about Nouart, and on the 30th at Buzancy 
(battle of Beaumont) ; and the French, yielding to the force 
of numbers combined with superior moral, were driven north- 
westward upon Sedan (q.v.), right across the front of the III. 
army, which was now rapidly coming up from the south. 

During the 31st the retreat practically became a rout, and 
the morning of the 1st of September found the French crowded 
around the little fortress of Sedan, with only one line of retreat 
to the north-west still open. By n a.m. the XL corps (III. 
army) had already closed that line, and about noon the Saxons 
(Army of the Meuse) moving round between the town and the 
Belgian frontier joined hands with the XL, and the circle of 
investment was complete. The battle of Sedan was closed 
about 4.15 p.m. by the hoisting of the white flag. Terms were 
agreed upon during the night, and the whole French army, 
with the emperor, passed into captivity. (F. N. M.) 

Thus in five weeks one of the French field armies was im- 
prisoned in Metz, the other destroyed, and the Germans were free 
to march upon Paris. This seemed easy. There could 
be no organized opposition to their progress, 1 and Paris, 
if not so defenceless as in 1814, was more populous. 
Starvation was the best method of attacking an over- 
crowded fortress, and the Parisians were not thought to be proof 
against the deprivation of their accustomed luxuries. Even ' 
Moltke hoped that by the end of October he would be " shooting 
hares at Creisau," and with this confidence the German III. and 
IV. armies left the vicinity of Sedan on the 4th of September. 
The march called for no more than good staff arrangements, and 
the two armies arrived before Paris a fortnight later and gradually 
encircled the place — the III. army on the south, tfae IV. on 
the north side — in the last days of September. Headquarters 
were established at Versailles. Meanwhile the Third Empire 
had fallen, giving place on the 4th of September to a republican 
Government of National Defence, which made its appeal to, 
and evoked, the spirit of 1 792. Henceforward the French nation, 
which had left the conduct of the war to the regular army and 
had been little more than an excited spectator, took the burden 
upon itself. 

The regular army, indeed, still contained more than 500,000 
men (chiefly recruits and reservists), and 50,000 sailors, marines, 
douaniers, &c, were also available. But the Garde Mobile, 
framed by Marshal Niel in 1868, doubled this figure, and the 
addition of the Garde Nationale, called into existence on the 15th 
of September, and including all able-bodied men of from 31 to 
60 years of age, more than trebled it. The German staff had of 
course to reckon on the Garde Mobile, and did so beforehand, 
but they wholly underestimated both its effective members and 
its willingness, while, possessing themselves a system in which 
all the military elements of the German nation stood close behind 

1 The 13th corps (Vinoy), which had followed MacMahon's army 
at some distance, was not involved in the catastrophe of Sedan, 
and by good luck as well as good management evaded the German 
pursuit and returned safely to Paris. 


the troops of the active army, they ignored the potentialities 
of the Garde Nationale. 

Meanwhile, both as a contrast to the events that centred on 
Paris and because in point of time they were decided for the 
most part in the weeks immediately following Sedan, we must 
briefly allude to the sieges conducted by the Germans — Paris 
(q.v.), Metz (q.v.) and Belfort (q.v.) excepted. Old and ruined 
as many of them were, the French fortresses possessed consider- 
able importance in the eyes of the Germans. Strassburg, in 
particular, the key of Alsace, the standing menace to South 
Germany and the most conspicuous of the spoils of Louis XIV. 's 
Raubkriege, was an obvious target. Operations were begun 
on the 9th of August, three days after Worth, General v. Werder's 
corps (Baden troops and Prussian Landwehr) making the siege. 
The French commandant, General Uhrich, surrendered after 
a stubborn resistance on the 28th of September. Of the smaller 
fortresses many, being practically unarmed and without garrisons, 
capitulated at once. Toul, defended by Major Huck with 2000 
mobiles, resisted for forty days, and drew upon itself the efforts 
of 13,000 men and 100 guns. Verdun, commanded by General 
Guerin de Waldersbach, held out till after the fall of Metz. Some 
of the fortresses lying to the north of the Prussian line of advance 
on Paris, e.g. Mezieres, resisted up to January 1871, though of 
course this was very largely due to the diminution of pressure 
caused by the appearance of new French field armies in October. 
On the 9th of September a strange incident took place at the 
surrender of Laon. A powder magazine was blown up by the 
soldiers in charge and 300 French and a few German soldiers were 
killed by the explosion. But as the Germans advanced, their 
lines of communication were thoroughly organized, and the belt 
of country between Paris and the Prussian frontier subdued and 
garrisoned. Most of these fortresses were small town enceintes, 
dating from Vauban's time, and open, under the new conditions 
of warfare, to concentric bombardment from positions formerly 
out of range, upon which the besieger could place as many guns 
as he chose to employ. In addition they were usually deficient 
in armament and stores and garrisoned by newly-raised troops. 
Belfort, where the defenders strained every nerve to keep the 
besiegers out of bombarding range, and Paris formed the only 
exceptions to this general rule. 

The policy of the new French government was defined by 
Jules Favre on the 6th of September. " It is for the king of 
Prussia, who has declared that he is making war on T]je 
the Empire and not on France, to stay his hand; we "Defense 
shall not cede an inch of our territory or a stone of our Natioa- 
fortresses." These proud words, so often ridiculed a "' 
as empty bombast, were the prelude of a national effort which 
re-established France in the eyes of Europe as a great power, even 
though provinces and fortresses were ceded in the peace that that 
effort proved unable to avert. They were translated into action 
by Leon Gambetta, who escaped from Paris in a balloon on the 
7th of October, and established the headquarters of the defence 
at Tours, where already the " Delegation " of the central govern- 
ment — which had decided to remain in Paris— : had concentrated 
the machinery of government. Thenceforward Gambetta and 
his principal assistant de Freycinet directed the whole war in 
the open country, co-ordinating it, as best they could with the 
precarious means of communication at their disposal, with 
Trochu's military operations in and round the capital. His 
critics — Gambetta's personality was such as to ensure him 
numerous enemies among the higher civil and military officials, 
over whom, in the interests of La Patrie, he rode rough-shod — ■ 
have acknowledged the fact, which is patent enough in any case, 
that nothing but Gambetta's driving energy enabled France 
in a few weeks to create and to equip twelve army corps, repre- 
senting thirty-six divisions (600,000 rifles and 1400 guns), after 
all her organized regular field troops had been destroyed or 
neutralized. But it is claimed that by undue interference with 
the generals at the front, by presuming to dictate their plans 
of campaign, and by forcing them to act when the troops were 
unready, Gambetta and de Frsycinet nullified the efforts of 
themselves and the rest of the nation and subjected France 



to a humiliating treaty of peace. We cannot here discuss the 
justice or injustice of such a general condemnation, or even 
whether in individual instances Gambetta trespassed too far into 
the special domain of the soldier. But even the brief narrative 
given below must at least suggest to the reader the existence 
amongst the generals and higher officials of a dead weight of 
passive resistance to the Delegation's orders, of unnecessary 
distrust of the qualities of the improvised troops, and above 
all of the utter fear of responsibility that twenty years of literal 
obedience had bred. The closest study of the war cannot lead 
to any other conclusion than this, that whether or not 
Gambetta as a strategist took the right course in general or 
in particular cases, no one else would have taken any* course 

On the approach of the enemy Paris hastened its preparations 
for defence to the utmost, while in the provinces, out of reach 
of the German cavalry, new army corps were rapidly organized 
out of the few constituted regular units not involved in the 
previous catastrophes, the depot troops and the mobile national 
guard. The first-fruits of these efforts were seen in Beauce, 
where early in October important masses of French troops 
prepared not only to bar the further progress of the invader 
but actually to relieve Paris. The so-called " fog of war " — 
the armed inhabitants, francs-tireurs, sedentary national guard 
and volunteers — prevented the German cavalry from venturing 
far out from the infantry camps around Paris, and behind this 
screen the new 15th army corps assembled on the Loire. But 
an untimely demonstration of force alarmed the Germans, 
all of whom, from Moltke downwards, had hitherto disbelieved 
in the existence of the French new formations, and the still 
unready 15th corps found itself the target of an expedition of 
the I. Bavarian corps, which drove the defenders out of Orleans 
after a sharp struggle, while at the same time another expedition 
swept the western part of Beauce, sacked Chateaudun as a 
punishment for its brave defence, and returned via Chartres, 
which was occupied. 

After these events the French forces disappeared from German 
eyes for some weeks. D'Aurelle de Paladines, the commander 
of the " Army of the Loire " (15th and 16th corps), improvised 
a camp of instruction at Salbris in Sologne, several marches out 
of reach, and subjected his raw troops to a stern regime of drill 
and discipline. At the same time an " Army of the West " began 
to gather on the side of Le Mans. This army was almost 
imaginary, yet rumours of its existence and numbers led the 
German commanders into the gravest errois, for they soon came 
to suspect that the main army lay on that side and not on the 
Loire, and this mistaken impression governed the German 
dispositions up to the very eve of the decisive events around 
Orleans in December. Thus when at last D'Aurelle took the 
offensive from Tours (whither he had transported his forces, 
now 100,000 strong) against the position of the I. Bavarian corps 
near Orleans, he found his task easy. The Bavarians, out- 
numbered and unsupported, were defeated with heavy losses in 
the battle of Coulmiers (November 9), and, had it not been for 
the inexperience, want of combination, and other technical 
weaknesses of the French, they would have been annihilated. 
What the results of such a victory as Coulmiers might have been, 
had it been won by a fully organized, smoothly working army 
of the same strength, it is difficult to overestimate. As it was, 
the retirement of the Bavarians rang the alarm bell all along the 
line of the German positions, and that was all. 

Then once again, instead of following up its success, the French 
army disappeared from view. The victory had emboldened 
the " fog of war " to make renewed efforts, and resistance to 
the pressure of the German cavalry grew day by day. The 
Bavarians were reinforced by two Prussian divisions and by all 
available cavalry commands, and constituted as an " army 
detachment " under the grand-duke Friedrich Franz of Mecklen- 
burg-Schwerin to deal with the Army of the Loire, the strength 
of which was far from being accurately known. Meantime the 
capitulation of Metz on the 28th of October had set free the 
veterans of Prince Frederick Charles, the best troops in the 

German army, for field operations. The latter were at first 
misdirected to the upper Seine, and yet another opportunity 
arose for the French to raise the siege of Paris. But D'Aurelle 
utilized the time he had gained in strengthening the army and 
in imparting drill and discipline to the new units which gathered 
round the original nucleus of the 15th and 16th corps. All this 
was, however, unknown and even unsuspected at the German 
headquarters, and the invaders, feeling the approaching crisis, 
became more than uneasy as to their prospects of maintaining 
the siege of Paris. 

At this moment, in the middle of November, the general 
situation was as follows: the German III. and Meuse armies, 
investing Paris, had had to throw off important 
detachments to protect the enterprise, which they had ™f eans 
undertaken on the assumption that no further field campaign. 
armies of the enemy were to be encountered. The 
maintenance of their communications with Germany, relatively 
unimportant when the struggle took place in the circumstances 
of field warfare, had become supremely necessary, now that the 
army had come to a standstill and undertaken a great siege, 
which required heavy guns and constant replenishment of 
ammunition and stores. The rapidity of the German invasion 
had left no time for the proper organization and full garrisoning 
of these communications, which were now threatened, not merely 
by the Army of the Loire, but by other forces assembling on the 
area protected by Langres and Belfort. The latter, under 
General Cambriels, were held in check and no more by the Baden 
troops and reserve units (XIV. German corps) under General 
Werder, and eventually without arousing attention they were 
able to send 40,000 men to the Army of the Loire. This army, 
still around Orleans, thus came to number perhaps 150,000 
men, and opposed to it, about the 14th of November, the Ger- 
mans had only the Army Detachment of about 40,000, the II. 
army being still distant. It was under these conditions that the 
famous Orleans campaign took place. After many vicissitudes 
of fortune, and with many misunderstandings between Prince 
Frederick Charles, Moltke and the grand-duke, the Germans 
were ultimately victorious, thanks principally to the brilliant 
fighting of the X. corps at Beaune-la-Rolande(28th of November), 
which was followed by the battle of Loigny-Poupry on the 2nd 
of December and the second capture of Orleans after heavy 
fighting on the 4th of December. 

The result of the capture of Orleans was the severance of the 
two wings of the French army, henceforward commanded 
respectively by Chanzy and Bourbaki. The latter fell back at 
once and hastily, though not closely pursued, to Bourges. 
But Chanzy, opposing the Detachment between Beaugency and 
the Forest of Marchenoir, was of sterner metal, and in the five 
days' gene'ral engagement around Beaugency (December 7- n) 
the Germans gained little or no real advantage. Indeed their 
solitary material success, the capture of Beaugency, was due 
chiefly to the fact that the French there were subjected to 
conflicting orders from the military and the governmental 
authorities. Chanzy then abandoned little but the field of 
battle, and on the grand-duke's representations Prince Frederick 
Charles, leaving a mere screen to impose upon Bourbaki (who 
allowed himself to be deceived and remained inactive), hurried 
thither with the II. army. After that Chanzy was rapidly 
driven north-westward, though always presenting a stubborn 
front. The Delegation left Tours and betook itself to Bordeaux, 
whence it directed the government for the rest of the war. But 
all this continuous marching and fighting, and the growing 
severity of the weather, compelled Prince Frederick Charles 
to call a halt for a few days. About the 19th of December, 
therefore, the Germans (II. army and Detachment) were closed 
up in the region of Chartres, Orleans, Auxerre and Fontaine- 
bleau, Chanzy along the river Sarthe about Le Mans and Bourbaki • 
still passive towards Bourges. 

During this, as during other halts, the French government 
and its generals occupied themselves with fresh plans of cam- 
paign, the former with an eager desire for results, the latter 
(Chanzy excepted) with many misgivings. Ultimately, and 



fatally, it was decided that Bourbaki, whom nothing could move 
towards Orleans, should depart for the south-east, with a view 
to relieving Belfort and striking perpendicularly against the long 
line of the Germans' communications. This movement, bold 
to the point of extreme rashness judged by any theoretical rules 
of strategy, seems to have been suggested by de Freycinet. 
As the execution of it fell actually into incapable hands, it is 
difficult to judge what would have been the result had a Chanzy 
or a Faidherbe been in command of the French. At any rate 
it was vicious in so far as immediate advantages were sacrificed 
to hopes of ultimate success which Gambetta and de Freycinet 
did wrong to base on Bourbaki's powers of generalship. Late 
in December, for good or evil, Bourbaki marched off into Franche- 
Comte and ceased to be a factor in the Loire campaign. A 
mere calculation of time and space sufficed to show the German 
headquarters that the moment had arrived to demolish the 
stubborn Chanzy. 

Prince Frederick Charles resumed the interrupted offensive, 
pushing westward with four corps and four cavalry divisions 
LeMaas. wmcn converged on Le Mans. There on the 10th, 
nth and 12th of January 1871 a stubbornly contested 
battle ended with the retreat of the French, who owed their 
defeat solely to the misbehaviour of the Breton mobiles. These, 
after deserting their post on the battlefield at a mere threat of 
the enemy's infantry, fled in disorder and infected with their 
terrors the men in the reserve camps of instruction, which broke 
up in turn. But Chanzy, resolute as ever, drew off his field army 
intact towards Laval, where a freshly raised corps joined him. 
The prince's army was far too exhausted to deliver another 
effective blow, and the main body of it gradually drew back into 
better quarters, while the grand duke departed for the north 
to aid in opposing Faidherbe. Some idea of the strain to which 
the invaders had been subjected may be gathered from the fact 
that army corps, originally 30,000 strong, were in some cases 
reduced to 10,000 and even fewer bayonets. And at this moment 
Bourbaki was at the head of 120,000 men! Indeed, so threaten- 
ing seemed the situation on the Loire, though the French south 
of that river between Gien and Blois were mere isolated brigades, 
that the prince hurried back from Le Mans to Orleans to take 
personal command. A fresh French corps, bearing the number 
25, and being the twenty-first actually raised during the war, 
appeared in the field towards Blois. Chanzy was again at the 
head of 156,000 men. He was about to take the offensive 
against the 40,000 Germans left near Le Mans when to his bitter 
disappointment he received the news of the armistice. " We 
have still France," he had said to his staff, undeterred by the 
news of the capitulation of Paris, but now he had to submit, 
for even if his improvised army was still cheerful, there were 
many significant tokens that the people at large had sunk into 
apathy and hoped to avoid worse terms of peace by discontinuing 
the contest at once. 

So ended the critical period of the " Defense nationale." It 
may be taken to have lasted from the day of Coulmiers to the 
last day of Le Mans, and its central point was the battle of 
Beaune-Ia-Rolande. Its characteristics were, on the German 
side, inadequacy of the system of strategy practised, which 
became palpable as soon as the organs of reconnaissance met 
with serious resistance, misjudgment of and indeed contempt 
for the fighting powers of " new formations," and the rise of a 
spirit of ferocity in the man in the ranks, born of his resentment 
at the continuance of the war and the ceaseless sniping of the 
franc-tireur's rifle and the peasant's shot-gun. On the French 
side the continual efforts of the statesmen to stimulate the 
generals to decisive efforts, coupled with actual suggestions as to 
the plans of the campaign to be followed (in default, be it said, of 
the generals themselves producing such plans), and the pro- 
fessional soldiers' distrust of half-trained troops, acted and 
reacted upon one another in such a way as to neutralize the 
powerful, if disconnected and erratic, forces that the war and 
the Republic had unchained. As for the soldiers themselves, 
their most conspicuous qualities were their uncomplaining 
endurance of fatigues and wet bivouacs, and in action their 

capacity for a single great effort and no more. But they were 
unreliable in the hands of the veteran regular general, because 
they were heterogeneous in recruiting, and unequal in experience 
and military qualities, and the French staff in those days was 
wholly incapable of moving masses of troops with the rapidity 
demanded by the enemy's methods of war, so that on the whole 
it is difficult to know whether to wonder more at their missing 
success or at their so nearly achieving it. 

The decision, as we have said, was fought out on the Loire 
and the Sarthe. Nevertheless the glorious story of the " Defense 
nationale " includes two other important campaigns — that of 
Faidherbe in the north and that of Bourbaki in the east. 

In the north the organization of the new formations was 
begun by Dr Testelin and General Farre. Bourbaki held the 
command for a short time in November before pro- 
ceeding to Tours, but the active command in field herbe's 
operations came into the hands of Faidherbe, a general campaign. 
whose natural powers, so far from being cramped by 
years of peace routine and court repression, had been developed 
by a career of pioneer warfare and colonial administration. 
General Farre was his capable chief of staff. Troops were raised 
from fugitives from Metz and Sedan, as well as from depot troops 
and the Garde Mobile, and several minor successes were won by 
the national troops in the Seine valley, for here, as on the side 
of the Loire, mere detachments of the investing army round 
Paris were almost powerless. But the capitulation of Metz 
came too soon for the full development of these sources of 
military strength, and the German I. army under Manteuffel, 
released from duty at Metz, marched north-eastward, capturing 
the minor fortresses on its way. Before Faidherbe assumed 
command, Farre had fought several severe actions near Amiens, 
but, greatly outnumbered, had been defeated and forced to 
retire behind the Somme. Another French general, Briand, 
had also engaged the enemy without success near Rouen. 
Faidherbe assumed the command on the 3rd of December, and 
promptly moved forward. A general engagement on the little 
river Hallue (December 23), east-north-east of Amiens, was 
fought with no decisive results, but Faidherbe, feeling that his 
troops were only capable of winning victories in the first rush, 
drew them off on the 24th. His next effort, at Bapaume 
(January 2-3, 1871), was more successful, but its effects were 
counterbalanced by the surrender of the fortress of Peronne 
(January 9) and the consequent establishment of the Germans 
on the line of the Somme. Meanwhile the Rouen troops had 
been contained by a strong German detachment, and there was 
no further chance of succouring Paris from the north. But 
Faidherbe, like Chanzy, was far from despair, and in spite of the 
deficiencies of his troops in equipment (50,000 pairs of shoes, 
supplied by English contractors, proved to have paper soles), 
he risked a third great battle at St Quentin (January 19). This 
time he was severely defeated, though his loss in killed and 
wounded was about equal to that of the Germans, who were 
commanded by Goeben. Still the attempt of the Germans to 
surround him failed and he drew off his forces with his artillery 
and trains unharmed. The Germans, who had been greatly 
impressed by the solidity of his army, did not pursue him far, 
and Faidherbe was preparing for a fresh effort when he received 
orders to suspend hostilities. 

The last episode is Bourbaki's campaign in the east, with its 
mournful close at Pontarlier. Before the crisis of the last week 
of November, the French forces under General Cremer, Cambriels' 
successor, had been so far successful in minor enterprises that, 
as mentioned above, the right wing of the Loire army, severed 
from the left by the battle of Orleans and subsequently held 
inactive at Bourges and Nevers, was ordered to Franche Comte 
to take the offensive against the XIV. corps and other German 
troops there, to relieve Belfort and to strike a blow across the 
invaders' line of communications. But there were many delays 
in execution. The staff work, which was at no time satisfactory 
in the French armies of 1870, was complicated by the snow, 
the bad state of the roads, and the mountainous nature of the 
country, and Bourbaki, 9. brave general of division in action, 



but irresolute and pretentious as a commander in chief, was not 
the man to cope with the situation. Only the furious courage and 
patient endurance of hardships of the rank and file, and the good 
qualities of some of the generals, such as Clinchant, Cremer and 
Billot, and junior staff officers such as Major Brugere (afterwards 
generalissimo of the French army), secured what success was 

Werder, the German commander, warned of the imposing 
concentration of the French, evacuated Dijon and Dole just in 
Thv time to avoid the blow and rapidly drew together his 

campaign forces behind the Ognon above Vesoul. A furious 
in the attack on one of his divisions at Villersexel (January 9) 
' — cost him 2000 prisoners as well as his killed and 
wounded, and Bourbaki, heading for Belfort, was actually nearer 
to the fortress than the Germans. But at the crisis more time 
was wasted, Werder (who had almost lost hope of maintaining 
himself and had received both encouragement and stringent 
instructions to do so) slipped in front of the French, and took up 
a long weak line of defence on the river Lisaine, almost within 
cannon shot of Belfort. The cumbrous French army moved up 
and attacked him there with 150,000 against 60,000 (January 
15-17, 187 1). It was at last repulsed, thanks chiefly to Bourbaki's 
inability to handle his forces, and, to the bitter disappointment 
of officers and men alike, he ordered a retreat, leaving Belfort 
to its fate. 

Ere this, so urgent was the necessity of assisting Werder, 
Manteuffel had been placed at the head of a new Army of the 
South. Bringing two corps from the I. army opposing Faidherbe 
and calling up a third from the armies around Paris, and a fourth 
from the II. army, Manteuffel hurried southward by Langres 
to the Saone. Then, hearing of Werder's victory on" the Lisaine, 
he deflected the march so as to cut off Bourbaki's retreat, 
drawing off the left flank guard of the latter (commanded with 
much iclat and little real effect by Garibaldi) by a sharp feint 
attack on Dijon. The pressure of Werder in front and Manteuffel 
in flank gradually forced the now thoroughly disheartened 
French forces towards the Swiss frontier, and Bourbaki, realizing 
at once the ruin of his army and his own incapacity to re-establish 
its efficiency, shot himself, though not fatally, on the 26th of 
January. Clinchant, his successor, acted promptly enough to 
remove the immediate danger, but on the 29th he was informed 
of the armistice without at the same time being told that Belfort 
and the eastern theatre of war had been on Jules Favre's demand 
expressly excepted from its operation. 1 Thus the French, the 
leaders distracted by doubts and the worn-out soldiers fully 
aware that the war was practically over, stood still, while 
Manteuffel completed his preparations for hemming them in. 
On the 1 st of February General Clinchant led his troops into 
Switzerland, where they were disarmed, interned and well cared 
for by the authorities of the neutral state. The rearguard fought 
a last action with the advancing Germans before passing the 
frontier. On the 16th, by order of the French government, 
Belfort capitulated, but it was not until the nth of March that 
the Germans took possession of Bitche, the little fortress on the 
Vosges, where in the early days of the war de Failly had illus- 
trated so signally the want of concerted action and the neglect 
of opportunities which had throughout proved the bane of the 
French armies. 

The losses of the Germans during the whole war were 28,000 
dead and 101,000 wounded and disabled, those of the French, 
156,000 dead (17,000 of whom died, of sickness and wounds, as 
prisoners in German hands) and 143,000 wounded and disabled. 
720,000 men surrendered to the Germans or to the authorities 
of neutral states, and at the close of the war there were still 
250,000 troops on foot, with further resources not immediately 
available to the number of 280,000 more. In this connexion, 
and as evidence of the respective numerical yields of the German 
system working normally and of the French improvised for 
the emergency, we quote from Berndt (Zahl im Kriege) the 
following comparative figures: — 

1 Jules Favre, it appears, neglected to inform Gambetta of the 

End of July . . . French 250,000, Germans 384,000 under arms. 
Middle of November ,, ioo,ooo „ 425,000 „ 

After the surrender 

of Paris and the 

disarmament of 

Bourbaki's army . „ 534,000 „ 835,000 „ 

The date of the armistice was the 28th of January, and that 
of the ratification of the treaty of Frankfurt the 23rd of May 

Bibliography. — The literature of the war is ever increasing in 
volume, and the following list only includes a very short selection 
made amongst the most important works. 

General. — German official history, Der deulsch-franzosische Krieg 
(Berlin, 1872-1881 ; English and French translations) ; monographs 
of the German general staff (Kriegsgesch. Einzelschriften) ; Moltke, 
Gesch. des deutsch-franzos. Krieges (Berlin, 1 891 ; English translation) 
and Gesammelte Schrifien des G. F. M. Grafen v. Moltke (Berlin, 
1900- ) ; French official history, La Guerre de 1870-1871 (Paris, 
1902- ) (the fullest and most accurate account) ; P. Lehautcourt 
(General Palat), Hist, de la guerre de 1870-1871 (Paris, 1901-1907) ; 
v. Verdy du Vernois, Studien iiber den Krieg . . . auf Grundlage 
1870-1871 (Berlin, 1892-1896) ; G. Cardinal von Widdern, Kritische 
Tage 1870-187 1 (French translation, Journees critiques). Events 
preceding the war are dealt with in v. Bernhardi, Zwischen zwei 
Kriegen; Baron Stoffel, Rapports militaires 1866-1870 (Paris, 1871 ; 
English translation) ; G. Lehmann, Die Mobilmachung 1870-1871 
(Berlin, 1905). 

For the war in Lorraine: Prince Kraft of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, 
Briefe iiber Strategic (English translation, Letters on Strategy) ; F. 
Foch, Conduite de la guerre, pt. ii. ; H. Bonnal, Manoeuvre de Saint 
Privat (Paris, 1904-1906) ; Maistre, Spicheren (Paris, 1908) ; v. 
Schell, Die Operationen der I. Armee unter Gen. von Steinmetz (Berlin, 
1872; English translation) ; F. Hoenig, Taktik der Zukunft (English 
translation), and 24 Slunden Moltke' schen Strategie (Berlin, 1892; 
English and French translations). 

For the war in Alsace and Champagne: H. Kunz, Schlacht von 
Worth (Berlin, 1891), and later works by the same author; H. 
Bonnal, Frbschweiler (Paris, 1899) ; Hahnke, Die Operationen des 
III. Armee bis Sedan (Berlin, 1873; French translation). 

For the war in the Provinces: v. der Goltz, Leon Gambetta und 
seine Armeen (Berlin, 1877); Die Operationen der II. Armee an die 
Loire (Berlin, 1875); Die sieben Tage von Le Mans (Berlin, 1873); 
Kunz, Die Zusammensetzung der franzos. Provinzialheeren; de 
Freycinet, La Guerre en province (Paris, 1871); L. A. Hale, The 
People's War (London, 1904) ; Hoenig, Volkskrieg an die Loire 
(Berlin, 1892) ; Blifme, Operationen v. Sedan bis zum Ende d. Kriegs 
(Berlin, 1872 ; English translation) ; v. Schell, Die Operationen der I. 
Armee unter Gen. v. Goeben (Berlin, 1873; English translation); 
Count Wartensleben, Feldzug der Nordarmee unter Gen. v. Manteuffel 
(Berlin, 1872), Operationen der Sudarmee (Berlin, 1872; English 
translation) ; Faidherbe, Campagne de V armee du nord (Paris, 1872). 
For the sieges : Frobenius, Kriegsgesch. Beispiele d. Festungskriegs 
aus d. deutsch.-franz. Kg. (Berlin, 1899-1900); Goetze, Tatigkeit 
der deutschen Ingenieuren (Berlin, 1871 ; English translation). 

The most useful bibliography is that of General Palat ("P. 
Lehautcourt "). (C. F. A.) 


(1750-1828), French statesman and poet, was born at Saffais 

near Rozieres in Lorraine on the 17th of April 1750, the son of a 

school-teacher. He studied at the Jesuit college of Neufchateau 

in the Vosges, and at the age of fourteen published a volume 

of poetry which obtained the approbation of Rousseau and of 

Voltaire. Neufchateau conferred on him its name, and he was 

elected member of some of the principal academies of France. 

In 1783 he was named procureur-general to the council of Santo 

Domingo. He had previously been engaged on a translation 

of Ariosto, which he finished before his return to France five 

years afterwards, but it perished during the shipwreck which 

occurred during his voyage home. After the Revolution he 

was elected deputy suppleant to the National Assembly, was 

charged with the organization of the Department of the Vosges, 

and was elected later to the Legislative Assembly, of which he 

first became secretary and then president. In 1793 he was 

imprisoned on account of the political sentiments, in reality 

very innocent, of his drama Pamela ou la vertu rScompensie 

(Theatre de la Nation, 1st August 1793), but was set free a few 

days afterwards at the revolution of the 9th Thermidor. In 

1797 he became minister of the interior, in which office he 

distinguished himself by the thoroughness of his administration 

in all departments. It is to him that France owes its system 

of inland navigation. He inaugurated the museum of the Louvre, 



and was one of the promoters of the first universal exhibition 
of industrial products. From 1804 to 1806 he was president 
of the Senate, and in that capacity the duty devolved upon 
him of soliciting Napoleon to assume the title of emperor. In 
1808 he received the dignity of count. Retiring from public 
life in 1814, heoccupied himself chiefly in the study of agriculture, 
until his death on the 10th" of January 1828. 

Francois de Neufchateau had very multifarious accomplish- 
ments, and interested himself in a great variety of subjects, but 
his fame rests chiefly on what he did as a statesman for the 
encouragement and development of the industries of France. 
His maturer poetical productions did not fulfil the promise of 
those of his early years, for though some of his verses have a 
superficial elegance, his poetry generally lacks force and originality. 
He had considerable qualifications as a grammarian and critic, 
as is witnessed by his editions of the Provinciates and Pensees 
of Pascal (Paris, 1822 and 1826) and Gil Bias (Paris, 1820). His 
principal poetical works are Poisies diverses (1765); Ode sur les 
parlements (1771); Nouveaux Conies moraux (1781); Les Vosges 
(1796); Fables et contes (1814); and Les Tropes, ou les figures de 
mots (1817). He was also the author of a large number of 
works on agriculture. 

See Recueil des lettres, circulaires, discours et autres actes publics 
emanes du Qte. Francois pendant ses deux exercices du ministere de 
Vinterieur (Paris, An. vii.-viii., 2 vols.) ; Notice biographique sur M. 
le comte Francois de Neufchdteau (1828), by A. F. de Sillery; H. 
Bonnelier, Memoires sur Francois de Neufchdteau (Paris, 1829); 
J. Lamoureux, Notice historique et litteraire sur la vie et les ecrits de 
Francois de Neufchdteau (Paris, 1843) ; E. Meaume, £tude historique 
et biographique sur les Lorrains revolutionnaires : Palissot, Gregoire, 
Francois de Neufchdteau (Nancy, 1882); Ch. Simian, Francois de 
Neufchdteau et les expositions (Paris, 1889). 

FRANCONIA (Ger. Franken), the name of one of the stem- 
duchies of medieval Germany. It stretched along the valley of 
the Main from the Rhine to Bohemia, and was bounded on the 
north by Saxony and Thuringia, and on the south by Swabia 
and Bavaria. It also included a district around Mainz, Spires 
and Worms, on the left bank of the Rhine. The word Franconia, 
first used in a Latin charter of 1053, was applied like the words 
France, Francia and Franken, to a portion of the land occupied 
by the Franks. 

About the close of the 5th century this territory was conquered 
by Clovis, king of the Salian Franks, was afterwards incorporated 
with the kingdom of Austrasia, and at a later period came under 
the rule of Charlemagne. After the treaty of Verdun in 843 
it became the centre of the East Frankish or German kingdom, 
and in theory remained so for a long period, and was for a time 
the most important of the duchies which arose on the ruins of the 
Carolingian empire. The land was divided into counties, or 
gaiien, which were ruled by counts, prominent among whom 
were members of the families of Conradine and Babenberg, by 
whose feuds it was frequently devastated. Conrad, a member 
of the former family, who took the title of " duke in Franconia " 
about the year 900, was chosen German king in 911 as the 
representative of the foremost of the German races. Conrad 
handed over the chief authority in Franconia to his brother 
Eberhard, who remained on good terms with Conrad's successor 
Henry I. the Fowler, but rose against the succeeding king, Otto 
the Great, and was killed in battle in 939, when his territories 
were divided. The influence of Franconia began to decline 
under the kings of the Saxon house. It lacked political unity, 
had no opportunities for extension, and soon became divided 
into Rhenish Franconia {Francia rhenensis, Ger. Rheinfranken) 
and Eastern Franconia {Francia orientalis, Ger. Ostfranken). 
The most influential family in Rhenish Franconia was that of 
the Salians, the head of which early in the 10th century was 
Conrad the Red, duke of Lorraine, and son-in-law of Otto the 
Great. This Conrad, his son Otto and his grandson Conrad 
are sometimes called dukes of Franconia: and in 1024 his great- 
grandson Conrad, also duke of Franconia, was elected German 
king as Conrad II. and founded the line of Franconian or Salian 
emperors. Rhenish Franconia gradually became a land of 
free towns and lesser nobles, and under the earlier Franconian 

emperors sections passed to the count palatine of the Rhine, 
the archbishop of Mainz, the bishops of Worms and Spires 
and' other clerical and lay nobles; and the name Franconia, 
or Francia orientalis as it was then called, was confined to the 
eastern portion of the duchy. Clerical authority was becoming 
predominant in this region. A series of charters dating from 
822 to 1025 had granted considerable powers to the bishops of 
Wiirzburg, who, by the time of the emperor Henry II., possessed 
judicial authority over the whole of eastern Franconia. The 
duchy was nominally retained by the emperors in their own 
hands until 1115, when the emperor Henry V., wishing to curb 
the episcopal influence in this neighbourhood, appointed his 
nephew Conrad of Hohenstaufen as duke of Franconia. Conrad's 
son Frederick took the title of duke of Rothenburg instead of 
duke of Franconia, but in 1196, on the death of Conrad of 
Hohenstaufen, son of the emperor Frederick I., the title fell 
into disuse. Meanwhile the bishop of Wiirzburg had regained 
his former power in the duchy, and this was confirmed in 1 168 
by the emperor Frederick I. 

The title remained in abeyance until the early years of the 
15th century, when it was assumed by John II., bishop of Wiirz- 
burg, and retained by his successors until the bishopric was 
secularized in 1802. The greater part of the lands were united 
with Bavaria, and the name Franconia again fell into abeyance. 
It was revived in 1837, when Louis I., king of Bavaria, gave to 
three northern portions of his kingdom the names of Upper, 
Middle and Lower Franconia. In 1633 Bernhard, duke of Saxe- 
Weimar, hoping to create a principality for himself out of the 
ecclesiastical lands, had taken the title of duke of Franconia, 
but his hopes were destroyed by his defeat at Nordlingen in 1634. 
When Germany was divided into circles by the emperor Maxi- 
milian I. in 1500, the name Franconia was given to that circle 
which included the eastern part of the old duchy. The lands 
formerly comprised in the duchy of Franconia are now divided 
between the kingdoms of Bavaria and Wiirttemberg, the grand- 
duchies of Baden and Hesse, and the Prussian province of 

See J. G. ab Eckhart, Commentarii de rebus Franciae orientalis et 
episcopatus Wirceburgensis (Wiirzburg, 1729); F. Stein, Geschichte 
Frankens (Schweinfurt, 1885-1886); T. Henner, Die herzogliche 
Gewalt der Bischofe von Wiirzburg (Wiirzburg, 1874). 

FRANCS -ARCHERS. The institution of the francs-archers 
was the first attempt at the formation of regular infantry in 
France. They were created by the ordinance of Montils-les-Tours 
on the 28th of August 1448, which prescribed that in each parish 
an archer should be chosen from among the most apt in the use 
of arms; this archer to be exempt from the tattle and certain 
obligations, to practise shooting with the bow on Sundays and 
feast-days, and to hold himself ready to march fully equipped 
at the first signal. Under Charles VII. the francs-archers dis- 
tinguished themselves in numerous battles with the English, 
and assisted the king to drive them from France, During the 
succeeding reigns the institution languished, and finally dis- 
appeared in the middle of the 16th century. The francs-archers 
were also called francs-taupins. 

See Daniel, Histoire de la milice francaise (1721) ; and E. Boutaric, 
Institutions militaires de la France avant les armies permanentes (1863). 

FRANCS-TIREURS (" Free-Shooters "), irregular troops, 
almost exclusively infantry, employed by the French in the war of 
1870-1871. They were originally rifle clubs or unofficial military 
societies formed in the east of France at the time of the Luxem- 
burg crisis of 1867. The members were chiefly concerned with 
the practice of rifle-shooting, and were expected in war to act 
as light troops. As under the then system of conscription the 
greater part of the nation's military energy was allowed to run 
to waste, the francs-tireurs were not only popular, but efficient 
workers in their sphere of action. As they wore no uniforms, 
were armed with the best existing rifles and elected their own 
officers, the government made repeated attempts to bring the 
societies, which were at once a valuable asset to the armed 
strength of France and a possible menace to internal order, 
under military discipline. This was strenuously resisted by the 
societies, to their sorrow as it turned out, for the Germans treated 



captured francs-tireurs as irresponsible non-combatants found 
with arms in their hands and usually exacted the death penalty. 
In July 1870, at the outbreak of the war, the societies were brought 
under the control of the minister of war and organized for field 
service, but it was not until the 4th of November — by which 
time the levie en masse was in f6rce — that they were placed under 
the orders of the generals in the field. After that they were 
sometimes organized in large bodies and incorporated in the mass 
of the armies, but more usually they continued to work in small 
bands, blowing up culverts on the~invaders' lines of communica- 
tion, cutting off small reconnoitring parties, surprising small 
posts, &c. It is now acknowledged, even by the Germans, that 
though the francs-tireurs did relatively little active mischief, 
they paralysed large detachments of the enemy, contested every 
step of his advance (as in the Loire campaign), and prevented 
him from gaining information, and that their soldierly qualities 
inproved with experience. Their most celebrated feats were the 
blowing up of the Moselle railway bridge at Fontenoy on the 22nd 
of January 187 1 (see Les Chasseurs des Vosges by Lieut.-Colonel 
St Etienne, Toul, 1906), and the heroic defence of Chateaudun 
by Lipowski's Paris corps and the francs-tireurs of Cannes and 
Nantes (October 18, 1870). It cannot be denied that the original 
members of the rifle clubs were joined by many bad characters, 
but the patriotism of the majority was unquestionable, for little 
mercy was shown by the Germans to those francs-tireurs who fell 
into their hands. The severity of the German reprisals is itself 
the best testimony to the fear and anxiety inspired by the presence 
of active bands of francs-tireurs on the flanks and in rear of the 

FRANEKER, a town in the province of Friesland, Holland, 
5 m. E. of Harlingen on the railway and canal to Leeuwarden. 
Pop. (1900) 7187. It was at one time a favourite residence of the 
Frisian nobility, many of whom had their castles here, and it 
possessed a celebrated university, founded by the Frisian estates 
in 1585. This was suppressed by Napoleon I. in 181 1, and the 
endowments were diverted four years later to the support of an 
athenaeum, and afterwards of a gymnasium, with which a 
physiological cabinet and a botanical garden are connected. 
Franeker also possesses a town hall (1591), which contains a 
planetarium, made by one Eise Eisinga in 1 774-1881. The 
fine observatory was founded about 1780. The church of St 
Martin (1420) contains several fine tombs of the i5th-i7th 
centuries. The industries of the town include silk-weaving, 
woollen-spinning, shipbuilding and pottery-making. It is also 
a considerable market for agricultural produce. 

FRANK, JAKOB (1726-1791), a Jewish theologian, who 
founded in Poland, in the middle of the 18th century, a sect 
which emanated from Judaism but ended by merging with 
Christianity. The sect was the outcome of the Messianic 
mysticism of Sabbetai Zebi. It was an antinomian movement 
in which the authority of the Jewish law was held to be super- 
seded by personal freedom. The Jewish authorities, alarmed 
at the moral laxity which resulted from the emotional rites of 
the Frankists, did their utmost to suppress the sect. But the 
latter, posing as an anti-Talmudic protest in behalf of a spiritual 
religion, won a certain amount of public sympathy. There was, 
however, no deep sincerity in the tenets of the Frankists, for 
though in 1759 they were baptized en masse, amid much pomp, 
the Church soon became convinced that Frank was not a genuine 
convert. He was imprisoned on a charge of heresy, but on his 
release in 1763 the empress Maria Theresa patronized him, 
regarding him as a propagandist of Christianity among the Jews. 
He thenceforth lived in state as baron of Offenbach, and on his 
death (1791) his daughter Eva succeeded him as head of the sect. 
The Frankists gradually merged in the general Christian body, the 
movement leaving no permanent trace in the synagogue. (I. A.) 

FRANK-ALMOIGN (libera eleemosyna, free alms), in the English 
law of real property, a species of spiritual tenure, whereby a 
religious corporation, aggregate or sole, holds lands of the donor 
to them and their successors for ever. It was a tenure dating 
from Saxon times, held not on the ordinary feudal conditions, 
but discharged of all services except the trinoda necessitas. 

But " they which hold in frank-almoign are bound of right before 
God to make orisons, prayers, masses and other divine services 
for the souls of their grantor or feoffor, and for the souls of their 
heirs which are dead, and for the prosperity and good life and 
good health of their heirs which are alive. And therefore they 
shall do no fealty to their lord, because that this divine service 
is better for them before God than a'ny doing of fealty " (Litt. 
s. 135). It was the tenure by which the greater number of the 
monasteries and religious houses held their lands; it was ex- 
pressly exempted from the statute 12 Car.II. c.24 (1660), by which 
the other ancient tenures were abolished, and it is the tenure by 
which the parochial clergy and many ecclesiastical and eleemosy- 
nary foundations hold their lands at the present day. As a form 
of donation, however, it came to an end by the passing of tire 
statute Quia Emptores, for by that statute no new tenure of 
frank-almoign could be created, except by the crown. 

See Pollock and Maitland, History of English Law, where the history 
of frank-almoign is given at length. 

FRANKEL, ZECHARIAS (1801-1875), Jewish theologian, one 
of the founders of the Breslau school of " historical Judaism." 
This school attempts to harmonize critical treatment of the docu- 
ments of religion with fidelity to traditional beliefs and observ- 
ances. For a time at least, the compromise succeeded in staying 
the disintegrating effects of the liberal movement in Judaism. 
Frankel was the author of several valuable works, among them 
Septuagint Studies, an Introduction to the Mishnah (1859), and 
a similar work on the Palestinian Talmud (1870). He also edited 
the Monatsschrift, devoted to Jewish learning on modern lines. 
But his chief claim to fame rests on his headship of the Breslau 
Seminary. This was founded in 1854 for the training of rabbis 
who should combine their rabbinic studies with secular courses 
at the university. The whole character of the rabbinate has been 
modified under the influence of this, the first seminary of the 
kind. (I. A.) 

FRANKENBERG, a manufacturing town of Germany, in the 
kingdom of Saxony, on the Zschopau, 7 m. N.E. of Chemnitz, 
on the railway Niederwiesa-Rosswein. Pop. (1905) 13,303. The 
principal buildings are the large Evangelical parish church, 
restored in 1874-1875, and the town-hall. Its industries include 
extensive woollen, cotton and silk weaving, dyeing, the manu- 
facture of brushes, furniture and cigars, iron-founding and 
machine building. It is well provided with schools, including 
one of weaving. 

FRANKENHAUSEN, a town of Germany, in the principality 
of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, on an artificial arm of the Wipper, 
a tributary of the Saale, 36 m. N.N.E. of Gotha. Pop. (1905) 
6534. It consists of an old and a new town, the latter mostly 
rebuilt since a destructive fire in 1833, and has an old chateau 
of the princes of Schwarzburg, three Protestant churches, a 
seminary for teachers, a hospital and a modern town-hall. 
Its industries include the manufacture of sugar, cigars and 
buttons, and there are brine springs, with baths, in the vicinity. 
At Frankenhausen a battle was fought on the 15th of May 1525, 
in which the insurgent peasants under Thomas Miinzer were 
defeated by the allied princes of Saxony and Hesse. 

FRANKENSTEIN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province 
of Silesia, on the Pausebach, 35 m. S. by W. of Breslau. Pop. 
(1905) 7890. It is still surrounded by its medieval walls, has two 
Evangelical and three Roman Catholic churches, among the 
latter the parish church with a curious overhanging tower, and 
a monastery. The industries include the manufacture of 
artificial manures, bricks, beer and straw hats. There are also 
mills for grinding the magnesite found in the neighbourhood. 

FRANKENTHAL, a town of Germany, in the Bavarian 
Palatinate, on the Isenach, connected with the Rhine by a 
canal 3 m. in length, 6 m. N.W. from Mannheim, and on the 
railways Neunkirchen-Worms and Frankenthal-Grosskarlbach. 
Pop. (1905) 18,191. It has two Evangelical and a Roman 
Catholic church, a fine medieval town-hall, two interesting old 
gates, remains of its former environing walls, several public 
monuments, including one to the veterans of the Napoleonic 
wars, and a museum. Its industries include the manufacture 



of machinery, casks, corks, soap, dolls and furniture, iron- 
founding and bell-founding — the famous " Kaiserglocke " of 
the Cologne cathedral was cast here. FrankentHal was formerly 
famous for its porcelain factory, established here in 1755 by Paul 
Anton Hannong of Strassburg, who sold it in 1 762 to the elector 
palatine Charles Theodore. Its fame is mainly due to the 
modellers Konrad Link (1732-1802) and Johann Peter Melchior 
(d. 1796) (who worked at Frankenthal between 1779 and 1793). 
The best products of this factory are figures and groups repre- 
senting contemporary life, or allegorical subjects in the rococo 
taste of the period, and they are surpassed only by those of the 
more famous factory at Meissen. In 1795 the factory was sold 
to Peter von Reccum, who removed it to Griinstadt. 

Frankenthal (Franconodal) is mentioned as a village in the 
8th century. A house of Augustinian canons established here 
in 1 1 19 by Erkenbert, chamberlain of Worms, was suppressed 
in 1562 by the elector palatine Frederick III., who gave its 
possessions to Protestant refugees from the Netherlands. In 
1577 this colony received town rights from the elector John 
Casimir, whose successor fortified the place. From 1623 until 
1652, save for two years, it was occupied by the Spaniards, and 
in 1 688-1 689 it was stormed and burned by the French, the 
fortifications being razed. In 1697 it was reconstituted as a town, 
and under the elector Charles Theodore it became the capital 
of the Palatinate. From 1798 to 1814 it was incorporated in the 
French department of Mont Tonnerre. 

See Wille, Stadt «. Festung Frankenthal wahrend des dreissig- 
jdhrigen Krieges (Heidelberg, 1877); Hildenbrand, Gesck. der Stadt 
Frankenthal (1893). For the porcelain see Heuser, Frankenthaler 
Gruppen und Figuren (Spires, 1899). 

FRANKENWALD, a mountainous district of Germany, 
forming the geological connexion between the Fichtelgebirge 
and the Thuringian Forest. It is a broad well-wooded plateau, 
running for about 30 m. in a north-westerly direction, descending 
gently on the north and eastern sides towards the Saale, but more 
precipitously to the Bavarian plain in the west, and attaining its 
highest elevation in the Kieferle near Steinheid (2900 ft.). Along 
the centre lies the watershed between the basins of the Main and 
the Saale, belonging to the systems of the Rhine and Elbe 
respectively. The principal tributaries of the Main from the 
Frankenwald are the Rodach and Hasslach, and of the Saale, 
the Selbitz. 

See H. Schmid, Fiihrer durch den Frankenwald (Bamberg, 1894); 
Meyer, Thiiringen und der Frankenwald (15th ed., Leipzig, 1900), 
and Gumbel, Geognoslische Beschreibung des Fichtelgebirges mit dent 
Frankenwald (Gotha, 1879). 

FRANKFORT, a city and the county-seat of Clinton county, 
Indiana, U.S.A., 40 m. N.W. of Indianapolis. Pop. (1890) 
5919; (1900) 7100 (144 foreign-born); (1910) 8634. Frankfort 
is served by the Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville, the Lake Erie 
& Western, the Vandalia, and the Toledo, St Louis & Western 
railways, and by the Indianapolis & North -Western Traction 
Interurban railway (electric). The city is a division point on 
the Toledo, St Louis & Western railway, which has large shops 
here. Frankfort is a trade centre for an agricultural and lumber- 
ing region; among its manufactures are handles, agricultural 
implements and foundry products. The first settlement in the 
neighbourhood was made in 1826; in 1830 the town was founded, 
and in 1875 it was chartered as a city. The city limits were 
considerably extended immediately after 1900. 

FRANKFORT, the capital city of Kentucky, U.S.A., and the 
county-seat of Franklin county, on the Kentucky river, about 
55 m. E. of Louisville. Pop. (1890) 7892; (1900) 9487, of whom 
3316 were negroes; (1910 census) 10,465. The city is served 
by the Chesapeake & Ohio, the Louisville & Nashville, and the 
Frankfort & Cincinnati railways, by the Central Kentucky 
Traction Co. (electric), and by steamboat lines to Cincinnati, 
Louisville and other river ports. It is built among picturesque 
hills on both sides of the river, and is in the midst of the famous 
Kentucky " brue grass region " and of a rich lumber-producing 
region. The most prominent building is the Capitol, about 400 ft. 
long and 185 ft. wide, built of granite and white limestone in the 
Italian Renaissance style, with 70 large Ionic columns, and a 

dome 205 ft. above the terrace line, supported by 24 other 
columns. The Capitol was built in 1905-1907 at a cost of more 
than $2,000,000; in it are housed the state library and the 
library of the Kentucky State Historical Society. At Frankfort, 
also, are the state arsenal, the state penitentiary and the state 
home for feeble-minded children, and just outside the city 
limits is the state coloured normal school. The old capitol (first 
occupied in 1829) is still standing. In Franklin cemetery rest 
the remains of Daniel Boone and of Theodore O'Hara (1820- 
1867), a lawyer, soldier, journalist and poet, who served in the 
U.S. army in 1846-1848 during the Mexican War, took part in 
filibustering expeditions to Cuba, served in the Confederate army, 
and is best known as the author of " The Bivouac of the Dead," 
a poem written for the burial in Frankfort of some soldiers 
who had lost their lives at Buena Vista. Here also are the 
graves of Richard M. Johnson, vice-president of the United 
States in 1837-1841, and the sculptor Joel T. Hart (1810-1877). 
The city has a considerable trade with the surrounding country, 
in which large quantities of tobacco and hemp are produced; 
its manufactures include lumber, brooms, chairs, shoes, hemp 
twine, canned vegetables and glass bottles. The total value of 
the city's factory product in 1905 was $1,747,338, being 31-6% 
more than in 1900. Frankfort (said to have been named after 
Stephen Frank, one of an early pioneer party ambushed here by 
Indians) was founded in 1786 by General James Wilkinson, then 
deeply interested in trade with the Spanish at New Orleans, and 
in the midst of his Spanish intrigues. In 1792 the city was made 
the capital of the state. In 1862, during the famous campaign in 
Kentucky of General Braxton Bragg (Confederate) and General 
D. C. Buell (Federal), Frankfort was occupied for a short time 
by Bragg, who, just before being forced out by Buell, took part in 
the inauguration of Richard J. Hawes, chosen governor by the 
Confederates of the state. Hawes, however, never discharged 
the duties of his office. During the bitter contest for the governor- 
ship in 1900 between William Goebel (Democrat) and William S. 
Taylor (Republican), each of whom claimed the election, Goebel 
was assassinated at Frankfort. (See also Kentucky.) Frankfort 
received a city charter in 1839. 

FRANKFORT-ON-MAIN (Ger. Frankfurt am Main), a city 
of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, prin- 
cipally on the right bank of the Main, 24 m. above its confluence 
with the Rhine at Mainz, and 16 m. N. from Darmstadt. Always 
a place of great trading importance, long the place of election 
for the German kings, and until 1866, together with Hamburg, 
Bremen and Liibeck, one of the four free cities of Germany, it 
still retains its position as one of the leading commercial centres 
of the German empire. Its situation in the broad and fertile 
valley of the Main, the northern horizon formed by the soft 
outlines of the Taunus range, is one of great natural beauty, 
the surrounding country being richly clad with orchard and 

Frankfort is one of the most interesting, as it is also one of 
the wealthiest, of German cities. Apart from its commercial 
importance, its position, close to the fashionable watering-places 
of Homburg, Nauheim and Wiesbaden, has rendered it " cos- 
mopolitan " in the best sense of the term. The various stages in 
the development of the city are clearly indicated in its general 
plan and the surviving names of many of its streets. The line 
of the original 12th century walls and moat is marked by the 
streets of which the names end in -graben, from the Hirschgraben 
on the W. to the Wollgraben on the E. The space enclosed by 
these and by the river on the S. is known as the " old town " 
(Altstadt). The so-called " new town " (Neustadt), added in 1333, 
extends to the Anlagen, the beautiful gardens and promenades 
laid out (1806-1812) on the site of the 17th century fortifications, 
of which they faithfully preserve the general ground plan. Of 
the medieval fortifications the picturesque Eschenheimer Tor, a 
round tower 155 ft. high, dating from 1400 to 1428, the Renten- 
turm (1456) on the Main and the Kuhhirtenturm (c. 1490) in 
Sachsenhausen, are the sole remains. Since the demolition of 
the fortifications the city has greatly expanded. Sachsenhausen 
on the south bank of the river, formerly the seat of a commandery 



of the Teutonic Order (by treaty with Austria in 1842 all pro- 
perty and rights of the order in Frankfort territory were sold 
to the city, except the church and house), is now a quarter of 
the city. In other directions also the expansion has been rapid; 
the village of Bornheim was incorporated in Frankfort in 1877, 
the former Hessian town of Bockenheim in 1895, and the suburbs 
of Niederrad, Oberrad and Seckbach in 1900. 

The main development of the city has been to the north of the 
river, which is crossed by numerous bridges and flanked by fine 
quays and promenades. The Altstadt, though several broad 
streets have been opened through it, still preserves many of its 
narrow alleys and other medieval features. The Judengasse 
(Ghetto), down to 1806 the sole Jews' quarter, has been pulled 
down, with the exception of the ancestral house of the Rothschild 
family — No. 148 — which has been restored and retains its 
ancient facade. As the Altstadt is mainly occupied by artisans 
and petty tradesmen, so the Neustadt is the principal business 
quarter of the city, containing the chief public buildings and the 
principal hotels. The main arteries of the city are the Zeil, a 
broad street running from the Friedberger Anlage to the Ross- 
markt and thence continued, by the Kaiserstrasse, through the 
fine new quarter built after 1872, to the magnificent principal 
railway station; and the Stein weg and Goethestrasse, which 
lead by the Bockenheimer Tor to the Bockenheimer Landstrasse, 
a broad boulevard intersecting the fashionable residential suburb 
to the N.W. 

Churches. — The principal ecclesiastical building in Frankfort 
is the cathedral (Dom). Built of red sandstone, with a massive 
tower terminating in a richly ornamented cupola and 300 ft. in 
height, it is the most conspicuous object in the city. Thisbuilding, 
in which the Roman emperors were formerly elected and, since 
1562, crowned, was founded in 8 5 2 by King Louis the German, and 
was later known as the Salvator Kirche. After its reconstruction 
(1235-1239), it was dedicated to St Bartholomew. From this 
period date the nave and the side aisles; the choir was completed 
in 1315-1338 and the long transepts in 1346-1354. The cloisters 
were rebuilt in 1348- 1447, and the electoral chapel, on the south 
of the choir, was completed in 1355. The tower was begun in 
1415, but remained unfinished. On the 15th of August 1867 
the tower and roof were destroyed by fire and considerable 
damage was done to the rest of the edifice. The restoration 
was immediately taken in hand, and the whole work was finished 
in 1 88 1, including the completion of the tower, according to the 
plans of the 15th century architect, Hans von Ingelheim. In 
the interior is the tomb of the German king Gunther of Schwarz- 
burg, who died in Frankfort in 1349, and that of Rudolph, the 
last knight of Sachsenhausen, who died in 1371. Among the 
other Roman Catholic churches are the Leonhardskirche, the 
Liebfrauenkirche (church of Our Lady) and the Deutschordens- 
kirche (14th century) in Sachsenhausen. The Leonhardskirche 
(restored in 1882) was begun in 1219, it is said on the site of the 
palace of Charlemagne. It was originally a three-aisled basilica, 
but is now a five-aisled Hallenkirche; the choir was added in 
1 3 14. It has two Romanesque towers. The Liebfrauenkirche 
is first mentioned in 1314 as a collegiate church; the nave was 
consecrated in 1340. The choir was added in 1 506-1 509 and the 
whole church thoroughly restored in the second half of the 18th 
century, when the tower was built (1770). Of the Protestant 
churches the oldest is the Nikolaikirche, which dates from the 
13th century; the fine cast-iron spire erected in 1843 had to be 
taken down in 1901. The Paulskirche, the principal Evangelical 
(Lutheran) church, built between 1786 and 1833, is a red sand- 
stone edifice of no architectural pretensions, but interesting 
as the seat of the national parliament of 1848-1849. The 
Katharinenkirche, built 1678-1681 on the site of an older build- 
ing, is famous in Frankfort history as the place where the first 
Protestant sermon was preached in 1522. Among the more 
noteworthy of the newer Protestant churches are the Peterskirche 
(1892-1895) in the North German Renaissance style, with a 
tower 256 ft. high, standing north from the Zeil, the Christus- 
kirche (1883) and the Lutherkirche (1880-1893). An English 
church, in Early English Gothic style, situated adjacent to the 

Bockenheimer Landstrasse, was completed and consecrated 
in 1906. 

Of the five synagogues, the chief (or Hauptsynagoge) , lying 
in the Bornestrasse, is an attractive building of red sandstone 
in the Moorish-Byzantine style. 

Public Buildings. — Of the secular buildings in Frankfort, the 
Romer, for almost five hundred years the Rathaus (town hall) 
of the city, is of prime historical interest. It lies on the Romer- 
berg, a square flanked by curious medieval houses. It is first 
mentioned in 1322, was bought with the adjacent hostelry in 
1405 by the city and rearranged as a town hall, and has since, 
from time to time, been enlarged by the purchase of adjoining 
patrician houses, forming a complex of buildings of various 
styles and dates surmounted by a clock tower. The facade was 
rebuilt (1896-1898) in late Gothic style. It was here, in the 
Wahlzimmer (or election-chamber) that the electors or their 
plenipotentiaries chose the German kings, and here in the 
Kaisersaal (emperors' hall) that the coronation festival was held, 
at which the new king or emperor dined with the electors after 
having shown himself from the balcony to the people. The 
Kaisersaal retained its antique appearance until 1843, when, 
as also again in 1904, it was restored and redecorated; it is now 
furnished with a series of modern paintings representing the 
German kings and Roman emperors from Charlemagne to 
Francis II., in all fifty-two, and a statue of the first German 
emperor, William I. New municipal buildings adjoining the 
" Romer " on the north side were erected in 1900- 1903 in German 
Renaissance style, with a handsome tower 220 ft. high; beneath 
it is a public wine-cellar, and on the first storey a grand municipal 
hall. The palace of the princes of Thurn and Taxis in the 
Eschenheimer Gasse was built (173 2-1 741) from the designs of 
Robert de Cotte, chief architect to Louis XIV. of France. From 
1806 to 1810 it was the residence of Karl von Dalberg, prince^ 
primate of the Confederation of the Rhine, with whose dominions 
Frankfort had been incorporated by Napoleon. From 181 6 to 
1866 it was the seat of the German federal diet, It is now 
annexed to the principal post office (built 1892-1894), which lies 
close to it on the Zeil. The Saalhof , built on the site of the palace 
erected by Louis the Pious in- 822, overlooking the Main, has 
a chapel of the 12th century, the substructure dating from 
Carolingian times. This is the oldest building in Frankfort. 
The facade of the Saalhof in the Saalgasse dates from 1604, the 
southern wing with the two gables fromi7i5toi7i7. Of numer- 
ous other medieval buildings may be mentioned theLeinwandhaus 
(linendrapers' hall), a 15th century building reconstructed in 
1892 as a municipal museum. In the Grosser Hirschgraben is 
the Goethehaus, a 16th century building which came into the 
possession of the Goethe family in 1733. Here Goethe lived 
from his birth in 1 749 until 1 77 5. In 1863 the house was acquired 
by the Freies deutsche Hochstift and was opened to the public. It 
has been restored, from Goethe's account of it in Dichtung und 
Wahrheit, as nearly as possible to its condition in the poet's day, 
and is now connected with a Goethemuseum ( 1 897) , with archives 
and a library of 25,000 volumes representative of the Goethe 
period of German literature. 

Literary and Scientific Institutions. — Few cities of the same 
size as Frankfort are so richly endowed with literary, scientific 
and artistic institutions, or possess so many handsome buildings 
appropriated to their service. The opera-house, erected near the 
Bockenheimer Tor in 1873-1880, is a magnificent edifice in the 
style of the Italian Renaissance and ranks among the finest 
theatres in Europe. There are also a theatre (Schauspielhaus) 
in modern Renaissance style (1899-1902), devoted especially 
to drama, a splendid concert hall (Saalbau), opened in 1861, 
and numerous minor places of theatrical entertainment. The 
public picture gallery in the Saalhof possesses works by Hans 
Holbein, Griinewald, Van Dyck, Teniers, Van der Neer, Hans 
von Kulmbach, Lucas Cranach and other masters. The Stadel 
Art Institute (Stadel'sches Kunstinstitut) in Sachsenhausen, 
founded by the banker J. F. Stadel in 1816, contains a picture 
gallery and a cabinet of engravings extremely rich in works of 
German art. The municipal library, with 300,000 volumes^ 



boasts among its rarer treasures a Gutenberg Bible printed at 
Mainz between 1450 and 1455, another on parchment dated 
1462, the Institutiones Justiniani (Mainz, 1468), the Theuerdank, 
with woodcuts by Hans Schaufelein, and numerous valuable 
autographs. It also contains a fine collection of coins. The 
Bethmann Museum owes its celebrity principally to Dannecker's 
" Ariadne," but it also possesses the original plaster model of 
Thorwaldsen's " Entrance of Alexander the Great into Babylon." 
There may also be mentioned the Industrial Art Exhibition of 
the Polytechnic Association and two conservatories of music. 
Among the scientific institutions the first place belongs to the 
Senckenberg' sches naturhistorische Museum, containing valuable 
collections of birds and shells. Next must be mentioned the 
Kunstgewerbe (museum of arts and crafts) and the Musical 
Museum, with valuable MSS. and portraits. Besides the 
municipal library (Stadtbibliothek) mentioned above there are 
three others of importance, the Rothschild, the Senckenberg 
and the Jewish library (with a well-appointed reading-room). 
There are numerous high-grade schools, musical and other learned 
societies and excellent hospitals. The last include the large 
municipal infirmary and the Senckenberg'sches Stift, a hospital 
and almshouses founded by a doctor, Johann C. Senckenberg 
(d. 1772). The Royal Institute for experimental therapeutics 
{Kbnigl.Institul fiir experimentelle Therapie), moved to Frankfort 
in 1899, attracts numerous foreign students, and is especially 
concerned with the study of bacteriology and serums. 

Bridges. — Seven bridges (of which two are railway) cross the 
Main. The most interesting of these is the Alte Mainbrucke, 
a red sandstone structure of fourteen arches, 815 ft. long, dating 
from the 14th century. On it are a mill, a statue cf Charlemagne 
and an iron crucifix surmounted by a gilded cock. The latter 
commemorates, according to tradition, the fowl which was the 
first living being to cross the bridge and thus fell a prey to the 
devil, who in hope of a nobler victim had sold his assistance 
to the architect. Antiquaries, however, assert that it probably 
marks the spot where criminals were in olden times flung into 
the river. Other bridges are the Obermainbriicke of five iron 
arches, opened in 1878; an iron foot (suspension) bridge, the 
Untermainbrucke; the Wilhelmsbrucke, a fine structure, which 
from 1849 to 1890 served as a railway bridge and was then 
opened as a road bridge; and two new iron bridges at Gutleuthof 
and Niederrad (below the city), which carry the railway traffic 
from the south to the north bank of the Main, where all lines 
converge in a central station of the Prussian state railways. 
This station, which was built in 1883-1888 and has replaced 
the three stations belonging to private companies, which formerly 
stood in juxtaposition on the Anlagen (or promenades) near the 
Mainzer Tor, lies some half-mile to the west. The intervening 
ground upon which the railway lines and buildings stood was 
sold for building sites, the sum obtained being more than sufficient 
to cover the cost of the majestic central terminus (the third 
largest in the world) , which, in addition to spacious and handsome 
halls for passenger accommodation, has three glass-covered spans 
of 180 ft. width each. Yet the exigencies of traffic demand 
further extensions, and another large station was in 1909 in 
process of construction at the east end of the city, devised to 
receive the local traffic of lines running eastward, while a through 
station for the north to south traffic was projected on a site 
farther west of the central terminus. 

Frankfort lies at the junction of lines of railway connecting 
it directly with all the important cities of south and central 
Germany. Here cross and unite the lines from Berlin to Basel, 
from Cologne to Wiirzburg and Vienna, from Hamburg and 
Cassel, and from Dresden and Leipzig to France and Switzerland. 
The river Main has been dredged so as to afford heavy barge 
traffic with the towns of the upper Main and with the Rhine, 
and cargo boats load and unload alongside its busy quays. 
A well-devised system of electric tramways provides for local 
communication within the city and with the outlying suburbs. 

Trade, Commerce and Industries. — Frankfort has always 
been more of a commercial than an industrial town, and though 
of late years it has somewhat lost its pre-eminent position as 

a banking centre it has counterbalanced the loss in increased 
industrial development. The suburbs of Sachsenhausen and 
Bockenheim have particularly developed considerable industrial 
activity, especially in publishing and printing, brewing and the 
manufacture of quinine. Other sources of employment are the 
cutting of hair for making hats, the production of fancy goods, 
type, machinery, soap and perfumery, ready-made clothing, 
chemicals, electro-technical apparatus, jewelry and metal wares. 
Market gardening is extensively carried on in the neighbourhood 
and cider largely manufactured. There are two great fairs held 
in the town, — the Ostermesse, or spring fair, and the Herbstmesse, 
or autumn fair. The former, which was the original nucleus 
of all the commercial prosperity of the ci f y, begins on the second 
Wednesday before Easter; and the latter on the second Wednes- 
day before the 8th of September. They last three weeks, and the 
last day save one, called the Nickelchestag, is distinguished by 
the influx of people from the neighbouring country. The trade in 
leather is of great and growing importance. A horse fair has 
been held twice a year since 1862 under the patronage of the 
agricultural society; and the wool market was reinstituted 
in 1872 by the German Trade Society (Deutscher Handelsverein). 
Frankfort has long been famous as one of the principal banking 
centres of Europe, and is now only second to Berlin, in this 
respect, among German cities, and it is remarkable for the large 
business that is done in government stock. In the 17 th century 
the town was the seat of a great book- trade; but it has long 
been distanced in this department by Leipzig. The Frankfurter 
Journal was founded in 1615, the Postzeitung in 1616, the Neue 
Frankfurter Zeiiung in 1859, and the Frankfurter Presse in 1866. 
Of memorial monuments the largest and most elaborate in 
Frankfort is that erected in 1858 in honour of the early German 
printers. It was modelled by Ed. von der Launitz and executed 
by Herr von Kreis. The statues of Gutenberg, Fust and 
Schoffer form a group on the top; an ornamented frieze presents 
medallions of a number of famous printers; below these are 
figures representing the towns of Mainz, Strassburg, Venice 
and Frankfort; and on the corners of the pedestal are allegorical 
statues of theology, poetry, science and industry. The statue 
of Goethe (1844) in the Goetheplatz is by Ludwig von Sch wan- 
thaler. The Schiller statue, erected in 1863, is the work of a 
Frankfort artist, Johann Dielmann. A monument in the 
Bockenheim Anlage, dated 1837, preserves the memory of 
Guiollett, the burgomaster, to whom the town is mainly indebted 
for the beautiful promenades which occupy the site of the old 
fortifications; and similar monuments have been reared to 
Senckenberg (1863), Schopenhauer, Klemens Brentano the poet 
and Samuel Thomas Sommerring (1755-1830), the anatomist and 
inventor of an electric telegraph. In the Opernplatz is an 
equestrian statue of the emperor Wilhelm I. by Buscher. 

Cemeteries. — The new cemetery (opened in 1828) contains 
the graves of Arthur Schopenhauer and Feuerbach, of Passavant 
the biographer of Raphael, Ballenberger the artist, Hessemer 
the architect, Sommerring, and Johann Friedrich Bohmer 
the historian. The Bethmann vault attracts attention by 
three bas-reliefs from the chisel of Thorwaldsen; and the 
Reichenbach mausoleum is a vast pile designed by Hessemer 
at the command of Wiliiam II. of Hesse, and adorned with 
sculptures by Zwerger and von der Lausitz. In the Jewish 
section, which is walled off from the rest of the burying-ground, 
the most remarkable tombs are those of the Rothschild family. 
Parks. — In addition to the park in the south-western district, 
Frankfort possesses two delightful pleasure grounds, which 
attract large numbers of visitors, the Palmengarten in the 
west and the zoological garden in the east of the city. The 
former is remarkable for the collection of palms purchased in 
1868 from the deposed duke Adolph of Nassau. 

Government. — The present municipal constitution of the 
city dates from 1867 and presents some points of difference 
from the ordinary Prussian system. Bismarck was desirous of 
giving the city, in view of its former freedom, a more liberal 
constitution than is usual in ordinary cases. Formerly fifty-four 
representatives were elected, but provision was made (in the 



constitution) for increasing the number, and they at present 
number sixty-four, elected for six years. Every two years 
a third of the number retire, but they are eligible for re-election. 
These sixty-four representatives elect twenty town-councillors, 
ten of whom receive a salary and ten do not. The chief burgo- 
master (Oberbiirgermeister) is nominated by the emperor for 
twelve years, and the second burgomaster must receive the 
emperor's approval. 

Since 1885 the city has been supplied with water of excellent 
quality from the Stadtwald, Goldstein and Hinkelstein, and 
the favourable sanitary condition of the town is seen in the low 
death rate. 

Population. — The population of Frankfort has steadily 
increased since the beginning of the 19th century; it amounted 
in 1817 to 41,458; (1840) 55,269; (1864) 77,372; (1871) 
59,265; (1875) 103,136; (1890) 179,985; and (1905), including 
the incorporated suburban districts, 334,951, of whom 175,909 
were Protestants, 88,457 Roman Catholics and 21,974 Jews. 

History. — Excavations around the cathedral have incontest- 
ably proved that Frankfort-on-Main (Trajectum ad Moenum) 
was a settlement in Roman times and was probably founded 
in the 1st century of the Christian era. It may thus be accounted 
one of the earliest German — the so-called " Roman " — towns. 
Numerous places in the valley of the Main are mentioned in 
chronicles anterior to the time that Frankfort is first noticed. 
Disregarding popular tradition, which connects the origin of the 
town with a legend that Charlemagne, when retreating before 
the Saxons, was safely conducted across the river by a doe, it 
may be' asserted that the first genuine historical notice of the 
town occurs in 793, when Einhard, Charlemagne's biographer, 
tells us that he spent the winter in the villa Frankonovurd. 
Next year there is mention more than once of a royal palace 
here, and the early importance of the place is indicated by the 
fact that in this year it was chosen as the seat of the ecclesiastical 
council by which image- worship was condemned. The name 
Frankfort is also found in several official documents of Charle- 
magne's reign; and from the notices that occur in the early 
chronicles and charters it would appear that the place was the 
most populous at least of the numerous villages of the Main 
district. During the Carolingian period it was the seat of no 
fewer than 16 imperial councils or colloquies. The town was 
probably at first built on an island in the river. It was originally 
governed by the royal officer or actor dominicus, and down even 
to the close of the Empire it remained a purely imperial or 
royal town. It gradually acquired various privileges, and by 
the close of the 14th century the only mark of dependence was 
the payment of a yearly tax. Louis the Pious dwelt more 
frequently at Frankfort than his father Charlemagne had done, 
and about 823 he built himself a new palace, the basis of the later 
Saalhof. In 822 and 823 two great diets were held in the palace, 
and at the former there were present deputies from the eastern 
Slavs, the Avars and the Normans. The place continued to 
be a favourite residence with Louis the German, who died there 
in 876, and was the capital of the East Frankish kingdom. 
By the rest of the Carolingian kings it was less frequently visited, 
and this neglect was naturally greater during the period of the 
Saxon and Salic emperors from 919 to 1137. Diets, however, 
were held in the town in 951, 1015, 1069 and 1109, and councils 
in 1000 and 1006. From a privilege of Henry IV., in 1074, 
granting the city of Worms freedom from tax in their trade 
with several royal cities, it appears that Frankfort was even 
then a place of some commercial importance. 

Under the Hohenstaufens many brilliant diets were held 
within its walls. That of 1147 saw, also, the first election of a 
German king at Frankfort, in the person of Henry, son of Conrad 
III. But as the father outlived the son, it was Frederick I., 
Barbarossa, who was actually the first reigning king to be 
elected here (in n 52). With the beginning of the 13th century 
the municipal constitution appears to have taken definite shape. 
The chief official was the royal bailiff (Schultheiss) , who is first 
mentioned in 1 193, and whose powers were subsequently enlarged 
by the abolition, in 1219, of the office of the royal Vogt or advo- 

catus. About this time a body of Schoflen (scabini, jurats), 
fourteen in number, was formed to assist in the control ot 
municipal affairs, and with their appointment the first step was 
taken towards civic representative government. Soon, however, 
the activity of the Schoffen became specifically confined to the 
determination of legal disputes, and in their place a new body 
(Collegium) of counsellors — Ratmannen — also fourteen in number, 
was appointed for the general administration of local matters. 
In 13 1 1, the two burgomasters, now chiefs of the municipality, 
take the place of the royal Schultheiss. In the 13th century, 
the Frankfort Fair, which is first mentioned in n 50, and the 
origin of which must have been long anterior to that date, is 
referred to as being largely frequented. No fewer than 10 new 
churches were erected in the years from 1220 to 1270. It was 
about the same period, probably in 1 240, that the Jews first 
settled in the town. In the contest which Louis the Bavarian 
maintained with the papacy Frankfort sided with the emperor, 
and it was consequently placed under an interdict for 20 years 
from 1329 to 1349. On Louis' death it refused to accept the papal 
conditions of pardon, and only yielded to Charles IV., the papal 
nominee, when Giinther of Schwarzburg thought it more prudent 
to abdicate in his favour. Charles granted the city a full amnesty, 
and confirmed its liberties and privileges. 

By the famous Golden Bull of 1356 Frankfort was declared 
the seat of the imperial elections, and it still preserves an official 
contemporaneous copy of the original document as the most 
precious of the eight imperial bulls in its possession. From the 
date of the bull to the close of the Empire Frankfort retained the 
position of " Wahlstadt," and only five of the two-and-twenty 
monarchs who ruled during that period were elected elsewhere. 
In 1388-1389 Frankfort assisted the South German towns 
in their wars with the princes and nobles (the Stadtekrieg), 
and in a consequent battle with the troops of the Palatinate, 
the town banner was lost and carried to Kronberg, where it was 
long preserved as a trophy. On peace being concluded in 1391, 
the town had to pay 12,562 florins, and this brought it into 
great financial difficulties. In the course of the next 50 years 
debt was contracted to the amount of 126,772 florins. The diet 
at Worms in 1495 chose Frankfort as the seat of the newly 
instituted imperial chamber, or " Reichskammergericht," and 
it was not till 1527 that the chamber was removed to Spires. 
At the Reformation Frankfort heartily joined the Protestant 
party, and in consequence it was hardly treated both by the 
emperor Charles V. and by the archbishop of Mainz. It refused 
to subscribe the Augsburg Recess, but at the same time it was 
not till 1536 that it was persuaded to join the League of Schmal- 
kalden. On the failure of this confederation it opened its gates 
to the imperial general Btiren on the 29th of December 1546, 
although he had passed by the city, which he considered too 
strong for the forces under his command. The emperor was 
merciful enough to leave it in possession of its privileges, but he 
inflicted a fine of 80,000 gold gulden, and until October 1547 
the citizens had to endure the presence of from 8000 to 10,000 
soldiers. This resulted in a pestilence which not only lessened 
the population, but threatened to give the death-blow to the great 
annual fairs; and at the close of the war it was found that it 
had cost the city no less than 228,931 gulden. In 1552 Frankfort 
was invested for three weeks by Maurice of Saxony, who was 
still in arms against the emperor Charles V., but it continued 
to hold out till peace was concluded between the principal 
combatants. Between 1612 and 1616 occurred the great 
Fettmilch insurrection, perhaps the most remarkable episode 
in the internal history of Frankfort. The magistracy had been 
acquiring more and more the character of an oligarchy; all 
power was practically in the hands of a few closely-related 
families; and the gravest peculation and malversation took 
place without hindrance. The ordinary citizens were roused to 
assert their rights, and they found a leader in Vincenz Fettmilch, 
who carried the contest to dangerous excesses, but lacked 
ability to bring it to a successful issue. An imperial commission 
was ultimately appointed, and the three principal culprits and 
several of their associates were executed in 1 616. It was not till 



1801 that the last mouldering head of the Fettmilch company 
dropped unnoticed from the Rententurm, the old tower near 
the bridge. In the words of Dr Kriegk, Geschichte von Frankfurt, 
(1871), the insurrection completely destroyed the political 
power of the gilds, gave new strength to the supremacy of 
the patriciate, and brought no further advantage to the rest of 
the citizens than a few improvements in the organization and 
administration of the magistracy. The Jews, who had been 
attacked by the popular party, were solemnly reinstated by 
imperial command in all their previous privileges, and received 
full compensation for their losses. 

During the Thirty Years' War Frankfort did not escape. 
In 1 63 1 Gustavus Adolphus garrisoned it with 600 men, who 
remained in possession till they were expelled four years later 
by the imperial general Lamboy. In 1792 the citizens had to 
pay 2,000,000 gulden to the French general Custine; and in 
1796 Kleber exacted 8,000,000 francs. The independence of 
Frankfort was brought to an end in 1806, on the formation of 
the Confederation of the Rhine; and in 18 10 it was made the 
capital of the grand-duchy of Frankfort, which had an area of 
3215 sq.m. with 302,100 inhabitants, and was divided into the 
four districts of Frankfort, Aschaffenburg, Fulda and Hanau. 
On the reconstitution of Germany in 1815 it again became a free 
city, and in the following year it was declared the seat of the 
German Confederation. In April 1833 occurred what is known 
as the Frankfort Insurrection (Frankfurter Attentat), in which 
a number of insurgents led by Georg Bunsen attempted to break 
up the diet. The city joined the German Zollverein in 1836. 
During the revolutionary period of 1848 the people of Frankfort, 
where the united German parliament held its sessions, took a 
chief part in political movements, and the streets of the town 
were more than once the scene of conflict. In the war of 1866 
they were on the Austrian side. On the 16th of July the Prussian 
troops, under General Vogel von Falkenstein, entered the town, 
and on the 18th of October it was formally incorporated with 
the Prussian state. A fine of 6,000,000 florins was exacted. 
In 187 1 the treaty which concluded the Franco-German War 
was signed in the Swan Hotel by Prince Bismarck and Jules 
Favre, and it is consequently known as the peace of Frankfort. 

Authorities. — F. Rittweger, Frankfurt im Jahre 1848 (1898); 
R. Jung, Das historische Archiv der Stadt Frankfurt (1897) ; A. Home, 
Geschichte von Frankfurt (4th ed., 1903); H. Grotefend, Quellen zur 
Frankfurter Geschichte (Frankfort, 1884-1888); J. C. von Fichard, 
Die Enlslehung der Reichsstadt Frankfurt (Frankfort, 1819); G. L. 
Kriegk, Geschichte von Frankfurt (Frankfort, 1871); J. F. Bohmer, 
Urkundenbuch der Reichsstadt Frankfurt (new ed., 1901) ; B. Weber, 
Zur Reformationsgeschichte der freien Reichsstadt Frankfurt (1895); 
O. Speyer, Die Frankfurter Revolution 161 2-1616 (1883) ; andL.Woerl, 
Guide to Frankfort (Leipzig, 1898). 

FRANKFORT-ON-ODER, a town of Germany, in the Prussian 
province of Brandenburg, 50 m. S.E. from Berlin on the main 
line of railway to Breslau and at the junction of lines to Ciistrin, 
Posen and Grossenhain. Pop. (1905) 64,943. The town proper 
lies on the left bank of the river Oder and is connected by a stone 
bridge (replacing the old historical wooden structure) 900 ft. 
long, with the suburb of Damm. The town is agreeably situated 
and has broad and handsome streets, among them the " Linden," 
a spacious avenue. Above, on the western side, and partly lying 
on the site of the old ramparts, is the residential quarter, consisting 
mainly of villas and commanding a fine prospect of the Oder 
valley. Between this suburb and the town lies the park, in 
which is a monument to the poet Ewald Christian von Kleist, 
who died here of wounds received in the battle of Kunersdorf. 
Among the more important public buildings must be noticed 
the Evangelical Marienkirche (Oberkirche) , a handsome brick 
edifice of the 13th century with five aisles, the Roman Catholic 
church, the Rathhaus dating from 1607, and bearing on its 
southern gable the device of a member of the Hanseatic League, 
the government offices and the theatre. The university of 
Frankfort, founded in 1506 by Joachim I., elector of Branden- 
burg, was removed to Breslau in 181 1, and the academical 
buildings are now occupied by a school. To compensate it for 
the loss of its university, Frankfort-on-Oder was long the seat 

of the court of appeal for the province, but of this it was deprived 
in 1879. There are several handsome public monuments, 
notably that to Duke Leopold of Brunswick, who was drowned 
in the Oder while attempting to save life, on the 27th of April 
1785. The town has a large garrison, consisting of nearly all 
arms. Its industries are considerable, including the manufacture 
of machinery, metal ware, chemicals, paper, leather and sugar. 
Situated on the high road from Berlin to Silesia, and having an 
extensive system of water communication by means of the Oder 
and its canals to the Vistula and the Elbe, and being an important 
railway centre, it has a lively export trade, which is further 
fostered by its three annual fairs, held respectively at Reminiscere 
(the second Sunday in Lent), St Margaret's day and at Martin- 
mas. In the neighbourhood are extensive coal fields. 

Frankfort-on-the-Oder owes its origin and name to a settle- 
ment of Franconian merchants here, in the 13th century, on 
land conquered by the margrave of Brandenburg from the Wends. 
In 1253 it was raised to the rank of a town by the margrave 
John I. and borrowed from Berlin the Magdeburg civic con- 
stitution. In 1379 it received from King Sigismund, then 
margrave of Brandenburg, the right to free navigation of the 
Oder; and from 1368 to about 1450 it belonged to the Hanseatic 
League. The university, which is referred to above, was 
opened by the elector Joachim I. in 1506, was removed in 1516 
to Kottbus and restored again to Frankfort in 1539, at which 
date the Reformation was introduced. It was dispersed during 
the Thirty Years' War and again restored by the Great Elector, 
but finally transferred to Breslau in 181 1. 

Frankfort has suffered much from the vicissitudes of war. 
In the 15th century it successfully withstood sieges by the 
Hussites (1429 and 1432), by the Poles (1450) and by the duke 
of Sagan (1477). In the Thirty Years' War it was successively 
taken by Gustavus Adolphus (1631), by Wallenstein (1633), by 
the elector of Brandenburg (1634), and again by the Swedes, 
who held it from 1640 to 1644. During the Seven Years' War 
it was taken by the Russians (1759). In 181 2 it was occupied 
by the French, who remained till March 1813, when the Russians 
marched in. 

See K. R. Hausen, Geschichte der Universitdt und Stadt Frankfurt 
(1806), and Bieder und Gurnik, Bilder aus der Geschichte der Stadt 
Frankfurt-an-der-Oder (1898). 

FRANKINCENSE, 1 or Olibanum 2 (Gr. XipWcoros, later 0vos; 
Lat., tus or thus; Heb., lebonah; 3 Ar., lubdn;* Turk., ghyunluk; 
Hind., ganda-birosa b ) , a gum-resin obtained from certain species 
of trees of the genus Boswellia, and natural order Burseraceae. 
The members of the genus are possessed of the following 
characters: — Bark often papyraceous; leaves deciduous, com-! 
pound, alternate and imparipinnate, with leaflets serrate or 
entire; flowers in racemes or panicles, white, green, yellowish 
or pink, having a small persistent, 5-dentate calyx, 5 petals, 
10 stamens, a sessile 3 to 5-chambered ovary, a long style, and 
a 3-lobed stigma; fruit trigonal or pentagonal; and seed 
compressed. Sir George Birdwood {Trans. Lin. Soc. xxvii., 

1 Stephen Skinner, M.D. (Etymologicon linguae Anglicanae, Lond., 
1 671), gives the derivation: " Frankincense, Thus, q.d. Incensum (i.e. 
Thus Libere seu Liberaliter, ut in sacris officiis par est, adolendum." 

2 " Sic olibanum dixere pro thure ex Graeco 6 \L0avos "(Salmasius, 
C. S. Plinianae exercitationes, t. ii. p. 926, b. F., Traj. ad Rhen., 
1689 fol.). So also Fuchs (Op. didact. pars. ii. p. 42, 1604 fol.), 
" Officinis non sine risu eruditorum, Graeco articulo adjecto, Olibanus 
vocatur." The term olibano was used in ecclesiastical Latin as early 
as the pontificate of Benedict IX., in the nth century. (See Ferd. 
Ughellus, Italia sacra, torn. i. 108, D., Ven., 1717 fol.) 

' So designated from its whiteness (J. G. Stuckius, Sacror. et 
sacrific. gent, descrip., p. 79, Lugd. Bat., 1695, fol.; Kitto, Cycl. 
Bibl. Lit. ii. p. 806, 1870) ; cf. Laben, the Somali name for cream 
(R. F. Burton, First Footsteps in E. Africa, p. 178, 1856). 

4 Written Louan by Garcias da Horta (Aromat. et simpl. medica- 
ment, hist., C. Clush Atrebatis Exoticorum lib. sept., p. 157, 1605, 
fol.), and stated to have been derived by the Arabs from the Greek 
name, the term less commonly used by them being Conder: cf. 
Sanskrit Kunda. According to Colebrooke (in Astatick Res. ix. 
p. 379, 1807), the Hindu writers on Materia Medica use for the resin 
of Boswellia thurifera the designation Cunduru. 

6 A term applied also to the resinous exudation of Pinus longifolia 
(see Dr E. J. Waring, Pharmacopoeia of India, p. 52, Lond., 1868). 



187 1) distinguishes five species of Boswellia: (A) B. thurifera, 
Colebr. (B. glabra and B. serrata, Roxb.), indigenous to the 
mountainous tracts of central India and the Coromandel coast, 
and B. papyrifera (Plosslea floribunda, Endl.) of Abyssinia, 
which, though both thuriferous, are not known to yield any 
of the olibanum of commerce; and (B) B. Frereana (see 
Elemi, vol. x. p. 259), B. Bhua-Dajiana, and B. Carterii, the 
" Yegaar," " Mohr Add," and " Mohr Madow " of the Somali 
country, in East Africa, the last species including a variety, the 
" Maghrayt d'Sheehaz " of Hadramaut, Arabia, all of which 
are sources of true frankincense or olibanum. The trees on the 
Somali coast are described by Captain G. B. Kempthorne as 
growing, without soil, out of polished marble rocks, to which they 
are attached by a thick oval mass of substance resembling a 
mixture of lime and mortar: the purer the marble the finer 
appears to be the growth of the tree. The young, trees, he 
states, furnish the most valuable gum, the older yielding merely 
a clear glutinous fluid resembling copal varnish. 1 To obtain 
the frankincense a deep incision is made in the trunk of the tree, 
and below it a narrow strip of bark 5 in. in length is peeled off. 
When the milk-like juice (" spuma pinguis," Pliny) which 
exudes has hardened by exposure to the atmosphere, the incision 
is deepened. In about three months the resin has attained the 
required degree of consistency. The season for gathering lasts 
from May until the first rains in September. The large clear 
globules are scraped off into baskets, and the inferior quality 
that has run down the tree is collected separately. The coast 
of south Arabia is yearly visited by parties of Somalis, who pay 
the Arabs for the privilege of collecting frankincense. 2 In the 
interior of the country about the plain of Dhofar, 3 during the 
south-west monsoon, frankincense and other gums are gathered 
by the Beni Gurrah Bedouins, and might be obtained by them 
in much larger quantities; their lawlessness, however, and the 
lack of a safe place of exchange or sale are obstacles to the 
development of trade. (See C. Y. Ward, The Gulf of 'Aden Pilot, 
p. 117, 1863.) Much as formerly in the region of Sakhalites in 
Arabia (the tract between Ras Makalla and Ras Agab) , 4 described 
by Arrian, so now on the sea-coast of the Somali country, the 
frankincense when collected is stored in heaps at various stations. 
Thence, packed in sheep- and goat-skins, in quantities of 20 to 
40 lb, it is carried on camels to Berbera, for shipment either to 
Aden, Makalla and other Arabian ports, or directly to Bombay. 6 
At Bombay, like gum-acacia, it is assorted, and is then packed 
for re-exportation to Europe, China and elsewhere. 6 Arrian re- 
lates that it was an import of Barbarike on the Sinthus (Indus). 
The idea held by several writers, including Niebuhr, that frank- 
incense was a product of India, would seem to have originated 
in a confusion of that drug with benzoin and other odoriferous 
substances, and also in the sale of imported frankincense with 
the native products of India. The gum resin of Boswellia 
thurifera was described by Colebrooke (in Asiatick Researches, 
ix. 381), and after him by Dr J. Fleming (lb. xi. 158), as true 
frankincense, or olibanum; from this, however, it differs in its 
softness, and tendency to melt into a mass 7 (Birdwood, loc. cit., 
p. 146). It is sold in the village bazaars of Khandeish in India 
under the name of Dup-Salai, i.e. incense of the " Salai tree"; 
and according to Mr F. Porter Smith, M.B. (Contrib. towards 
the Mat. Med. and Nat. Hist, of China, p. 162, Shanghai, 1871), 
is used as incense in China. The last authority also mentions 

1 See " Appendix," vol. i, p. 419 of Sir W. C. Harris's Highland 
of Aethiopia (2nd ed., Lond., 1844); and Trans. Bombay Geog. Soc. 
xiii. (1857), p. 136. 

2 Cruttenden, Trans. Bombay Geog. Soc. vii. (1846), p. 121; S. B. 
Miles, J. Geog. Soc. (1872). 

3 Or Dhafar. The incense of " Dofar " is alluded to by Camoens, 
Os Lusiadas, x. 201. 

4 H. J. Carter, " Comparative Geog. of the South-East Coast of 
Arabia," in J. Bombay Branch of R. Asiatic Soc. iii. (Jan. 1851), 
p. 296; and Miiller, Geog. Graeci Minores, i. p. 278 (Paris, 1855). 

5 J. Vaughan, Pharm. Journ. xii. (1853) pp. 227-229; and Ward, 
op. cit. p. 97. 

• Pereira, Blem. of Mat. Med. ii. pt. 2, p. 380 (4th ed., 1847). 

7 " Boswellia thurifera," . . . says Waring {Pharm. of India, 
p- 52)1 " has been thought to yield East Indian olibanum, but there 
is no reliable evidence of its so doing." 

olibanum as a reputed natural product of China. Bernhard 
von Breydenbach, 8 Ausonius, Florus and others, arguing, it 
would seem, from its Hebrew and Greek names, concluded that 
olibanum came from Mount Lebanon; and Chardin (Voyage 
en Perse, &c, 171 1) makes the statement that the frankincense 
tree grows in the mountains of Persia, particularly Caramania. 

Frankincense, or olibanum, occurs in commerce in semi- 
opaque, round, ovate or oblong tears or irregular lumps, which 
are covered externally with a white dust, the result of their 
friction against one another. It has an amorphous internal 
structure, a dull fracture; is of a yellow to yellowish-brown hue, 
the purer varieties being almost colourless, or possessing a greenish 
tinge, and has a somewhat bitter aromatic taste, and a balsamic 
odour, which is developed by heating. Immersed in alcohol 
it becomes opaque, and with water it yields an emulsion. It 
contains about 72% of resin soluble in alcohol (Kurbatow); 
a large proportion of gum soluble in water, and apparently 
identical with gum arabic; and a small quantity of a colourless 
inflammable essential oil, one of the constituents of which is 
the body oliben, Ci Hi 6 . Frankincense burns with a bright 
white flame, leaving an ash consisting mainly of calcium car- 
bonate, the remainder being calcium phosphate, and the sulphate, 
chloride and carbonate of potassium (Braconnot). 9 Good 
frankincense, Pliny tells us, is recognized by its whiteness, size, 
brittleness and ready inflammability. That which occurs in 
globular drops is, he says, termed " male frankincense " ; the 
most esteemed, he further remarks, is in breast-shaped drops, 
formed each by the union of two tears. 10 The best frankincense, 
as we learn from Arrian, 11 was formerly exported from the neigh- 
bourhood of Cape Elephant in Africa (the modern Ras Fiel) ; and 
A. von Kremer, in his description of the commerce of the Red 
Sea (Aegypten, &c, p. 185, ii. Theil, Leipzig, 1863), observes 
that the African frankincense, called by the Arabs " asli," is of 
twice the value of the Arabian " luban." Captain S. B. Miles 
(loc. cit., p. 64) states that the best kind of frankincense, known 
to the Somali as " bedwi " or " sheheri," comes from the trees 
" Mohr Add " and " Mohr Madow " (vide supra), and from a 
taller species of Boswellia, the " Boido," and is sent to Bombay 
for exportation to Europe; and that an inferior " mayeti," the 
produce of the " Yegaar," is exported chiefly to Jeddah and 
Yemen ports. 12 The latter may possibly be what Niebuhr alludes 
to as " Indian frankincense." 13 Garcias da Horta, in asserting 
the Arabian origin of the drug, remarks that the term " Indian " 
is often applied by the Arabs to a dark-coloured variety. 14 
According to Pliny (Nat. Hist. xiv. 1; cf. Ovid, Fasti i. 337 

8 " Libanus igitur est mons redolentie & summe aromaticitatis. 
nam ibi herbe odorifere crescunt. ibi etiam arbores thurifere coale- 
scunt quarum gummi electum olibanum a medicis nuncupatur." — 
Perigrinatio, p. 53 (1502, fol.). 

9 See, on the chemistry of frankincense, Braconnot, Ann. de chimie, 
lxviii. (1808) pp. 60-69; Johnston, Phil. Trans. (1839), pp. 301-305; 
J. Stenhouse, Ann. der Chem. und Pharm. xxxv. (1840) p. 306; 
and A. Kurbatow, Zeitsch. fur Chem. (1871), p. 201. 

10 " p r aecipua autem gratia est mammoso, cum haerente lacryma 
priore consecuta alia miscuit se " (Nat. Hist. xii. 32). One of the 
Chinese names for frankincense, Ju-hiang, " milk-perfume," is 
explained by the Pen Ts'au (xxxiv. 45), a Chinese work, as being 
derived from the nipple-like form of its drops. (See E. Bretschneider, 
On the Knowledge possessed by the Ancient Chinese of the Arabs, &c, 
p. 19, Lond., 1871.) 

11 The Voyage of Nearchus, loc. cit. 

12 Vaughan (Pharm. Journ. xii. 1853) speaks of the Arabian 
Luban, commonly called Morbat or Shaharree Luban, as realizing 
higher prices in the market than any of the qualities exported from 
Africa. The incense of " Esher," i.e. Shihr or Shehr, is mentioned 
by Marco Polo, as also by Barbosa. (See Yule, op: cit. ii. p. 377.) 
J. Raymond Wellsted (Travels to the City of the Caliphs, p. 173, Lond., 
1840) distinguishes two kinds of frankincense — " Meaty," selling at 
$4 per cwt., and an inferior article fetching 20% less. 

13 " Es scheint, dass selber die Araber ihr eignes Rauchwerk nicht 
hoch schatzen ; denn die Vornehmen in Jemen brauchen gemeiniglich 
indianisches Rauchwerk, ja eine grosse Menge Mastix von der Insel 
Scio " (Beschreibung von Arabien, p. 143, Kopenh., 1772). 

14 " De Arabibus minus mirum, qui nigricantem colorem, quo Thus 
Indicum praeditum esse vult Dioscorides [lib. i. c. 70], Indum 
plerumque vocent, ut ex Myrobalano nigro quern Indum appellant, 
patet " (op. sup. cit. p. 157). 



sq.), frankincense was not sacrificially employed in Trojan times. 
It was used by the ancient Egyptians in their religious rites, but, 
as Herodotus tells us (ii. 86), not in embalming. It constituted 
a fourth part of the Jewish incense of the sanctuary (Ex. xxx. 
34), and is frequently mentioned in the Pentateuch. With other 
spices it was stored in a great chamber of the house of God at 
Jerusalem (1 Chron. ix. 20, Neh. xiii. 5-9). On the sacrificial use 
and import of frankincense and similar substances see Incense. 
In the Red Sea regions frankincense is valued not only for its 
sweet odour when burnt, but as a masticatory; and blazing 
lumps of it are not infrequently used for illumination instead of 
oil lamps. Its fumes are an excellent insectifuge. As a medicine 
it was in former times in high repute. Pliny (Nat. Hist. xxv. 82) 
mentions it as an antidote to hemlock. Avicenna (ed. Plempii, 
lib. ii. p. 161, Lovanii, 1658, fol.) recommends it for tumours, 
ulcers of the head and ears, affections of the breast, vomiting, 
dysentery and fevers. In the East frankincense has been found 
efficacious as an external application in carbuncles, blind boils 
and gangrenous sores, and as an internal agent is given in 
gonorrhoea. In China it was an old internal remedy for leprosy 
and struma, and is accredited with stimulant, tonic, sedative, 
astringent and vulnerary properties. It is not used in modern 
medicine, being destitute of any special virtues. (See Waring, 
Pliarm. 0} India, p. 443, &c; and F. Porter Smith, op. cit., p. 162.) 
Common frankincense or thus, A Metis resina, is the term 
applied to a resin which exudes from fissures in the bark of the 
Norway spruce fir, Abies excelsa, D.C.; when melted in hot 
water and strained it constitutes " Burgundy pitch," Fix 
abielina. The concreted turpentine obtained in the United States 
by making incisions in the trunk of a species of pine, Pinus 
australis, is also so designated. It is commercially known as 
" scrape," and is similar to the French " galipot " or " barras." 
Common frankincense is an ingredient in some ointments and 
plasters, and on account of its pleasant odour when burned 
has been used in incense as a substitute for olibanum. (See 
Fluckiger and Hanbury, Pharmacographia.) The " black frankin- 
cense oil " of the Turks is stated by Hanbury (Science Papers, 
p. 142, 1876) to be liquid storax. (F. H. B.) 

FRANKING, a term used for the right of sending letters or 
postal packages free (Fr. franc) of charge. The privilege was 
claimed by the House of Commons in 1660 in " a Bill for erecting 
and establishing a Post Office," their demand being that all 
letters addressed to or sent by members during the session should 
be carried free. The clause embodying this claim was struck 
out by the Lords, but with the proviso in the Act as passed 
for the free carriage of all letters to and from the king and the 
great officers of state, and also the single inland letters of the 
members of that present parliament during that session only. 
It seems, however, that the practice was tolerated until 1764, 
when by an act dealing with postage it was legalized, every peer 
and each member of the House of Commons being allowed to 
send free ten fetters a day, not exceeding an ounce in weight, 
to any part of the United Kingdom, and to receive fifteen. The 
act did not restrict the privilege to letters either actually written 
by or to the member, and thus the right was very easily abused, 
members sending and receiving letters for friends, all that was 
necessary being the signature of the peer or M.P. in the corner 
of the envelope. Wholesale franking grew usual, and M.P.'s 
supplied their friends with envelopes already signed to be used 
at any time. In 1837 the scandal had become so great that 
stricter regulations came into force. The franker had to write 
the full address, to which he had to add his name, the post-town 
and the day of the month; the letter had to be posted on the 
day written or the following day at the latest, and in a post-town 
not more than 20 m. from the place where the peer or M.P. was 
then living. On the 10th of January 1 840 parliamentary franking 
was abolished on the introduction of the uniform penny rate. 

In the United States the franking privilege was first granted in 
January 1776 to the soldiers engaged in the American War of 
Independence. The right was gradually extended till it included 
nearly all officials and members of the public service. By special 
acts the privilege was bestowed on presidents and their widows. 

By an act of the 3rd of March 1845, franking was limited to the 
president, vice-president, members and delegates in Congress and 
postmasters, other officers being required to keep quarterly 
accounts of postage and pay it from their contingent funds. 
In 1851 free exchange of newspapers was re-established. By an 
act of the 3rd of March 1863 the privilege was granted the 
president and his private secretary, the vice-president, chiefs of 
executive departments, such heads of bureaus and chief clerks 
as might be designated by the postmaster-general for official 
letters only; senators and representatives in Congress for all 
correspondence, senders of petitions to either branch of the 
legislature, and to publishers of newspapers for their exchanges. 
There was a limit as to weight. Members of Congress could also 
frank, in matters concerning the federal department of agricul- 
ture, " seeds, roots and cuttings," the weight to be fixed by the 
postmaster-general. This act remained in force till the 31st of 
January 1873, when franking was abolished. Since 1875, by 
sundry acts, franking for official correspondence, government 
publications, seeds, &c, has been allowed to congressmen, ex- 
congressmen (for 9 months after the close of their term), congress- 
men-elect and other government officials. By special acts of 
i88r, 1886, 1902, 1909, respectively, the franking privilege was 
granted to the widows of Presidents Garfield, Grant, McKinley 
and Cleveland. 

FRANKL, LUDWIG AUGUST (1810-1894), Austrian poet. 
He took part in the revolution of 1848, and his poems on liberty 
had considerable vogue. His lyrics are among his best work. 
He was secretary of the Jewish community in Vienna, and did a 
lasting service to education by his visit to the Orient in 1856. 
He founded the first modern Jewish school (the Von Lammel 
Schule) in Jerusalem. His brilliant volumes Nach Jerusalem 
describing his eastern tour have been translated into English, 
as is the case with many of his poems. His collected poems 
appeared in three volumes in 1880. (I. A.) 

FRANKLAND, SIR EDWARD (1825-1899), English chemist, 
was born at Churchtown, near Lancaster, on the 18th of January 
1825. After attending the grammar school at Lancaster he spent 
•six years as an apprentice to a druggist in that town. In 1845 
he went to London and entered Lyon Playfair's laboratory, 
subsequently working under R. W. Bunsen at Marburg. In 
1847 he was appointed science-master at Queen wood school, 
Hampshire, where he first met J. Tyndall, and in 1851 first 
professor of chemistry at Owens College, Manchester. Return- 
ing to London six years later he became lecturer in chemistry 
at St Bartholomew's hospital, and in 1863 professor of chemistry 
at the Royal Institution. From an early age he engaged in 
original research with great success. 

Analytical problems, such as the isolation of certain organic 
radicals, attracted his attention to begin with, but he soon 
turned to synthetical studies, and he was only about twenty-five 
years of age when an investigation, doubtless suggested by the 
work of his master, Bunsen, on cacodyl, yielded the interesting 
discovery of the organo-metallic compounds. The theoretical 
deductions which he drew from the consideration of these bodies 
were even more interesting and important than the bodies 
themselves. Perceiving a molecular isonomy between them and 
the inorganic compounds of the metals from which they may be 
formed; he saw their true molecular type in the oxygen, sulphur 
or chlorine compounds of those metals, from which he held 
them to be derived by the substitution of an organic group for 
the oxygen, sulphur, &c. In this way they enabled him to over- 
throw the theory of conjugate compounds, and they further led 
him in 1852 to publish the conception that the atoms of each 
elementary substance have a definite saturation capacity, so 
that they can only combine with a certain limited number of 
the atoms of other elements. The theory of valency thus founded 
has dominated the subsequent development of chemical doctrine, 
and forms the groundwork upon which the fabric of modern 
structural chemistry reposes. 

In applied chemistry Frankland's great work was in connexion 
with water-supply. Appointed a member of the second royal 
commission on the pollution of rivers in 1 868, he was provided 



by the government with a completely-equipped laboratory, in 
which, for a period of six years, he carried on the inquiries 
necessary for the purposes of that body, and was thus the means 
of bringing to light an enormous amount of valuable information 
respecting the contamination of rivers by sewage, trade-refuse, 
&c, and the purification of water for domestic use. In 1865, 
when he succeeded A. W. von Hofmann at the School of Mines, 
he undertook the duty of making monthly reports to the registrar- 
general on the character of the water supplied to London, and 
these he continued down to the end of his life. At one time he 
was an unsparing critic of its quality, but in later years he became 
strongly convinced of its general excellence and wholesomeness. 
His analyses were both chemical and bacteriological, and his 
dissatisfaction with the processes in vogue for the former at 
the time of his appointment caused him to spend two years in 
devising new and more accurate methods. In 1859 he passed a 
night on the very top of Mont Blanc in company with John 
Tyndall. One of the purposes of the expedition was to discover 
whether the rate of combustion of a candle varies with the 
density of the atmosphere in which it is burnt, a question which 
was answered in the negative. Other observations made by 
Frankland at the time formed the starting-point of a series of 
experiments which yielded far-reaching results. He noticed 
that at the summit the candle gave a very poor light, and was 
thereby led to investigate the effect produced on luminous 
flames by varying the pressure of the atmosphere in which they 
are burning. He found that pressure increases luminosity, so 
that hydrogen, for example, the flame of which in normal 
circumstances gives no light, burns with a luminous flame under 
a pressure of ten or twenty atmospheres, and the inference he 
drew was that the presence of solid particles is not the only 
factor that determines the light-giving power of a flame. 
Further, he showed that the spectrum of a dense ignited gas 
resembles that of an incandescent liquid or solid, and he traced a 
gradual change in the spectrum of an incandescent gas under 
increasing pressure, the sharp lines observable when it is ex- 
tremely attenuated broadening out to nebulous bands as the 
pressure rises, till they merge in the continuous spectrum as the 
gas approaches a density comparable with that of the liquid 
state. An application of these results to solar physics in con- 
junction with Sir Norman Lockyer led to the view that at least 
the external layers of the sun cannot consist of matter in the 
liquid or solid forms, but must be composed of gases or vapours. 
Frankland and Lockyer were also the discoverers of helium. 
In 1868 they noticed in the solar spectrum a bright yellow line 
which did not correspond to any substance then known, and 
which they therefore attributed to the then hypothetical element, 

Sir Edward Frankland, who was made a K.C.B. in 1897, died 
on the 9th of August 1899 while on a holiday at Golaa, Gud- 
brandsdalen, Norway. 

A memorial lecture delivered by Professor H. E. Armstrong before 
the London Chemical Society on the 31st of October 1901 contained 
many personal details of Frankland's life, together with a full 
discussion of his scientific work; and a volume of Autobiographical 
Sketches was printed for private circulation in 1902. His original 
papers, down to 1877, were collected and published in that year as 
Experimental Researches in Pure, Applied and Physical Chemistry. 

FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN (1706-1790), American diplomat, 
statesman and scientist, was born on the 17th of January 1706 
in a house in Milk Street, opposite the Old South church, Boston, 
Massachusetts. He was the tenth son of Josiah Franklin, and 
the eighth child and youngest son of ten children borne by 
Abiah Folger, his father's second wife. The elder Franklin was 
born at Ecton in Northamptonshire, England, where the 
strongly Protestant Franklin family may be traced back for 
nearly four centuries. He had married young and had migrated 
from Banbury to Boston, Massachusetts, in 1685. Benjamin 
could not remember when he did not know how to read, and 
when eight years old he was sent to the Boston grammar school, 
being destined by his father for the church as a tithe of his sons. 
He spent a year there and a year in a school for writing and 
arithmetic, and then at the age of ten he was taken from school 

to assist his father in the business of a tallow-chandler and soap- 
boiler. In his thirteenth year he was apprenticed to his half- 
brother James, who was establishing himself in the printing 
business, and who in 1721 started the New England Courant, 
one of the earliest newspapers in America. 

Benjamin's tastes had at first been for the sea rather than the 
pulpit; now they inclined rather to intellectual than to other 
pleasures. At an early age he had made himself familiar with 
The Pilgrim's Progress, with Locke, On the Human Understanding, 
and with a volume of The Spectator. Thanks to his father's 
excellent advice, he gave up writing doggerel verse (much of 
which had been printed by his brother and sold on the streets) 
and turned to prose composition. His success in reproducing 
articles he had read in The Spectator led him to write an article 
for his brother's paper, which he slipped under the door of the 
printing shop with no name attached, and which was printed and 
attracted some attention. After repeated successes of the same 
sort Benjamin threw off his disguise and contributed regularly 
to the Courant. When, after various journalistic indiscretions, 
James Franklin in 1722 was forbidden to publish the Courant, 
it appeared with Benjamin's name as that of the publisher and 
was received with much favour, chiefly because of the cleverness 
of his articles signed " Dr Janus," which, like those previously 
signed " Mistress Silence Dogood," gave promise of " Poor 
Richard." But Benjamin's management of the paper, and 
particularly his free-thinking, displeased the authorities; the 
relations of the two brothers gradually grew unfriendly, possibly, 
as Benjamin thought, because of his brother's jealousy of his 
superior ability; and Benjamin determined to quit his brother's 
employ and to leave New England. He made his way first to 
New York City, and then (October 1723) to Philadelphia, where 
he got employment with a printer named Samuel Keimer. 1 

A rapid composer and a workman full of resource, Franklip 
was soon recognized as the master spirit of the shop. Sir William 
Keith (1680-1749), governor of the province, urged him to start 
in business for himself, and when Franklin had unsuccessfully 
appealed to his father for the means to do so, Keith promised 
to furnish him with what he needed for the equipment of a new 
printing office and sent him to England to buy the materials. 
Keith had repeatedly promised to send a letter of credit by the 
ship on which Franklin sailed, but when the Channel was reached 
and the ship's mails were examined no such letter was found. 
Franklin reached London in December 1724, and found employ- 
ment first at Palmer's, a famous printing house in Bartholomew 
Close, and afterwards at Watts's Printing House. At Palmer's 
he had set up a second edition of Wollaston's Religion of Nature 
Delineated. To refute this book and to prove that there could 
be no such thing as religion, lie wrote and printed a small pam- 
phlet, A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain, 
which brought him some curious acquaintances, and of which 
he soon became thoroughly ashamed. After a year and a half 
in London, Franklin was persuaded by a friend named Denham, 
a Quaker merchant, to return with hint to America and engage 
in mercantile business; he accordingly gave up printing, but 
a few days before sailing he received a tempting offer to remain 
and give lessons in swimming — his feats as a swimmer having 
given him considerable reputation — and he says that he might 
have consented " had the overtures been sooner made." He 
reached Philadelphia in October 1726, but a few months later 
Denham died, and Franklin was induced by large wages to 
return to his old employer Keimer; with Keimer he quarrelled 
repeatedly, thinking himself ill used and kept only to train 
apprentices until they could in some degree take his place. 

1 Keimer and his sister had come the year before from London, 
where he had learned his trade; both were ardent members of the 
fanatic band of " French prophets." He proposed founding a new 
sect with the help of Franklin, who after leaving his shop ridiculed 
him for his long square beard and for keeping the seventh day. 
Keimer settled in the Barbadoes about 1730; and in 1731 began 
to publish at Bridgetown the semi-weekly Barbadoes Gazette. Selec- 
tions from it called Caribbeana (1741) and A Brand Plucked from the 
Burning, Exemplified in the Unparalleled Case of Samuel Keimer 
(17J8) are from his pen. He died about 1738. 



In 1728 Franklin and Hugh Meredith, a fellow-worker at 
Keimer's, set up in business for themselves; the capital being 
furnished by Meredith's father. In 1730 the partnership was 
dissolved, and Franklin, through the financial assistance of two 
friends, secured the sole management of the printing house. 
In September 1729 he bought at a merely nominal price The 
Pennsylvania Gazette, a weekly newspaper which Keimer had 
started nine months before to defeat a similar project of 
Franklin's, and which Franklin conducted until 1 765. Franklin's 
superior management of the paper, his new type, " some spirited 
remarks " on the controversy between the Massachusetts 
assembly and Governor Burnet, brought his paper into immediate 
notice, and his success both as a printer and as a journalist was 
assured and complete. In 1731 he established in Philadelphia 
one of the earliest circulating libraries in America (often said to 
have been the earliest), and in 1732 he published the first of his 
Almanacks, under the pseudonym of Richard Saunders. These 
" Poor Richard's Almanacks " were issued for the next twenty-five 
years with remarkable success, the annual sale averaging 10,000 
copies, and far exceeding the sale of any other publication in 
the colonies. 

Beginning in 1733 Franklin taught himself enough French, 
Italian, Spanish and Latin to read these languages with some 
ease. In 1736 he was chosen clerk of the General Assembly, 
and served in this capacity until 1751. In 1737 he had been 
appointed postmaster at Philadelphia, and about the same time 
he organized the first police force and fire company in the colonies; 
in 1749, after he had written Proposals Relating to the Education 
of Youth in Pensilvania, he and twenty-three other citizens of 
Philadelphia formed themselves into an association for the 
purpose of establishing an academy, which was opened in 1751, 
was chartered in 1753, and eventually became the University 
of Pennsylvania; in 1727 he organized a debating club, the 
" Junto," in Philadelphia, and later he was one of the founders of 
the American Philosophical Society (1743; incorporated 1780); 
he took the lead in the organization of a militia force, and in the 
paving of the city streets, improved the method of street lighting, 
and assisted in the founding of a city hospital (1751); in brief, 
he gave the impulse to nearly every measure or project for the 
welfare and prosperity of Philadelphia undertaken in his day. 
In T751 he became a member of the General Assembly of Penn- 
sylvania, in which he served for thirteen years. In 1753 he and 
William Hunter were put in charge of the post service of the 
colonies, which he brought in the next ten years to a high 
state of efficiency and made a financial success; this position 
he held until 1774. He visited nearly every post office in the 
colonies and increased the mail service between New York 
and Philadelphia from once to three times a week in summer, 
and from twice a month to once a week in winter. When 
war with France appeared imminent in 1754, Franklin was 
sent to the Albany Convention, where he submitted his plan for 
colonial union (see Albany, N.Y.). When the home govern- 
ment sent over General Edward Braddock 1 with two regiments 
of British troops, Franklin undertook to secure the requisite 
number of horses and waggons for the march against Ft. 
Duquesne, and became personally responsible for payment to 
the Pennsylvanians who furnished them. Notwithstanding the 
alarm occasioned by Braddock's defeat, the old quarrel between 
the proprietors of Pennsylvania and the assembly prevented 
any adequate preparations for defence; " with incredible 
meanness " the proprietors had instructed their governors to 
approve no act for levying the necessary taxes, unless the vast 
estates of the proprietors were by the same act exempted. So 
great was the confidence in Franklin in this emergency that early 
in T756 the governor of Pennsylvania placed him in charge of the 
north-western frontier of the province, with power to raise troops, 
issue commissions and erect blockhouses; and Franklin remained 
in the wilderness for over a month, superintending the building 

1 The meeting between Franklin, the type of the shrewd, cool 
provincial, and Braddock, a blustering, blundering, drinking British 
soldier, is dramatically portrayed by Thackeray in the 9th chapter 
of The Virginians. 

of forts and watching the Indians. In February 1757 the 
assembly, " finding the proprietary obstinately persisted in 
manacling their deputies with instructions inconsistent not only 
with the privileges of the people, but with the service of the crown, 
resolv'd to petition the king against them," and appointed 
Franklin as their agent to present the petition. He arrived in 
London on the 27th of July 1757, and shortly afterwards, when, 
at a conference with Earl Granville, president of the council, 
the latter declared that " the King is the legislator of the colonies," 
Franklin in reply declared that the laws of the colonies were to be 
made by their assemblies, to be passed upon by the king, and 
when once approved were no longer subject to repeal or amend- 
ment by the crown. As the assemblies, said he, could not make 
permanent laws without the king's consent, " neither could he 
make a law for them without theirs." This opposition of views 
distinctly raised the issue between the home government and the 
colonies. As to the proprietors Franklin succeeded in 1760 in 
securing an understanding that the assembly should pass an 
act exempting from taxation the unsurveyed waste lands of the 
Penn estate, the surveyed waste lands being assessed at the usual 
rate for other property of that description. Thus the proprietors 
finally acknowledged the right of the assembly to tax their 

The success of Franklin's first foreign mission was, therefore, 
substantial and satisfactory. During this sojourn of five years in 
England he had made many valuable friends outside of court 
and political circles, among whom Hume, Robertson and Adam 
Smith were conspicuous. In 1759, for his literary and more 
particularly his scientific attainments, he received the freedom 
of the city of Edinburgh and the degree of doctor of laws from 
the university of St Andrews. He had been made a Master of 
Arts at Harvard and at Yale in 1 7 53 , and at the college of William 
and Mary in 1756; and in 1762 he received the degree of D.C.L. 
at Oxford. While in England he had made active use of his 
remarkable talent for pamphleteering. In the clamour for peace 
following the death of George II. (25th of October 1760), he was 
for a vigorous prosecution of the war with France; he had 
written what purported to be a chapter from an old book written 
by a Spanish Jesuit, On the Meanes of Disposing the Enetnie to 
Peace, which had a great effect; and in the spring of 1760 there 
had been published a more elaborate paper written by Franklin 
with the assistance of Richard Jackson, agent of Massachusetts 
and Connecticut in London, entitled The Interest of Great Britain 
Considered with Regard to Her Colonies, and the Acquisitions of 
Canada and Guadeloupe (1760). This pamphlet answered the 
argument that it would be unsafe to keep Canada because of the 
added strength that would thus be given to any possible move- 
ment for independence in the English colonies, by urging that 
so long as Canada remained French there could be no safety 
for the English colonies in North America, nor any permanent 
peace in Europe. Tradition reports that this pamphlet had 
considerable weight in determining the ministry to retain 

Franklin sailed again for America in August 1762, hoping to be 
able to settle down in quiet and devote the remainder of his life 
to experiments in physics. This quiet was interrupted, however, 
by the " Paxton Massacre " (Dec. 14, 1763) — the slaughter of a 
score of Indians (children, women and old men) at Lancaster, 
Pennsylvania, by some young rowdies from the town of Paxton, 
who then marched upon Philadelphia to kill a few Christian 
Indians there. Franklin, appealed to by the governor, raised 
a troop sufficient to frighten away the " Paxton boys," and for 
the moment there seemed a possibility' of an understanding 
between Franklin and the proprietors. But the question of 
taxing the estates of the proprietors came up in a new form, 
and a petition from the assembly was drawn by Franklin, 
requesting the king " to resume the government " of Penn- 
sylvania. In the autumn election of 1764 the influence of the 
proprietors was exerted against Franklin, and by an adverse 
majority of 25 votes in 4000 he failed to be re-elected to the 
assembly. The new assembly sent Franklin again to England as 
its special agent to take charge of another petition for .1 change 



of government, which, however, came to nothing.. Matters 
of much greater consequence soon demanded Franklin's 

Early in 1764 Lord Grenville had informed the London agents 
of the American colonies that he proposed to lay a portion of the 
burden left by the war with France upon the shoulders of the 
colonists by means of a stamp duty, unless some other tax 
equally productive and less inconvenient were proposed. The 
natural objection of the colonies, as voiced, for example, by the 
assembly of Pennsylvania, was that it was a cruel thing to tax 
colonies already taxed beyond their strength, and surrounded 
by enemies and exposed to constant expenditures for defence, 
and that it was an indignity that they should be taxed by a 
parliament in which they were not represented; at the same time 
the Pennsylvania assembly recognized it as " their duty to 
grant aid to the crown, according to their abilities, whenever 
required of them in the usual manner." To prevent the intro- 
duction of the Stamp Act, which he characterized as " the mother 
of mischief," Franklin used every effort, but the bill was easily 
passed, and it was thought that the colonists would soon be 
reconciled to it. Because he, too, thought so, and because he 
recommended John Hughes, a merchant of Philadelphia, for the 
office of distributor of stamps, Franklin himself was denounced 
— he was even accused of having planned the Stamp Act — and 
his family in Philadelphia was in danger of being mobbed. Of 
Franklin's examination, in February 1766, by the House in 
Committee of the Whole, as to the effects of the Stamp Act, 
Burke said that the scene reminded him of a master examined 
by a parcel of schoolboys, and George Whitefield said: " Dr 
Franklin has gained immortal honour by his behaviour at the 
bar of the House. His answer was always found equal to the 
questioner. He stood unappalled, gave pleasure to his friends 
and did honour to his country." l Franklin compared the position 
of the colonies to that of Scotland in the days before the union, and 
in the same year (1766) audaciously urged a similar union with 
the colonies before it was too late. The knowledge of colonial 
affairs gained from Franklin's testimony, probably more than all 
other causes combined, determined the immediate repeal of the 
Stamp Act. For Franklin this was a great triumph, and the news 
of it filled the colonists with delight and restored him to their 
confidence and affection. Another bill (the Declaratory Act), 
however, was almost immediately passed by the king's party, 
asserting absolute supremacy of parliament over the colonies, 
and in the succeeding parliament, by the Townshend Acts of 
1767, duties were imposed on paper, paints and glass imported 
by the colonists; a tax was imposed on tea also. The imposition 
of these taxes was bitterly resented in the colonies, where it 
quickly crystallized public opinion round the principle of " No 
taxation without representation." In spite of the opposition 
in the colonies to the Declaratory Act, the Townshend Acts 
and the tea tax, Franklin continued to assure the British ministry 
and the British public of the loyalty of the colonists. He tried 
to find some middle ground of reconciliation, and kept up his 
quiet work of informing England as to the opinions and conditions 
of the colonies, and of moderating the attitude of the colonies 
toward the home government; so that, as he said, he was accused 
in America of being too much an Englishman, and in England 
of being too much an American. He was agent now, not only of 
Pennsylvania, but also of New Jersey, of Georgia and of Massa- 
chusetts. Hillsborough, who became secretary of state for the 
colonies in 1768, refused to recognize Franklin as agent of 
Massachusetts, because the governor of Massachusetts had not 
approved the appointment, which was by resolution of the 
assembly. Franklin contended that the governor, as a mere 
agent of the king, could have nothing to do with the assembly's 
appointment of its agent to the king; that " the King, and not 
the King, Lords, and Commons collectively, is their sovereign; 
and that the King, with their respective Parliaments, is their only 
legislator." Franklin's influence helped to oust Hillsborough, 
and Dartmouth, whose name Franklin suggested, was made 

1 Many questions (about 20 of the first 25) were put by his friends 
to draw out what he wished to be known. 

secretary in 1772 and promptly recognized Franklin as the agent 
of Massachusetts. 

In 1 7 73 there appeared in the Public Advertiser one of Franklin's 
cleverest hoaxes, " An Edict of the King of Prussia," proclaiming 
that the island of Britain was a colony of Prussia, having been 
settled by Angles and Saxons, having been protected by Prussia, 
having been defended by Prussia against France in the war just 
past, and never having been definitely freed from Prussia's 
rule; and that, therefore, Great Britain should now submit to 
certain taxes laid by Prussia — the taxes being identical with 
those laid upon the American colonies by Great Britain. In 
the same year occurred the famous episode of the Hutchinson 
Letters. These were written by Thomas Hutchinson, Governor 
of Massachusetts, Andrew Oliver (1706-1774), his lieutenant- 
governor, and others to William Whately, a member of Parlia- 
ment, and private secretary to George Grenville, suggesting an 
increase of the power of the governor at the expense of the 
assembly, " an abridgement of what are called English liberties," 
and other measures more extreme than those. undertaken by the 
government. The correspondence was shown to Franklin by 
a mysterious " member of parliament " to back up the contention 
that the quartering of troops in Boston was suggested, not by 
the British ministry, but by Americans and Bostonians. Upon 
his promise not to publish the letters Franklin received permission 
to send them to Massachusetts, where they were much passed 
about and were printed, and they were soon republished in English 
newspapers.' The Massachusetts assembly on receiving the 
letters resolved to petition the crown for the removal of both 
Hutchinson and Oliver. The petition was refused and was con- 
demned as scandalous, and Franklin, who took upon himself 
the responsibility for the publication of the letters, in the hearing 
before the privy council at the Cockpit on the 29th of January 
1774 was insulted and was called a thief by Alexander Wedder- 
burn (the solicitor-general, who appeared for Hutchinson and 
Oliver), and was removed from his position as head of the post 
office in the American colonies. 

Satisfied that his usefulness in England was at an end, Franklin 
entrusted his agencies to the care of Arthur Lee, and on the 
21st of March 1775 again set sail for Philadelphia. During the 
last years of his stay in England there had been repeated attempts 
to win him (probably with an under-secretaryship) to the British 
service, and in these same years he had done a great work for 
the colonies by gaining friends for them among the opposition, 
and by impressing France with his ability and the excellence of 
his case. Upon reaching America, he heard of the fighting at 
Lexington and Concord, and with the news of an actual outbreak 
of hostilities his feeling toward England seems to have changed 
completely. He was no longer a peacemaker, but an ardent war- 
maker. On the 6th of May, the day after his arrival in Phila- 
delphia, he was elected by the assembly of Pennsylvania a 
delegate to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia. In October 
he was elected a member of the Pennsylvania assembly, but, as 
members of this body were still required to take an oath of 
allegiance to the crown, he refused to serve. In the Congress 
he served on as many as ten committees, and upon the organiza- 
tion of a continental postal system, he was made postmaster- 
general, a position he held for one year, when (in 1776) he was 
succeeded by his son-in-law, Richard Bache, who had been his 
deputy. With Benjamin Harrison, John Dickinson, Thomas 
Johnson and John Jay he was appointed in November 1775 
to a committee to carry on a secret correspondence with the 
friends of America " in Great Britain, Ireland and other parts of 
the world." He planned an appeal to the king of France for 
aid, and wrote the instructions of Silas Deane who was to convey 
it. In April 1776 he went to Montreal with Charles Carroll, 
Samuel Chase and John Carroll, as a member of the commission 
which conferred with General Arnold, and attempted without 
success to gain the co-operation of Canada. Immediately after 
his return from Montreal he was a member of the committee of 
five appointed to draw up the Declaration of Independence, 
but he took no actual part himself in drafting that instru- 
ment, aside from suggesting the change or insertion of a few 



words in Jefferson's draft. From July 16 to September 28 he 
acted as president of the Constitutional Convention of Penn- 

With John Adams and Edward Rutledge he was selected 
by Congress to discuss with Admiral Howe (September 1776, 
at Staten Island) the terms of peace proposed by Howe, who had 
arrived in New York harbour in July 1776, and who had been 
an intimate friend of Franklin; but the discussion was fruitless, 
as the American commissioners refused to treat " back of this 
step of independency." On the 26th of September in the same 
year Franklin was chosen as commissioner to France to join 
Arthur Lee, who was in London, and Silas Deane, who had 
arrived in France in June 1776. He collected all the money he 
could command, between £3000 and £4000, lent it to Congress 
before he set sail, and arrived at Paris on the 22nd of December. 
He found quarters at Passy, 1 then a suburb of Paris, in a house 
belonging to Le Ray de Chaumont, an active friend of the 
American cause, who had influential relations with the court, 
and through whom he was enabled to be in the fullest communica- 
tion with the French government without compromising it in the 
eyes of Great Britain. 

At the time of Franklin's arrival in Paris he was already one 
of the most talked about men in the world. He was a member 
of every important learned society in Europe; he was a member, 
and one of the managers, of the Royal Society, and was one of 
eight foreign members of the Royal Academy of Sciences in 
Paris. Three editions of his scientific works had already appeared 
in Paris, and a new edition had recently appeared in London. 
To all these advantages he added a political purpose— the 
dismemberment of the British empire — which was entirely 
congenial to every citizen of France. " Franklin's reputation," 
wrote John Adams with characteristic extravagance, " was more 
universal than that of Leibnitz or Newton, Frederick or 
Voltaire; and his character more esteemed and beloved than 
all of them. . . . If a collection could be made of all the gazettes 
of Europe, for the latter half of the 18th century, a greater 
number of panegyrical paragraphs upon le grand Franklin 
would appear, it is believed, than upon any other man that ever 
lived." " Franklin's appearance in the French salons, even 
before he began to negotiate," says Friedrich Christoph Schlosser, 
" was an event of great importance to the whole of Europe. . . . 
His dress, the simplicity of his external appearance, the friendly 
meekness of the old man, and the apparent humility of the 
Quaker, procured for Freedom a mass of votaries among the 
court circles who used to be alarmed at its coarseness and un- 
sophisticated truths. Such was the number of portraits, 2 busts 
and medallions of him in circulation before he left Paris that he 
would have been recognized from them by any adult citizen 
in any part of the civilized world." 

Franklin's position in France was a difficult one from the 
start, because of the delicacy of the task of getting French aid 
at a time when France was unready openly to take sides against 
Great Britain. But on the 6th of February 1778, after the 
news of the defeat and surrender of Burgoyne had reached 
Europe, a treaty of alliance and a treaty of amity and commerce 
between France and the United States were signed at Paris by 
Franklin, Deane and Lee. On the 28th of October this com- 
mission was discharged and Franklin was appointed sole pleni- 
potentiary to the French court. Lee, from the beginning of the 
mission to Paris, seems to have been possessed of a mania of 
jealousy toward Franklin, or of misunderstanding of his acts, 
and he tried to undermine his influence with the Continental 
Congress. John Adams, when he succeeded Deane (recalled 
from Paris through Lee's machinations) joined in the chorus of 
fault-finding against Franklin, dilated upon his social habits, 
his personal slothfulness and his complete lack of business-like 
system; but Adams soon came to see that, although careless 
of details, Franklin was doing what no other man could have 

1 The house is familiar from the drawing of it by Victor Hugo. 

1 Many of these portraits bore inscriptions, the most famous 
of which was Turgot's line, " Eripuit fulmen coelo sceptrumque 

done, and he ceased his harsher criticism. Even greater than 
his diplomatic difficulties were Franklin's financial straits. 
Drafts were being drawn on him by all the American agents in 
Europe, and by the Continental Congress at home. Acting as 
American naval agent for the many successful privateers 
who harried the English Channel, and for whom he skilfully 
got every bit of assistance possible, open and covert, from the 
French government, he was continually called upon for funds 
in these ventures. Of the vessels to be sent to Paris with 
American cargoes which were to be sold for the liquidation of 
French loans to the colonies made through Beaumarchais, few 
arrived; those that did come did not cover Beaumarchais's 
advances, and hardly a vessel came from America without 
word of fresh drafts on Franklin. After bold and repeated 
overtures for an exchange of prisoners — an important matter, 
both because the American frigates had no place in which to 
stow away their prisoners, and because of the maltreatment 
of American captives in such prisons as Dartmoor — exchanges 
began at the end of March 1779, although there were annoying 
delays, and immediately after November 1781 there was a long 
break in the agreement; and the Americans discharged from 
English prisons were constantly in need of money. Franklin, 
besides, was constantly called upon to meet the indebtedness 
of Lee and of Ralph Izard (1742-1804), and of John Jay, who 
in Madrid was being drawn on by the American Congress. In 
spite of the poor condition in Europe of the credit of the strugg- 
ling colonies, and of the fact that France was almost bankrupt 
(and in the later years was at war), and although Necker strenu- 
ously resisted the making of any loans to the colonies, France, 
largely because of Franklin's appeals, expended, by loan or gift 
to the colonies, or in sustenance of the French arms in America, 
a sum estimated at $60,000,000. 

In 1 781 Franklin, with John Adams, John Jay, Jefferson, 
who remained in America, and Henry Laurens, then a prisoner 
in England, was appointed on a commission to make peace with 
Great Britain. In the spring of 1782 Franklin had been inform- 
ally negotiating with Shelburne, secretary of state for the home 
department, through the medium of Richard Oswald, a Scotch 
merchant, and had suggested that England should cede Canada 
to the United States in return for the recognition of loyalist 
claims by the states. When the formal negotiations began 
Franklin held closely to the instructions of Congress to • its 
commissioners, that they should maintain confidential relations 
with the French ministers and that they were " to undertake 
nothing in the negotiations for peace or truce without their 
knowledge and concurrence," and were ultimately to be governed 
by " their advice and opinion." Jay and Adams disagreed with 
him on this point, believing that France intended to curtail 
the territorial aspirations of the Americans for her own benefit 
and for that of her ally, Spain. At last, after the British govern- 
ment had authorized its agents to treat with the commissioners 
as representatives of an independent power, thus recognizing 
American independence before the treaty was made, Franklin, 
acquiesced in the policy of Jay. The preliminary treaty was 
signed by the commissioners on the 30th of November 1782, 
the final treaty on the 3rd of September 1783. Franklin had 
repeatedly petitioned Congress for his recall, but his letters 
were unanswered or his appeals refused until the 7th of March 
1785, when Congress resolved that he be allowed to return to 
America; on the 10th of March Thomas Jefferson, who had 
joined him in August of the year before, was appointed to his 
place. Jefferson, when asked if he replaced Franklin, replied, 
" No one can replace him, sir; I am only his successor." Before 
Franklin left Paris on the 12th of July 1785 he had made 
commercial treaties with Sweden (1783) and Prussia (1785; 
signed after Franklin's departure by Jefferson and John Adams). 
Franklin arrived in Philadelphia on the 13th of September, 
disembarking at the same wharf as when he had first entered the 
city. He was immediately elected a member of the municipal 
council of Philadelphia, becoming its chairman; and was chosen 
president of the Supreme Executive Council (the chief executive 
officer) of Pennsylvania, and was re-elected in 1786 and 1787, 



serving from October 1785 to October 1788. In May 1787 he 
was elected a delegate to the Convention which drew up the 
Federal Constitution, this body thus having a member upon 
whom all could agree as chairman, should Washington be absent. 
He opposed over-centralization of government and favoured the 
Connecticut Compromise, and after the work of the Convention 
was done used his influence to secure the adoption of the Con- 
stitution. 1 As president of the Pennsylvania Society for 
Promoting the Abolition of Slavery, Franklin signed a petition 
to Congress (12th February 1790) for immediate abolition of 
slavery, and six weeks later in his most brilliant manner parodied 
the attack on the petition made by James Jackson (1757-1806) 
of Georgia, taking off Jackson's quotations of Scripture with 
pretended texts from the Koran cited by a member of the Divan 
of Algiers in opposition to a petition asking for the prohibition 
of holding Christians in slavery. These were his last public 
acts. His last days were marked by a fine serenity and calm; 
he died in his own house in Philadelphia on the 17th of April 
1 790, the immediate cause being an abscess in the lungs. He was 
buried with his wife in the graveyard (Fifth and Arch Streets) 
of Christ Church, Philadelphia. 

Physically Franklin was large, about 5 ft. 10 in. tall, with a 
well-rounded, powerful figure; he inherited an excellent con- 
stitution from his parents — " I never knew," says he, " either 
my father or mother to have any sickness but that of which 
they dy'd, he at 89, and she at 85 years of age " — but injured it 
somewhat by excesses; in early life he had severe attacks of 
pleurisy, from one of which, in 1727, it was not expected that he 
would recover, and in his later years he was the victim of stone 
and gout. When he was sixteen he became a vegetarian for a 
time, rather to save money for books than for any other reason, 
and he always preached moderation in eating, though he was 
less consistent in his practice in this particular than as regards 
moderate drinking. He was always enthusiastically fond of 
swimming, and was a great believer in fresh air, taking a cold 
air bath regularly in the morning, when he sat naked in his 
bedroom beguiling himself with a book or with writing for a 
half-hour or more. He insisted that fresh, cold air was not the 
cause of colds, and preached zealously the " gospel of ventila- 
tion." He was a charming talker, with a gay humour and a 
quiet sarcasm and a telling use of anecdote for argument. Henri 
Martin, the French historian, speaks of him as " of a mind 
altogether French in its grace and elasticity." In 1730 he 
married Deborah Read, in whose father's house he had lived 
when he had first come to Philadelphia, to whom he had been 
engaged before his first departure from Philadelphia for London, 
and who in his absence had married a ne'er-do-well, one Rogers, 
who had deserted her. The marriage to Franklin is presumed 
to have been a common law marriage, for there was no proof 
that Miss Read's former husband was dead, nor that, as was 
suspected, a former wife, alive when Rogers married Miss Read, 
was still alive, and that therefore his marriage to Deborah was 
.void. His " Debby," or his " dear child," as Franklin usually 
addressed her in his letters, received into the family, soon after 
her marriage, Franklin's illegitimate son, William Franklin 
(1729-1813), 2 with whom she afterwards quarrelled, and whose 
mother, tradition says, was Barbara, a servant in the Franklin 
household. Another illegitimate child became the wife of John 
Foxcroft of Philadelphia. Deborah, who was " as much dispos'd 
to industry and frugality as " her husband, was illiterate and 
shared none of her husband's tastes for literature and science; 

1 Notably in a pamphlet comparing the Jews and the Anti- 

2 William Franklin served on the Canadian frontier with Pennsyl- 
vania troops, becoming captain in 1750; was in the post-office in 
1754-1756; went to England with his father in 1758; was admitted 
to legal practice in 1758; in 1763, recommended by Lord Fairfax, 
became governor of New Jersey; he left the Whig for the Tory 
party; and in the War of Independence was a faithful loyalist, 
much to the pain and regret of his father, who, however, was recon- 
ciled to him in part in 1784. He was held as a prisoner from 1776 
until exchanged in 1778; and lived four years in New York, and 
during the remainder of his life in England with an annual pension of 
£800 from the crown. 

her dread of an ocean voyage kept her in Philadelphia during 
Franklin's missions to England, and she died in 1774, while 
Franklin was in London. She bore him two children, one a son, 
Francis Folger, " whom I have seldom since seen equal'd in 
everything, and whom to this day [thirty-six years after the 
child's death] I cannot think of without a sigh," who died (1736) 
when four years old of small-pox, not having been inoculated; 
the other was Sarah (1744-1808), who married Richard Bache 
(1737-1811), Franklin's successor in 1776-1782 as postmaster- 
general. Franklin's gallant relations with women after his wife's 
death were probably innocent enough. Best known of his French 
amies were Mme Helvetius, widow of the philosopher, and the 
young Mme Brillon, who corrected her " Papa's " French and 
tried to bring him safely into the Roman Catholic Church. 
With him in France were his grandsons, William Temple 
Franklin, William Franklin's natural son, who acted as private 
secretary to his grandfather, and Benjamin Franklin Bache 
(1769-1798), Sarah's son, whom he sent to Geneva to be educated, 
for whom he later asked public office of Washington, and who 
became editor of the Aurora, one of the leading journals in the 
Republican attacks on Washington. 

Franklin early rebelled against New England Puritanism and 
spent his Sundays in reading and in study instead of attending 
church. His free-thinking ran its extreme course at the time of 
his publication in London of A Dissertation on Liberty and 
Necessity, Pleasure and Pain (17 25),. which he recognized as one 
of the great errata of his life. He later called himself a deist, 
or theist, not discriminating between the terms. To his favourite 
sister he wrote: " There are some things in your New England 
doctrine and worship which I do not agree with; but I do not 
therefore condemn them, or desire to shake your Taelief or 
practice of them." Such was his general attitude. He did not 
believe in the divinity of Christ, but thought " his system of 
morals and his religion, as he left them to us, the best the world 
ever saw, or is like to see." His intense practical-mindedness 
drew him away from- religion, but drove him to a morality of his 
own (the " art of virtue," he called it), based on thirteen virtues 
each accompanied by a short precept ; the virtues were Temper- 
ance, Silence, Order, Resolution, Frugality, Industry, Sincerity, 
Justice, Moderation, Cleanliness, Tranquility, Chastity and 
Humility, the precept accompanying the last-named virtue 
being " Imitate Jesus and Socrates." He made a business-like 
little notebook, ruled off spaces for the thirteen virtues and the 
seven days of the week, " determined to give a week's strict 
attention to each of the virtues successively . . . [going] thro* 
a course compleate in thirteen weeks and four courses in a year," 
marking for each day a record of his adherence to each of the 
precepts. " And conceiving God to be the fountain of wisdom," 
he " thought it right and necessary to solicit His assistance for 
obtaining it," and drew up the following prayer for daily use: 
" O powerful Goodness! bountiful Father ! merciful Guide ! 
Increase in me that wisdom which discovers my truest interest. 
Strengthen my resolution to perform what that wisdom dictates. 
Accept my kind offices to Thy other children, as the only return 
in my power for Thy continual favours to me." He was by no 
means prone to overmuch introspection, his great interest 
in the conduct of others being shown in the wise maxims of Poor 
Richard, which were possibly too utilitarian but were wonderfully 
successful in instructing American morals. His Art of Virtue 
on which he worked for years was never completed or published 
in any form. 

" Benjamin Franklin, Printer," was Franklin's own favourite 
description of himself. He was an excellent compositor and 
pressman; his workmanship, clear impressions, black ink and 
comparative freedom from errata did much to get him the 
public printing in Pennsylvania and New Jersey, and the printing 
of the paper money' and other public matters in Delaware. 
The first book with his imprint is The Psalms of David Imitated in 

* For the prevention of counterfeiting continental paper money 
Franklin long afterwards suggested the use on the different de- 
nominations of different leaves, having not^d the infinite variety of 
leaf venation. 



the Language of the New Testament and apply'd to the Christian 
Slate and Worship. By I. Watts . . ., Philadelphia: Printed 
by B. F. and H. M. for Thomas Godfrey, and Sold at his Shop, 
1729. The first novel printed in America was Franklin's reprint 
in 1744 of Pamela; and the first American translation from 
the classics which was printed in America was a version by 
James Logan (1674-1751) of Cato's Moral Distichs (1735). In 
1 744 he published another translation of Logan's, Cicero On Old 
Age, which Franklin thought typographically the finest book 
he had ever printed. In 1733 he had established a press in 
Charleston, South Carolina, and soon after did the same in 
Lancaster, Pa., in New Haven, Conn., in New York, in Antigua, 
in Kingston, Jamaica, and in other places. Personally he had 
little connexion with the Philadelphia printing office after 1748, 
when David Hall became his partner and took charge of it. 
But in 1753 he was eagerly engaged in having several of his 
improvements incorporated in a new press, and more than 
twenty years after was actively interested in John Walter's 
scheme of " logography." In France he had a private press in 
his house in Passy, on which he printed " bagatelles." Franklin's 
work as a publisher is for the most part closely connected with 
his work in issuing the Gazette and Poor Richard's Almanack 
(a summary of the proverbs from which appeared in the number 
for 1758, and has often been reprinted — under such titles as 
Father Abraham's Speech, and The Way to Wealth). 1 

Of much of Franklin's work as an author something has 
already been said. Judged as literature, the first place belongs 
to his Autobiography, which unquestionably ranks among the 
few great autobiographies ever written. His style in its sim- 
plicity, facility and clearness owed something to De Foe, 
something to Cotton Mather, something to Plutarch, more to 
Bunyan and to his early attempts to reproduce the manner of 
the third volume of the Spectator; and not the least to his own 
careful study of word usage. From Xenophon's Memorabilia 
he learned when a boy the Socratic method of argument. Swift 
he resembled in the occasional broadness of his humour, in his 
brilliantly successful use of sarcasm and irony, 2 and in his 
mastery of the hoax. Balzac said of him that he " invented 
the lightning-rod, the hoax (' le canard ') and the republic." 
Among his more famous hoaxes were the " Edict of the King of 
Prussia " (1773), already described; the fictitious supplement 
to the Boston Chronicle, printed on his private press at Passy in 
1782, and containing a letter with an invoice cf eight packs of 
954 cured, dried, hooped and painted scalps of rebels, men, 
women and children, taken by Indians in the British employ; 
and another fictitious Letter from the Count de Schaumberg to the 
Baron Hohendorf commanding the Hessian Troops in America 
(1777) — the count's only anxiety is that not enough men will 
be killed to bring him in moneys he needs, and he urges his 
officer in command in America " to prolong the war ... for 
I have made arrangements for a grand Italian opera, and I 
do not wish to be obliged to give it up." 3 

Closely related to Franklin's political pamphlets are his writ- 
ings on economics, which, though undertaken with a political 

1 " Seventy-five editions of it have been printed in English, fifty- 
six in French, eleven in German and nine in Italian. It has been 
translated into Spanish, Danish, Swedish, Welsh, Polish, Gaelic, 
Russian, Bohemian, Dutch, Catalan, Chinese, modern Greek and 
phonetic writing, it has been printed at least four hundred times, 
and is to-day as popular as ever." — P. L. Ford, in The Many-Sided 
Franklin (1899). 

s Both Swift and Franklin made sport of the typical astrologer 

8 Another hoax was Franklin's parable against religious perse- 
cution thrown into Scriptural form and quoted by him as the fifty- 
first chapter of Genesis. In a paper on a '' Proposed New Version 
of the Bible " he paraphrased a few verses of the first chapter of Job, 
making them a satiric attack on royal government ; but the version 
may well rank with these hoaxes, and even modern writers have 
been taken in by it, regarding it as a serious proposal for a " modern- 
ized " version and decrying it as poor taste. Matthew Arnold, for 
example, declared this an instance in which Franklin was lacking in 
his " imperturbable common sense "; and J. B. McMaster, though 
devoting several pages to its discussion, very ingenuously declares it 
" beneath criticism." 

or practical purpose and not in a purely scientific spirit, rank him 
as the first American economist. He wrote in 1729 A Modest 
Enquiry into the Nature and Necessity of a Paper Currency, which 
argued that a plentiful currency will make rates of interest low 
and will promote immigration and home manufactures, and which 
did much to secure the further issue of paper money in Penn- 
sylvania. After the British Act of 1750 forbidding the erection 
or the operating of iron or steel mills in the colonies, Franklin 
wrote Observations concerning the Increase of Mankind and the 
Peopling of Countries (1751); its thesis was that manufactures 
come to be common only with a high degree of social development 
and with great density of population, and that Great Britain 
need not, therefore, fear the industrial competition of the 
colonies, but it is better known for the estimate (adopted by 
Adam Smith) that the population of the colonies would 
double every quarter-century; and for the likeness to Malthus's 4 
" preventive check " of its statement: " The greater the common 
fashionable expense of any rank of people the more cautious they 
are of marriage." His Positions to be examined concerning 
National Wealth (1769) shows that he was greatly influenced 
by the French physiocrats after his visit to France in 1767. 
His Wail of a Protected Manufacturer voices a protest against 
protection as raising the cost of living; and he held that free 
trade was based on a natural right. He knew Karnes, Hume 
and Adam Smith, and corresponded with Mirabeau, " the friend 
of Man." Some of the more important of his economic theses, 
as summarized by W. A. Wetzel, are: that money as coin may 
have more than its bullion value; that natural interest is 
determined by the rent of land valued at the sum of money 
loaned — an anticipation of Turgot; that high wages are not 
inconsistent with a large foreign trade; that the value of an 
article is determined by the amount of labour necessary to 
produce the food consumed in making the article; that manu- 
factures are advantageous but agriculture only is truly pro- 
ductive; and that when practicable (as he did not think it 
practicable at the end of the War of Independence) state revenue 
should be raised by direct tax. 

Franklin as a scientist 5 and as an inventor has been decried 
by experts as an amateur and. a dabbler; but it should be 
remembered that it was always his hope to retire from public 
life and devote himself to science. In the American Philo- 
sophical Society (founded 1743) scientific subjects were much 
discussed. Franklin wrote a paper on the causes of earthquakes 
for his Gazette of the 15th of December 1737; and he eagerly 
collected material to uphold his theory that waterspouts and 
whirlwinds resulted from the same causes. In 1743, from the 
circumstance that an eclipse not visible in Philadelphia because 
of a storm had been observed in Boston, where the storm although 
north-easterly did not occur until an hour after the eclipse, he 
surmised that storms move against the wind along the Atlantic 
coast. In the year before (1742) he had planned the " Penn- 
sylvania fire-place," better known as the " Franklin stove," 
which saved fuel, heated all the room, and had the same principle 
as the hot-air furnace ; the stove was never patented by Franklin, 
but was described in his pamphlet dated 1744. He was much 
engaged at the same time in remedying smoking chimneys, and 
as late as 1785 wrote to Jan Ingenhousz, physician to the emperor 
of Austria, on chimneys and draughts; smoking street lamps 
he remedied by a simple contrivance. The study of electricity 
he took up in 1746 when he first saw a Leyden jar, in the mani- 
pulation of which he became expert and which he improved by 
the use of granulated lead in the place of water for the interior 
armatures; he recognized that condensation is due to the 
dielectric and not to the metal coatings. A note in his diary, 
dated the 7th of November 1749, shows that he had then 
4 Malthus quoted Franklin in his first edition, but it was not until 
the second that he introduced the theory of the " preventive check." 
Franklin noted the phenomenon with disapproval in his advocacy 
of increased population; Malthus with approval in his search for 
means to decrease population. 

6 The title of philosopher as used in Franklin's lifetime referred 
neither in England nor in France to him as author of moral maxims, 
but to him as a scientist — a " natural philosopher. " 



conjectured that thunder and lightning were electrical mani- 
festations: in the same year he planned the lightning-rod (long 
known as " Franklin's rod "), which he described and recom- 
mended to the public in 1753, when the Copley medal of the 
Royal Society was awarded him for his discoveries. The famous 
experiment with the kite, proving lightning an electrical pheno- 
menon, was performed by Franklin in June 1752. He overthrew 
entirely the " friction " theory of electricity and conceived the 
idea of plus and minus charges (1753); he thought the sea the 
source of electricity. On light Franklin wrote to David Ritten- 
house in June 1784; the sum of his own conjectures was that 
the corpuscular theory of Newton was wrong, and that light was 
due to the vibration of an elastic aether. He studied with some 
care the temperature of the Gulf Stream. In navigation he 
suggested many new contrivances, such as water-tight com- 
partments, floating anchors to lay a ship to in a storm, and dishes 
that would not upset during a gale; and beginning in 1757 
made repeated experiments with oil on stormy waters. As a 
mathematician he devised various elaborate magic squares and 
novel magic circles, of which he speaks apologetically, because 
they are of no practical use. Always much interested in agri- 
culture, he made an especial effort (like Robert R. Livingston) 
to promote the use of plaster of Paris as a fertiliser. He took 
a prominent part in aeronautic experiments during his stay in 
France. He made an excellent clock, which because of a slight 
improvement introduced by James Ferguson in 1757 was long 
known as Ferguson's clock. In medicine Franklin was considered 
important enough to be elected to the Royal Medical Society of 
Paris in- 1777, and an honorary member of the Medical Society 
of London in 1787. In 1784 he was on the committee which 
investigated Mesmer, and the report is a document of last- 
ing scientific value. Franklin's advocacy of vegetarianism, of 
sparing and simple diet, and of temperance in the use of liquors, 
and of proper ventilation has already been referred to. His most 
direct contribution to medicine was the invention for his own 
use of bifocal eyeglasses. 

A summary of so versatile a genius is impossible. His services 
to America in England and France rank him as one of the heroes 
of the American War of Independence and as the greatest of 
American diplomats. Almost the only American scientist of 
his day, he displayed remarkably deep as well as remarkably 
varied abilities in science and deserved the honours enthusi- 
astically given him by the savants of Europe. 

Bibliography. — Franklin's works were not collected in his own 
lifetime, and he made no effort to publish his writings. Experiments 
and Observations on Electricity (London, 1769) was translated into 
French by Barbeu Dubourg (Paris, 1773); Vaughan attempted a 
more complete edition, Political, Miscellaneous and Philosophical 
Pieces (London, 1779); an edition in three volumes appeared 
after Franklin's death (London, 1806); what seemed the authentic 
Works, as it was under the care of Temple Franklin, was published 
at London (6 vols., 1817-1819; 3 vols., 1818) and with some ad- 
ditional matter at Philadelphia (6 vols., 1818). Sparks's edition 
(10 vols., Boston, 1836-1842; revised, Philadelphia, 1858) also 
contained fresh matter; and there are further additions in the 
edition of John Bigelow (Philadelphia, 1887-1888; 5th ed., 1905) 
and in that by Albert Henry Smyth (10 vols., New York, 1905-1907). 
There are important Frankliniana, about 13,000 papers, in the 
possession of the American Philosophical Society, to which they were 
conveyed by the son of Temple Franklin's executor, George Fox. 
Other papers which had been left to Fox lay for years in barrels in a 
stable garret ; they were finally cleared out, their owner, Mary Fox, 
intending to send them to a paper mill. One barrel went to the mill. 
The others, it was found, contained papers belonging to Franklin, 
and this important collection was bought and presented to the 
university of Pennsylvania. The valuable Frankliniana collected 
by Henry Stevens were purchased by Congress in 1885. These MS. 
collections were first carefully gone over for the edition of the Works 
by A. H. Smyth. Franklin's Autobiography was begun in 1771 as a 
private chronicle for his son, Governor William Franklin ; the papers, 
bringing the story of his father's life down to 1730, were lost by the 
governor during the War of Independence, and in 1783 came into 
the possession of Abel James, who restored them to Franklin and 
urged him to complete the sketch. He wrote a little in 1784, more 
in 1788, when he furnished a copy to his friend le Veillard, and a little 
more in 1790. The original manuscript was long in the possession of 
Temple Franklin, who spent years rearranging the matter in it and 
making over into politer English his grandfather's plain-spokenness. 
So long was the publication delayed that it was generally believed 

that Temple Franklin had sold all the papers to the British govern, 
ment; a French version, Memoires de la vie privee (Paris, 1791), 
was retranslated into English twice in 1793 (London), and from one 
of these versions (by Robinson) still another French version was 
made (Paris, 1798). Temple Franklin, deciding to print, got from 
le Veillard the copy sent to him in 1788 (sending in return the original 
with autograph alterations and the final addition), and from the 
copy published (London, 1817) an edition supposed to be authentic 
and complete. The complete autograph of the biography, acquired 
by John Bigelow in 1867 from its French owners, upon collation 
with Temple Franklin's edition showed that the latter contained 
1200 emasculations and that it omitted entirely what had been 
written in 1790. Bigelow published the complete Autobiography 
with additions from Franklin's correspondence and other writings 
in 1868; a second edition (3 vols., Philadelphia, 1888) was published 
under the title, The Life of Benjamin Franklin, Written by Himself. 

In addition to the Autobiography see James Parton, Life and Times 
of Benjamin Franklin (2 vols., New York, 1864); John T. Morse, 
Jr., Benjamin Franklin (Boston, 1889, in the American Statesmen 
series); J. B. McMaster, Benjamin Franklin as a Man of Letters 
(Boston, 1887, in American Men of Letters series); Paul L. 
Ford, The Many-Sided Franklin (New York, 1899) and Franklin 
Bibliography (Brooklyn, 1889); E. E. Hale and E. E. Hale, Jr., 
Franklin in France (2 vols., Boston, 1888) ; J. H A. Doniql, Histoire 
de la participation de la France a V etablissement des Etats - Unis 
d'Ameriaue (Paris, 6 vols., 1886-1900); S. G. Fisher, The True 
Benjamin Franklin (Philadelphia, 1899); E. Robins, Benjamin 
Franklin (New York, 1898, in the American Men of Energy series) ; 
W. A. Wetzel, " Benjamin Franklin as an Economist," No. 9, 
in series 13 of Johns Hopkins Studies in Historical and Political 
Science; and the prefaces and biographical matter in A. H. Smyth's 
edition of the Works (New York, 10 vols., 1905-1907). (R. We.) 

FRANKLIN, SIR JOHN (1786-1847), English rear,-adrniral 
and explorer, was born at Spilsby, Lincolnshire, on the 16th of 
April 1786. His family was descended from a line of free-holders 
or " franklins " from whom some centuries earlier they had 
derived their surname; but the small family estate was sold 
by his father, who went into business. John, who was the fifth 
and youngest son and ninth child, was destined for the church. 
At the age of ten he was sent to school at St Ives, and soon 
afterwards was transferred to Louth grammar school, which 
he attended for two years. About this time his imagination 
was deeply impressed by a holiday walk of 12 m. which he made 
with a companion to look at the sea, and he determined to 
be a sailor. In the hope of dispelling this fancy his father sent 
him on a trial voyage to Lisbon in a merchantman; but it being 
found on his return that his wishes were unchanged he was 
entered as a midshipman on board the " Polyphemus," and 
shortly afterwards took part in her in the hard-fought battle 
of Copenhagen (2nd of April 1801) . Two months later he joined 
the " Investigator," a discovery-ship commanded by his cousin 
Captain Matthew Flinders, and under the training of that able 
scientific officer was employed in the exploration and mapping 
of the coasts of Australia, where he acquired a correctness of 
astronomical observation and a skill in surveying which proved 
of eminent utility in his future career. He was on board the 
" Porpoise " when that ship and the " Cato " were wrecked 
(18th of August 1803) on a coral reef off the coast of Australia, 
and after this misfortune proceeded to China. Thence he obtained 
a passage to England in the " Earl Camden," East Indiaman, 
commanded by Captain (afterwards Sir) Nathaniel Dance, and 
performed the duty of signal midshipman in the famous action 
of the 15th of February 1804 when Captain Dance repulsed a 
strong French squadron led by the redoubtable Admiral Linois. 
On reaching England he joined the " Bellerophon," 74, and 
was in charge of the signals on board that ship during the battle 
of Trafalgar. Two years later he joined the" Bedford," attaining 
the rank of lieutenant the year after, and served in her on the 
Brazil station (whither the " Bedford " went as part of the convoy 
which escorted the royal family of Portugal to Rio de Janeiro 
in 1808), in the blockade of Flushing, and finally in the disastrous 
expedition against New Orleans (1814), in which campaign he 
displayed such zeal and intelligence as to merit special mention 
in despatches. 

On peace being established, Franklin turned his attention 
once more to the scientific branch of his profession, and sedulously 
extended his knowledge of surveying. In 18 18 the discovery 
of a North-West Passage to the Pacific became again, after a 



long interval, an object of national interest, and Lieutenant 
Franklin was given the command of the " Trent " in the Arctic 
expedition, under the orders of Captain Buchan in the "Dorothea ". 
During a heavy storm the " Dorothea " was so much damaged 
by the pack-ice that her reaching England became doubtful, 
and, much to the chagrin of young Franklin, the " Trent " 
was compelled to convoy her home instead of being allowed 
to prosecute the voyage alone. This voyage, however, had 
brought Franklin into personal intercourse with the leading 
scientific men of London, and they were not slow in ascertaining 
his peculiar fitness for the command of such an enterprise. 
To calmness in danger, promptness and fertility of resource, 
and excellent seamanship, he added an ardent desire to promote 
science for its own sake, together with a love of truth that led 
him to do full justice to the merits of his subordinate officers, 
without wishing to claim their discoveries as a captain's right. 
Furthermore, he possessed a cheerful buoyancy of mind, sustained 
by deep religious principle, which was not depressed in the most 
gloomy times. It was therefore with full confidence in his 
ability and exertions that, in 1819, he was placed in command 
of an expedition appointed to proceed overland from the Hudson 
Bay to the shores of the Arctic Sea, and to determine the trendings 
of that coast eastward of the Coppermine river. At this period 
the northern coast of the American continent was known at 
two isolated points only, — this, the mouth of the Coppermine 
river (which, as Franklin discovered, was erroneously placed 
four degress of latitude too much to the north), and the mouth 
of the Mackenzie far to the west of it. Lieutenant Franklin 
and his party, consisting of Dr Richardson, Midshipmen George 
Back and Richard Hood, and a few ordinary boatmen, arrived 
at the depot of the Hudson's Bay Company at the end of August 
1819, and making an autumnal journey of 700 m. spent the first 
winter on the Saskatchewan. Owing to the supplies which 
had been promised by the North-West and Hudson's Bay 
Companies not being forthcoming the following year, it was not 
until the summer of 182 1 that the Coppermine was ascended 
to its mouth, and a considerable extent of sea-coast to the 
eastward surveyed. The return journey led over the region 
known as the Barren Ground, and was marked by the most 
terrible sufferings and privations and the tragic death of 
Lieutenant Hood. The survivors of the expedition reached 
York Factory in the month of June 1822, having accomplished 
altogether 5550 m. of travel. While engaged on this service 
Franklin was promoted to the rank of commander (1st of January 
1821), and upon his return to England at the end of 1822 he 
obtained the post rank of captain and was elected a fellow of 
the Royal Society. The narrative of this expedition was pub- 
lished in the following year and became at once a classic of travel, 
and soon after he married Eleanor, the youngest daughter of 
William Porden, an eminent architect. 

Early in 1825 he was entrusted with the command of a second 
overland expedition, and upon the earnest entreaty of his dying 
wife, who encouraged him to place his duty to his country before 
his love for her, he set sail without waiting to witness her end. 
Accompanied as before by Dr (afterwards Sir) John Richardson 
and Lieutenant (afterwards Sir) George Back, he descended the 
Mackenzie river in the season of 1826 and traced the North 
American coast as far as 140 37' W. long., whilst Richardson 
at the head of a separate party connected the mouths of the 
Coppermine and Mackenzie rivers. Thus between the years 181 9 
and 1827 he had added 1200 m. of coast-line to the American 
continent, or one-third of the whole distance from the Atlantic 
to the Pacific. These exertions were fully appreciated at home 
and abroad. He was knighted in 1829, received the honorary 
degree of D.C.L. from the university of Oxford, was awarded the 
gold medal of the Geographical Society of Paris, and was elected 
corresponding member of the Paris Academy of Sciences. The 
results of these expeditions are described by Franklin and Dr 
Richardson in two magnificent works published in 1824-^829. 
In 1828 he married bis second wife, Jane, second daughter of 
John Griffin. His next official employment was on the Mediter- 
ranean station, in command of the " Rainbow," and his ship 

soon became proverbial in the squadron for the happiness and 
comfort of her officers and crew. As an acknowledgment of 
the essential service which he rendered off Patras in the Greek 
War of Independence, he received the cross of the Redeemer of 
Greece from King Otto, and after his return to England he was 
created knight commander of the Guelphic order of Hanover. 

In 1836 he accepted the lieutenant-governorship of Van 
Diemen's Land (now Tasmania), and held that post till the 
end of 1843. His government was marked by several events 
of much interest, one of his most popular measures being the 
opening of the doors of the legislative council to the public. 
He also founded a college, endowing it largely from his private 
funds, and in 1838 established a scientific society at Hobart 
Town (now called the Royal Society of Tasmania), the meetings 
of which were held in Government House and its papers printed 
at his expense. In his time also the colony of Victoria was 
founded by settlers from Tasmania; and towards its close, 
transportation to New South Wales having been abolished, 
the convicts from every part of the British empire were sent to 
Tasmania. On an increase of the lieutenant-governor's salary 
being voted by the colonial legislature, Sir John declined to 
derive any advantage from it personally, while he secured the 
augmentation to his successors. He welcomed eagerly the various 
expeditions for exploration and surveying which visited Hobart 
Town, conspicuous among these, and of especial interest to 
himself, being the French and English Antarctic expeditions 
of Dumont d'Urville and Sir James C. Ross — the latter com- 
manding the " Erebus " and " Terror," with which Franklin's 
own name was afterwards to be so pathetically connected. A 
magnetic observatory fixed at Hobart Town, as a dependency 
of the central establishment under Colonel Sabine, was also 
an object of deep interest up to the moment of his leaving the 
colony. That his unflinching effo-ts for the social and political 
advancement of the colony were appreciated was abundantly 
proved by the affection and respect shown him by every section 
of the community on his departure; and several years after- 
wards the colonists showed their remembrance of his virtues 
and services by sending Lady Franklin a subscription of £1700 
in aid of her efforts for the search and relief of her husband, 
and later still by a unanimous vote of the legislature for the 
erection of a statue in honour of him at Hobart Town. 

Sir John found on reaching England that there was about to 
be a renewal of polar research, and that the confidence of the 
admiralty in him was undiminished, as was shown by his being 
offered the command of an expedition for the discovery of a 
North-West Passage to the Pacific. This offer he accepted. 
The prestige of Arctic service and of his former experiences 
attracted a crowd of volunteers of all classes, from whom were 
selected a body of officers conspicuous for talent and energy. 
Captain Crozier, who was second in command, had been three 
voyages with Sir Edward Parry, and had commanded the 
" Terror " in Ross's Antarctic expedition. Captain Fitzjames, 
who was commanderon board the " Erebus," had been five times 
gazetted for brilliant conduct in the operations of the first China 
war, and in a letter which he wrote from Greenland has bequeathed 
some good-natured but masterly sketches of his brother officers 
and messmates on this expedition. Thus supported, with crews 
carefully chosen (some of whom had been engaged in the whaling 
service), victualled for three years, and furnished with every 
appliance then known, Franklin's expedition, consisting of the 
" Erebus" and " Terror " (129 officers and men), with a transport 
ship to convey additional stores as far as Disco in Greenland, 
sailed from Greenhithe on the 19th of May 1845. The letters 
which Franklin despatched from Greenland were couched in 
language of cheerful anticipation of success, while those received 
from his officers expressed their glowing hope, their admiration 
of the seamanlike qualities of their commander, and the happi- 
ness they had in serving under him. The ships were last seen 
by a whaler near the entrance of Lancaster Sound, on the 26th 
of July, and the deep gloom which settled down upon their 
subsequent movements was not finally raised till fourteen years 



Franklin's instructions were framed in conjunction with Sir 
John Barrow and upon his own suggestions. The experience 
of Parry had established the navigability of Lancaster Sound 
(leading westwards out of Baffin Bay), whilst Franklin's own 
surveys had long before satisfied him that a navigable passage 
existed along the north coast of America from the Fish river 
to Bering Strait. He was therefore directed to push through 
Lancaster Sound and its continuation, Barrow Strait, without 
loss of time, until he reached the portion of land on which 
Cape Walker is situated, or about long. 08° W., and from that 
point to pursue a course southward towards the American coast. 
An explicit prohibition was given against a westerly course 
beyond the longitude of 08° W., but he v/as allowed the single 
alternative of previously examining Wellington Channel (which 
leads out of Barrow Strait) for a northward route, if the naviga- 
tion here were open. 

In 1847, though there was no real public anxiety as to the fate 
of the expedition, preparations began to be made for the possible 
necessity of sending relief. As time passed, however, and no 
tidings reached England, the search began in earnest, and from 
1848 onwards expedition after expedition was despatched in 
quest of the missing explorers. The work of these expeditions 
forms a story of achievement which has no parallel in maritime 
annals, and resulted in the discovery and exploration of thousands 
of miles of new land within the grim Arctic regions, the develop- 
ment of the system of sledge travelling, and the discovery of a 
second North-West Passage in 1850 (see Polar Regions). 
Here it is only necessary to mention the results so far as the 
search for Franklin was concerned. In this great national under- 
taking Lady Franklin's exertions were unwearied, and she 
exhausted her private funds in sending out auxiliary vessels to 
quarters not comprised in the public search, and by her pathetic 
appeals roused the sympathy of the whole civilized world. 

The first traces of the missing ships, consisting of a few scattered 
articles, besides three graves, were discovered at Franklin's 
winter quarters (1845-1846) on Beechey Island, by Captain 
(afterwards Sir) Erasmus Ommanney of the " Assistance," in 
August 1851, and were brought home by the " Prince Albert," 
which had been fitted out by Lady Franklin. No further tidings 
were obtained until the spring of 1854, when Dr John Rae, then 
conducting a sledging expedition of the Hudson's Bay Company 
from Repulse Bay, was told by the Eskimo that (as was inferred) 
in 1850 white men, to the number of about forty, had been seen 
dragging a boat southward along the west shore of King William's 
Island, and that later in the same season the bodies of the whole 
party were found by the natives at a point a short distance to the 
north-west of Back's Great Fish river, where they had perished 
from the united effects of cold and famine. The latter statement 
was afterwards disproved by the discovery of skeletons upon the 
presumed line of route; but indisputable proof was given that 
the Eskimo had communicated with members of the missing 
expedition, by the various articles obtained from them and 
brought home by Dr Rae. In consequence of the information 
obtained by Dr Rae, a party in canoes, under Messrs Anderson 
and Stewart, was sent by government down the Great Fish river 
in 1855, and succeeded in obtaining from the Eskimo at the mouth 
of the river a considerable number of articles which had evidently 
belonged to the Franklin expedition; while others were picked 
up on Montreal Island a day's march to the northward. It was 
clear, therefore, that a party from the " Erebus " and " Terror " 
had endeavoured to reach the settlements of the Hudson's Bay 
Company by the Fish river route, and that in making a southerly 
course it had been arrested within the channel into which the 
Great Fish river empties itself. The admiralty now decided to 
take no further steps to determine the exact fate of the expedition, 
and granted to Dr Rae the reward of £10,000 which had been 
offered in 1849 to whosoever should first succeed in obtaining 
authentic news of the missing men. It was therefore reserved 
for the latest effort of Lady Franklin to develop, not only the 
fate of her husband's expedition but also the steps of its progress 
up to the very verge of success, mingled indeed with almost 
unprecedented disaster. With all her available means, and 

aided, as she had been before, by the subscriptions of sympathiz- 
ing friends, she purchased and fitted out the little yacht " Fox," 
which sailed from Aberdeen in July 1857. The command was 
accepted by Captain (afterwards Sir) Leopold M'Clintock, whose 
high reputation had been won in three of the government ex- 
peditions sent out in search of Franklin. Having been com- 
pelled to pass the first winter in Baffin Bay, it was not till the 
autumn of 1858 that the " Fox " passed down Prince Regent's 
Inlet, and put into winter quarters at Port Kennedy at the 
eastern end of Bellot Strait, between North Somerset and 
Boothia Felix. In the spring of 1859 three sledging parties went 
out, Captain (afterwards Sir) Allen Young to examine Prince of 
Wales Island, Lieutenant (afterwards Captain) Hobson the north 
and west coasts of King William's Island, and M'Clintock the 
east and south coasts of the latter, the west coast of Boothia, and 
the region about the mouth of Great Fish river. This splendid 
and exhaustive search added 800 m. of new coast-line to the 
knowledge of the Arctic regions, and brought to light the course 
and fate of the expedition. From the Eskimo in Boothia many 
relics were obtained, and reports as to the fate of the ships and 
men; and on the west and south coast of King William's Island 
were discovered skeletons and remains of articles that told a 
terrible tale of disaster. Above all, in a cairn at Point Victory 
a precious record was discovered by Lieutenant Hobson that 
briefly told the history of the expedition up to April 25, 
1848, three years after it set out full of hope. In 1845-1846 
the " Erebus " and " Terror " wintered at Beechey Island on 
the S.W. coast of North Devon, in lat. 74° 43' 28" N., long. 
91 39' 15" W., after having ascended Wellington Channel to 
lat. 77° and returned by the west side of Cornwallis Island. This 
statement was signed by Graham Gore, lieutenant, and Charles 
F. des Voeux, mate, and bore date* May 28, 1847. These 
two officers and six men, it was further told, left the ships on 
May 24, 1847 (no doubt for an exploring journey), at which 
time all was well. 

Such an amount of successful work has seldom been accom- 
plished by an Arctic expedition within any one season. The 
alternative course permitted Franklin by his intructions had 
been attempted but not pursued, and in the autumn of 1846 
he had followed that route which was specially commended 
to him. But after successfully navigating Peel and Franklin 
Straits on his way southward, his progress had been suddenly 
and finally arrested by the obstruction of heavy (" palaeocrystic ") 
ice, which presses down from the north-west through M'Clintock 
Channel (not then known to exist) upon King William's Island. 
It must be remembered that in the chart which Franklin carried 
King William's Island was laid down as a part of the mainland 
of Boothia, and he therefore could pursue his way only down its 
western coast. Upon the margin of the printed admiralty form 
on which this brief record was written was an addendum dated 
the 25th of April 1848, which extinguished all further hopes of a 
successful termination of this grand enterprise. The facts are 
best conveyed in the terse and expressive words in which they 
were written, and are therefore given verbatim: " April 25th, 
1848. H.M. Ships 'Terror' and 'Erebus' were deserted on 
22nd April, five leagues N.N.W. of this, having been beset 
since 12th September 1846. The officers and crews, consisting 
of 105 souls under the command of Captain F. R. M. Crozier, 
landed in lat. 69 37' 42" N., long. 98 41' W. This paper was 
found by Lieut. Irving . . . where it had been deposited by 
the late Commander Gore in June 1847. Sir John Franklin died 
on the nth June 1847; and the total loss by deaths in the 
expedition has been to this date 9 officers and 15 men." The 
handwriting is that of Captain Fitzjames, to whose signature is 
appended that of Captain Crozier, who also adds the words of 
chief importance, namely, that they would " start on to-morrow 
26th April 1848 for Back's Fish river." A briefer record has 
never been told of so tragic a story. 

All the party had without doubt been greatly reduced through 
want of sufficient food, and the injurious effects of three winters 
in these regions. They had attempted to drag with them two 
boats, besides heavily laden sledges, and doubtless had soon 



been compelled to abandon much of their burden, and leave one 
boat on the shore of King William's Island, where it was found 
by M'Clintock, near the middle of the west coast, containing 
two skeletons. The route adopted was the shortest possible, 
but their strength and supplies had failed, and at that season 
of the year the snow-covered land afforded no subsistence. 
An old Eskimo woman stated that these heroic men " fell down 
and died as they walked," and, as Sir John Richardson has well 
said, they " forged the last link of the North-West Passage with 
their lives." From all that can be gathered, one of the ships 
must have been crushed in the ice and sunk in deep water, and 
the other, stranded on the shore of King William's Island, lay 
there for years, forming a mine of wealth for the neighbouring 

This is all we know of the fate of Franklin and his brave men. 
His memory is cherished as one of the most conspicuous of the 
naval heroes of Britain, and as one of the most successful and 
daring of her explorers. He is certainly entitled to the honour 
of being the first discoverer of the North-West Passage; the 
point reached by the ships having brought him to within a few 
miles of the known waters of America, and on the monument 
erected to him by his country, in Waterloo Place, London, 
this honour is justly awarded to him and his companions, — a 
fact which was also affirmed by the president of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society, when presenting their gold medal to Lady 
Franklin in i860. On the 26th of October 1852 Franklin had 
been promoted to the rank of rear-admiral. He left an only 
daughter by his first marriage. Lady Franklin died in 1875 
at the age of eighty-three, and a fortnight after her death a fine 
monument was unveiled in Westminster Abbey, commemorating 
the heroic deeds and fate of Sir John Franklin, and the insepar- 
able connexion of Lady Franklin's name with the fame of her 
husband. Most of the relics brought home by M'Clintock were 
presented by Lady Franklin to the United Service Museum, 
while those given by Dr Rae to the admiralty are deposited in 
Greenwich hospital. In 1 864-1 869 the American explorer 
Captain Hall made two journeys in endeavouring to trace the 
remnant of Franklin's party, bringing back a number of addi- 
tional relics and some information confirmatory of that given 
by M'Clintock, and in 1878 Lieutenant F. Schwatka of the 
United States army and a companion made a final land search, 
but although accomplishing a remarkable record of travel 
discovered nothing which threw any fresh light on the history 
of the expedition. 

See H. D. Traill, Life of Sir John Franklin (1896). 

FRANKLIN, WILLIAM BUEL (1823-1903), Federal general 
in the American Civil War, was born at York, Pennsylvania, 
on the 27th of February 1823. He graduated at West Point, 
at the head of his class, in 1843, was commissioned in the Engineer 
Corps, U.S.A., and served with distinction in the Mexican War, 
receiving the brevet of first lieutenant for his good conduct at 
Buena Vista, in which action he was on the staff of General 
Taylor. After the war he was engaged in miscellaneous engineer- 
ing work, becoming a first lieutenant in 1853 and a captain in 
1857. Soon after the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861 he was 
made colonel of a regular infantry regiment, and a few days 
later brigadier-general of volunteers. He led a brigade in the 
first battle of Bull Run, and on the organization by McClellan 
of the Army of the Potomac he received a divisional command. 
He commanded first a division and then the VI. Corps in the 
operations before Richmond in 1862, earning the brevet of 
brigadier-general in the U. S. Army; was promoted major- 
general, U.S. V., in July 1862; commanded the VI. corps at 
South Mountain and Antietam; and at Fredericksburg com- 
manded the " Left Grand Division " of two corps (I. and VI.). 
His part in the last battle led to charges of disobedience and 
negligence baing preferred against him by the commanding 
general, General A. E. Burnside, on which the congressional 
committee on the conduct of the war reported unfavourably 
to Franklin, largely, it seems, because Burnside's orders to 
Franklin were not put in evidence. Burnside had issued on the 
23rd of January 1863 an order relieving Franklin from duty, 

and Franklin's only other service in the war was as commander 
of the XIX. corps in the abortive Red River Expedition of 1864. 
In this expedition he received a severe wound at the action of 
Sabine Cross Roads (April 8, 1864), in consequence of which he 
took no further active part in the war. He served for a time on 
the retiring board, and was captured by the Confederates on 
the nth of July 1864, but escaped the same night. In 1865 he 
was brevetted major-general in the regular army, and in 1866 
he was retired. After the war General Franklin was vice- 
president of the Colt's Patent Firearms Manufacturing Company, 
was president of the commission to lay out Long Island City, 
N.Y. (1871-1872), of the commission on the building of the 
Connecticut state house (1872-1873), and, from 1880 to 1899, of 
the board of managers of the national home for disabled volunteer 
soldiers; as a commissioner of the United States to the Paris 
Exposition of 1889 he was made a grand officer of the Legion 
of Honour; and he was for a time a director of the Panama 
railway. He died at Hartford, Connecticut, on the 8th of March 
1903. He wrote a pamphlet, The Gatling Gun for Service Ashore 
and Afloat (1874). 

See A Reply of Major-General William B. Franklin to the Report 
of the Joint Committee of Congress on the Conduct of the War (New 
York, 1863; 2nd ed., 1867), and Jacob L. Greene, Gen. W. B. 
Franklin and the Operations of the Left Wing at the Battle of Fredericks- 
burg (Hartford, 1900). 

FRANKLIN, an organized district of Canada, extending from 
the Arctic Circle to the North Pole. It was formed by order-in- 
council on the 2nd of Oct9ber 1895, and includes numerous 
islands and peninsulas, such as Banks, Prince Albert, Victoria, 
Wollaston, King Edward and Baffin Land, Melville, Bathurst, 
Prince of Wales and Cockburn Islands. Of these, Baffin Land 
alone extends south of the Arctic Circle. The area is estimated 
at 500,000 sq. m., but the inhabitants consist of a few Indians, 
Eskimo and fur-traders. Musk-oxen, polar bears, foxes and 
other valuable fur-bearing animals are found in large numbers. 
The district is named after Sir John Franklin. 

FRANKLIN, a township of Norfolk county, Massachusetts, 
U.S.A., with an area of 29 sq. m. of rolling surface. Pop. (1900) 
5017, of whom 1250 were foreign-born ; (1903, state census) 5244; 
(1910 census) 5641. The principal village, also named Franklin, 
is about 27 m. S.W. of Boston, and is served by the New York, 
New Haven & Hartford railway. Franklin has a public library 
(housed in the Ray memorial building and containing 7700 
volumes in 1910) and is the seat of Dean Academy (Universalist ; 
founded in 1865), a secondary school for boys and girls. Straw 
goods, felt, cotton and woollen goods, pianos and printing presses 
are manufactured here. The township was incorporated in 
1778, previous to which it was a part of Wrentham (1673). 
It was the first of the many places in the United States named 
in honour of Benjamin Franklin (who later contributed books 
for the public library). Horace Mann was born here. 

FRANKLIN, a city of Merrimack county, New Hampshire, 
U.S.A., at the confluence of the Pemigewasset and Winnepe- 
saukee rivers to form the Merrimac; about 95 m. N.N.W. of 
Boston. Pop. (1890) 4085; (1900) 5846 (1323 foreign-born); 
(1910) 6132; area, about 14.4 sq. m. Franklin is served by 
the Concord Division of the Boston & Maine railway, with a 
branch' to Bristol (13 m. N.W.) and another connecting at 
Tilton (about 5 m. E.) with the White Mountains Division. It 
contains the villages of Franklin, Franklin Falls, Webster Place 
and Lake City, the last a summer resort. The rivers furnish 
good water power, which is used in the manufacture of a variety 
of commodities, including foundry products, paper and pulp, 
woollen goods, hosiery, saws, needles and knitting machines. 
The water-works are owned and operated by the municipality. 
Here, in what was then a part of the town of Salisbury, Daniel 
Webster was born, and on the Webster farm is the New Hamp- 
shire orphans' home, established in 187 1. The town of Franklin 
was formed in 1828 by the union of portions of Salisbury, 
Sanbornton, Andover and Northfield. The earliest settlement 
within its limits was made in 1748 in the portion taken from 
Salisbury. Franklin was incorporated as a city in 1895. 

XI. 3 



FRANKLIN, a city and the county-seat of Venango county, 
Pennsylvania, U.S.A., at the confluence of French Creek and 
Allegheny river, about 55 m. S. by E. of Erie, in the N.W. part 
of the state. Pop. (1890) 6221; (1900) 7317 (489 being foreign- 
born) ; (1910) 9767. Franklin is served by the Erie, the Pennsyl- 
vania, the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, and the Franklin 
& Clearfield railways. Its streets are broad and well paved and 
shaded, and there are two public parks, a public library and 
many handsome residences. Franklin is the centre of the chief 
oil region of the state, and from it great quantities of refined oil 
are shipped. Natural gas also abounds. The city's manufacture 
include oil-well supplies, boilers, engines, steel castings, iron 
goods, lumber, bricks, asbestos goods, manifolding paper and 
flour. On the site of the present city the French built in 1754 
a fortification, Fort Machault, which after the capture of Fort 
Duquesne by the English was a rallying place for Indians allied 
with the French. In 1759 the French abandoned and completely 
destroyed the fort; and in the following year the English built 
in the vicinity Fort Venango, which was captured by the Indians 
in 1763 during the Conspiracy of Pontiac, the whole garrison 
being massacred. In 1787 the United States built Fort Franklin 
(about 1 m. above the mouth of French Creek) as a protection 
against the Indians; in 1796 the troops were removed to a 
strongly built and well-fortified wooden building, known as 
" Old Garrison," at the mouth of French Creek, and in 1803 
they were permanently withdrawn from the neighbourhood. 
Franklin was laid out as a town in T795, was incorporated as a 
borough in 1828, and was chartered as a city in 1868. Most of 
its growth dates from the discovery of oil in i860. 

FRANKLIN, a town and the county-seat of Williamson 
county, Tennessee, U.S.A., in the central part of the state, 
on the Harpelh river, and about 20 m. S.W. of Nashville. Pop. 

(1900) 2180; (1910) 2924. Franklin is served by the Louisville 1 usual kind of settlement. 

in England to denote a land-holder who was of free but not 
of noble birth. Some of the older English writers occasionally 
use it to mean a liberal host. The Latin form of the word is 

FRANKLINITE, a member of the spinel group of minerals, 
consisting of oxides of iron, manganese and zinc in varying 
proportions, (Fe, Zn, Mn)"(Fe, Mn) 2 "'0 4 . It occurs as large 
octahedral crystals often with rounded edges, and as granular 
masses. The colour is iron-black and the lustre metallic; 
hardness 6, specific gravity 5-2. It thus resembles magnetite 
in external characters, but is readily distinguished from this by 
the fact that it is only slightly magnetic. It is found in consider- 
able amount, associated with zinc minerals (zincite and willemite) 
in crystalline limestone, at Franklin Furnace, New Jersey, 
where it is mined as an ore of zinc (containing 5 to 20% of the 
metal) ; after the extraction of the zinc, the residue is used in 
the manufacture of spiegeleisen (the mineral containing 15 to 
20% of manganese oxides). Associated with franklinite at 
Franklin Furnace, and found also at some other localities, 
is another member of the spinel group, namely, gahnite or 
zinc-spinel, which is a zinc aluminate, ZnAl 2 4 , with a little of 
the zinc replaced by iron and manganese. 

FRANK-MARRIAGE (liberum maritagium) , in real property 
law, a species of estate tail, now obsolete. When a man was 
seized of land in fee simple, and gave it to a daughter on marriage, 
the daughter and her husband were termed the donees in frank- 
marriage, because they held the land granted to them and the 
heirs of their two bodies free from all manner of service, except 
fealty, to the donor or his heirs until the fourth degree of con- 
sanguinity from the donor was passed. This right of a freeholder 
so to give away his land at will was first recognized in the reign 
of Henry II., and became up to the reign of Elizabeth the most 

& Nashville railway. It is the seat of the Tennessee Female 
College and the Battle Ground Academy, and its chief objects 
of interest are the battle-ground, the Confederate cemetery and 
the Confederate monument. During the Civil War Franklin 
was the scene of a minor engagement on the 10th of April 1863, 
and of a battle, celebrated as one of the most desperately fought 
of the war, which took place on the 30th of November 1864. 
The Union general Schofield, who was slowly withdrawing to 
Nashville before the advance of General J. B. Hood's army, 
which he was ordered to hold in check in order to give Thomas 
time to prepare for battle (see American Civil War, § 32), 
was unable immediately to cross the Harpeth river and was 
compelled to entrench his forces south of the town until his 
wagon trains and artillery could be sent over the stream by 
means of two small bridges. In the afternoon Schofield's out- 
posts and advanced lines were attacked by the Confederates 
in full strength, and instead of withdrawing as ordered they 
made a determined stand. Thus the assailants, carrying the 
advanced works by storm, rushed upon the main defences on 
the heels of the broken advanced guard, and a general engage- 
ment was brought on which lasted from 3-30 until nine 
o'clock in the evening. Against, it is said, thirteen separate 
assaults, all delivered with exceptional fury, Schofield managed 
to hold his position, and shortly before midnight he withdrew 
across the river in good order. The engagement was indecisive 
in its results, but the Union commander's purpose, to hold Hood 
momentarily in check, was gained, and Hood's effort to crush 
Schofield was unavailing. The losses were very heavy; Hood's 
effective forces in the engagement numbered about 27,000, 
Schofield's about 28,000; the Confederate losses (excluding 
cavalry) were about 6500, excluding the slightly wounded; 
six general officers were killed (including Major-General P. K. 
Cleburne, a brave Irishman who had been a corporal in the 
British army), six wounded, and one captured; the Union losses 
(excluding cavalry) were 2326. In two of the Confederate 
brigades all the general and field officers were killed or wounded. 

See J. D. Cox, The Battle of Franklin (New York, 1897). 

FRANKLIN, a word derived from the Late Lat. francus, free, 
and meaning primarily a freeman. Subsequently it was used 

FRANKPLEDGE (Lat. francum plegium), an early English 
institution, consisting (as defined by Stubbs) of an association 
for mutual security whose members, according to Hallam, 
" were perpetual bail for each other." The custom whereby the 
inhabitants of a district were responsible for any crime or injury 
committed by one of their number is old and widespread; it 
prevailed in England before the Norman Conquest, and is an 
outcome of the earlier principle whereby this responsibility 
rested on kinship. Thus a law of Edgar (d. 975) says " and let 
every man so order that he have a borh (or surety), and let the 
borh then bring and hold him to every justice; and if any one 
then do wrong and run away, let the borh bear that which he 
ought to bear"; and a law of Canute about 1030 says "and 
that every one be brought into a hundred and in borh, and let 
the borh hold and lead him to every plea." About this time 
these societies, each having its headman, were called frithborhs, 
or peace-borhs, and the Normans translated the Anglo-Saxon 
word by frankpledge. But the history of the frankpledge 
proper begins not earlier than the time of the Norman Conquest. 
The laws, which although called the laws of Edward the Confessor 
were not drawn up until about 1130, contain a clause about 
frithborhs which decrees that in every place societies of ten men 
shall be formed for mutual security and reparation. And 
before this date William the Conqueror had ordered that " every 
one who wishes to be regarded as free must be in a pledge, and 
that the pledge must hold and bring him to justice if he commits 
any offence "; and the laws of Henry I. ordered every person 
of substance over twelve years of age to be enrolled in a frank- 
pledge. This association of ten, or as it often was at a later date 
of twelve men, was also called a tithing, or decima, and in the 
north of England was known as tenmanne tale. 

The view of frankpledge (visus franciplegii) , or the duty of 
ascertaining that the law with regard to frankpledges was com- 
plied with, was in the hands of the sheriffs, who held an itinerant 
court called the " sheriff's tourn " for this and other purposes. 
This court was held twice a year, but in 121 7 it was ordered 
that the view of frankpledge should only be taken once — at 
Michaelmas. Introduced at or before the time of Henry I., 
the view was regulated by the Assize of Clarendon of 1166 and 



by Magna Carta as reissued in 121 7. Although the former of 
these lays stress upon the fact that the sheriff's supervisory 
powers are universal many men did not attend his tourn. Some 
lords of manors and of hundreds held a court of their own for 
view of frankpledge, and in the 13th century it may be fairly 
said " of all the franchises, the royal rights in private hands, 
view of frankpledge is perhaps the commonest." At the end of 
the same century the court for the view of frankpledge was 
generally known as the court leet, and was usually a manorial 
court in private hands. However, the principle of the frank- 
pledge was still enforced. Thus Bracton says " every male of 
the age of twelve years, be he free be he serf, ought to be in 
frankpledge," but he allows for certain exceptions. 

As the word frankpledge denotes, these societies were originally 
concerned only with freemen; but the unfree were afterwards 
admitted, and during the 13th century the frankpledges were 
composed chiefly of villains. From petitions presented to parlia- 
ment in 1376 it seems that the view of frankpledge was in active 
operation at this time, but it soon began to fall into disuse, and 
its complete decay coincides with the new ideas of government 
introduced by the Tudors. In a formal fashion courts leet for the 
view of frankpledge were held in the time of the jurist Selden, 
and a few of these have survived until the present day. Sir F. 
Palgrave has asserted that the view of frankpledge was unknown 
in that part of the country which had been included in the 
kingdom of Northumbria. This statement is open to question, 
but it is highly probable that the system was not so deeply 
rooted in this part of England as elsewhere. The machinery 
of the frankpledge was probably used by Henry II. when he 
introduced the jury of presentment; and commenting on this 
connexion F. W. Maitland says " the duty of producing one's 
neighbour to answer accusations (the duty of the frankpledges) 
could well be converted into the duty of telling tales against him." 
The system of frankpledge prevailed in some English boroughs. 
Sometimes a court for view of frankpledge, called in some places 
a mickleton, whereat the mayor or the bailiffs presided, was 
held for the whole borough; in other cases the borough was 
divided into wards, or into leets, each of which had its separate 

See Pollock and Ma\t\a.Ti<i, History of English Law {1&95); G.Waitz, 
Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte, Band i. (1880) ; and W. Stubbs, 
Constitutional History, vol. i. (1897). 

antiquary, was born on the 20th of March 1826, and was educated 
at Eton and at Trinity College, Cambridge. He early showed 
inclination for antiquarian pursuits, and in 1851 was appointed 
assistant in the Antiquities Department of the British Museum. 
Here, and as director of the Society of Antiquaries, an 
appointment he received in 1858, he made himself the first 
authority in England upon medieval antiquities of all descrip- 
tions, upon porcelain, glass, the manufactures of savage nations, 
and in general upon all Oriental curiosities and works of art later 
than the Classical period. In 1866 the British and medieval 
antiquities, with the ethnographical collections, were formed into 
a distinct department under his superintendence; and the Christy 
collection of ethnography in Victoria Street, London, prior to its 
amalgamation with the British Museum collections, was also 
under his care. He became vice-president and ultimately 
president of the Society of Antiquaries, and in 1878 declined the 
principal librarianship of the museum. He retired on his 
seventieth birthday, 1896, and died on the 21st of May r8o7. 
His ample fortune was largely devoted to the collection of 
ceramics and precious objects of medieval art, most 6f which 
became the property of the nation, either by donation in his 
lifetime or by bequest at his death. Although chiefly a medieval 
antiquary, Franks was also an authority on classical art, especially 
Roman remains in Britain: he was also greatly interested in 
book-marks and playing-cards, of both of which he formed 
important collections. He edited Kemble's Horae Ferales, 
and wrote numerous memoirs on archaeological subjects. 
Perhaps his most important work of this class is the catalogue 
of his own collection of porcelain. 

FRANKS. The name Franks seems to have been given in the 
4th century to a group of Germanic peoples dwelling north of 
the Main and reaching as far as the shores of the North Sea; 
south of the Main was the home of the Alamanni. The names of 
some of these tribes have come down to us. On the Tabula 
Peutingeriana appear the " Chamavi qui et Pranci," which 
should doubtless read "qui et Franci"; these Chamavi 
apparently dwelt between the Yssel and the Ems. Later, we 
find them a little farther south, on the banks of the Rhine, in 
the district called Hamalant, and it is their customs which were 
brought together in the 9th century in the document known as 
the Lex Francorum Chamavorum. After the Chamavi we may 
mention the Attuarii or Chattuarii, who are referred to by 
Ammianus Marcellinus (xx. 10, 2): " Rheno exinde transmisso, 
regionem pervasit (Julianus) Francorum quos Atthuarios 
vocant." Later, the pagus Attuariorum corresponds to the 
district of Emmerich and Xanten. It should be noted that this 
name occurs again in the middle ages in Burgundy, not far 
from Dijon; in all probability a detachment of this people had 
settled in that spot in the 5th or 6th century. The Bructeri, 
Ampsivarii and Chatti may also be classed among the Frankish 
tribes. They are mentioned in a celebrated passage of Sulpicius 
Alexander, which is cited by Gregory of Tours {Historia Fran- 
corum, ii. 9). Sulpicius shows the general Arbogast, a barbarian 
in the service of Rome, seeking to take vengeance on the Franks 
(392): " Collecto exercitu, transgressus Rhenum, Bricteros ripae 
proximos, pagum etiam quern Chamavi incolunt depopulatus 
est, nullo unquam occursante, nisi quod pauci ex Ampsivariis 
et Catthis Marcomere duce in ulterioribus collium jugis 
apparuere." It is evidently this Marcomeres, the chief of these 
tribes, who is regarded by later historians as the father of the 
legendary Faramund (Pharamund) although in fact Marcomeres 
has nothing to do with the Salian Franks. 

The earliest mention in history of the name Franks is the 
entry on the Tabula Peutingeriana, at least if we assume that 
the term " et Franci " is not a later emendation. The earliest 
occurrence of the name in any author is in the Vila Aureliani 
of Vopiscus (ch. vii.). When, in 241, Aurelian, who was then 
only a tribune, had just defeated some Franks in the neighbour- 
hood of Mainz and was marching against the Persians, his troops 
sang the following refrain : 

Mille Sarmatas, mille Francos, semel et semel occidimus ; 

Mille Persas, quaerimus. 

All these Germanic tribes, which were known from the 3rd 
century onwards by the generic name of Franks, doubtless spoke 
a similar dialect and were governed by customs which must 
scarcely have differed from one another; but this was all they 
had in common. Each tribe was politically independent; they 
formed no confederations. Sometimes two or three tribes joined 
forces to wage a war; but, the struggle over, the bond was broken, 
and each tribe resumed its isolated life. Waitz holds with some 
show of probability that the Franks represent the ancient 
Istaevones of Tacitus, the Alamanni and the Saxons representing 
the Herminones and the Ingaevones. 

Of all these Frankish tribes one especially was to become 
prominent, the tribe of the Salians. They are mentioned for the 
first time-in 358, by Ammianus Marcellinus (xvii. 8, 3), who says 
that the Caesar Julian " petit primos omnium Francos, videlicet 
eos quos consuetudo Salios appellavit." As to the origin of the 
name, it was long held to be derived from the river Yssel or Saal. 
It is more probable, however, that it arose from the fact that 
the Salians for a long period occupied the shores of the salt sea. 1 
The Salians inhabited the sea-coast, whereas the Ripuarians 
dwelt on the banks of the river Rhine. 

The Salians, at the time when they are mentioned by 
Ammianus, occupied Toxandria, i.e. the region south of the 
Meuse, between that river and the Scheldt. Julian defeated them 
completely, but allowed them to remain in Toxandria, not, as 
of old, as conquerors, but as foederali of the Romans. They 
perhaps paid tribute, and they certainly furnished Rome with 

1 Their legends are connected with the sea, the name Meroveus 
signifying " sea-born." 



soldiers; Salii senior es and Salii juniores are mentioned in the 
Nolitia dignitatum, and Salii appear among the auxilia palatina. 
At the end of the 4th century and at the beginning of the 5th, 
when the Roman legions withdrew from the banks of the Rhine, 
the Salians installed themselves in the district as an independent 
people. The place-names became entirely Germanic; the 
Latin language disappeared; and the Christian religion suffered 
a check, for the Franks were to a man pagans. The Salians 
were subdivided into a certain number of tribes, each tribe 
placing at its head a king, distinguished by his long hair and 
chosen from the most noble family (Historia Francorum, ii. 9). 

The most ancient of these kings, reigning over the principal 
tribe, who is known to us is Chlodio. 1 According to Gregory 
of Tours Chlodio dwelt at a place called Dispargum, which it is 
impossible to identify. Towards 43 1 he crossed the great Roman 
road from Bavay to Cologne, which was protected by numerous 
forts and had long arrested the invasions of the barbarians. He 
then invaded the territory of Arras, but was severely defeated at 
Hesdin-le-Vieux by Aetius, the commander of the Roman army 
in Gaul. Chlodio, however, soon took his revenge. He explored 
the region of Cambrai, seized that town, and occupied all the 
country as far as the Somme. At this time Tournai became the 
capital of the Salian Franks. 

After Chlodio a certain Meroveus (Merowech) was king of the 
Salian Franks. We do not know if he was the son of Chlodio; 
Gregory of Tours simply says that he belonged to Chlodio's stock 
— " de hujus stirpe quidam Merovechum regem fuisse adserunt," 
— and then only gives the fact at second hand. Perhaps the 
remarks of the Byzantine historian Priscus may refer to Meroveus. 
A king of the Franks having died, his two sons disputed the 
power. The elder journeyed into Pannonia to obtain support 
from Attila; the younger betook himself to the imperial court 
at Rome. "I have seen him," writes Priscus; "he was still 
very young, and we all remarked his fair hair which fell upon 
his shoulders." Aetius welcomed him warmly and sent him 
back a friend and foederatus. In any case, eventually, Franks 
fought (451) in the Roman ranks at the great battle of Mauriac 
(the Catalaunian Fields), which arrested the progress of Attila 
into Gaul; and in the Vita Lupi, which, though undoubtedly 
of later date, is a recension of an earlier document, the name 
of Meroveus appears among the combatants. Towards 457 
Meroveus was succeeded by his son Childeric. At first Childeric 
was a faithful foederatus of the Romans, fighting for them 
against the Visigoths and the Saxons south of the Loire; but 
he soon sought to make himself independent and to extend his 
conquests. He died in 481 and was succeeded by his son Clovis, 
who conquered the whole of Gaul with the exception of the 
kingdom of Burgundy and Provence. Clovis made his authority 
recognized over the other Salian tribes (whose kings dwelt at 
Cambrai and other cities), and put an end to the domination of 
the Ripuarian Franks. 

These Ripuarians must have comprised a certain number of 
Frankish tribes, such as the Ampsivarii and the Bructeri. They 
settled in the 5th century in compact masses on the left bank of 
the Rhine, but their progress was slow. It was not until the 
Christian writer Salvian (who was born about 400) had already 
reached a fairly advanced age that they were able to seize 
Cologne. The town, however, was recaptured and was not 
definitely in their possession until 463. The Ripuarians sub- 
sequently occupied all the country from Cologne to Trier. 
Aix-la-Chapelle, Bonn and Ziilpich were their principal centres, 
and they even advanced southward as far as Metz, which appears 
to have resisted their attacks. The Roman civilization and the 
Latin language disappeared from the countries which they 
occupied; indeed it seems that the actual boundaries of the 
German and French languages nearly coincide with those of 
their dominion. In their southward progress the Ripuarians 
1 The chronicler Fredegarius and the author of the Liber historiae 
Francorum make Sunno and Marcomeres his predecessors, but in 
reality they were chiefs of other Frankish tribes. The author of the 
Liber also claims that Chlodio was the son of Pharamund, but this 
personage is quite legendary. In the Chronicon of Fredegarius it is 
already affirmed that the Franks are descended from the Trojans. 

encountered the Alamanni, who, already masters of Alsace, 
were endeavouring to extend their conquests in all directions. 
There were numerous battles between the Ripuarians and the 
Alamanni; and the memory of one fought at Ziilpich has come 
down to us. In this battle Sigebert, the king of the Ripuarians, 
was wounded in the knee and limped during the remainder of 
his life — hence his surname Claudus (the Lame) . The Ripuarians 
long remained allies of Clovis, Sigebert's son Chloderic fighting 
under the king of the Salian Franks at Vouille in 507. Clovis, 
however, persuaded Chloderic to assassinate his father, and 
then posed as Sigebert's avenger, with the result that Chloderic 
was himself assassinated and the Ripuarians raised Clovis on 
the shield and chose him as king. Thus the Salian Franks united 
under their rule all the Franks on the left bank of the Rhine. 
During the reigns of Clovis's sons they again turned their eyes 
on Germany, and imposed their suzerainty upon the Franks on 
the right bank. This country, north of the Main and the first 
residence of the Franks, then received the name of Francia 
Orientalis, and became the origin of one of the duchies into 
which Germany was divided in the 10th century — the duchy of 
Franconia (Franken). 

The Franks were redoubtable warriors, and were generally 
of great stature. Their fair or red hair was brought forward 
from the crown of the head towards the forehead, leaving the nape 
of the neck uncovered; they shaved the face except the upper 
lip. They wore fairly close breeches reaching to the knee and a 
tunic fastened by brooches. Round the waist over the tunic 
was worn a leathern girdle having a broad iron buckle damascened 
with silver. From the girdle hung the single-edged missile axe 
or francisca, the scramasax or short knife, a poniard and such 
articles of toilet as scissors, a comb (of wood or bone), &c. The 
Franks also used a weapon called the framea (an iron lance set 
firmly in a wooden shaft) , and bows and arrows. They protected 
themselves in battle with a large wooden or wicker shield, the 
centre of which was ornamented with an ircn boss (umbo). 
Frankish arms and armour have been found in the cemeteries 
which abound throughout northern France, the warriors being 
buried fully armed. 

See J. Grimm, Deutsche Rechtsallerthiimer (Gottingen, 1828); 
K. Miillenhoff, Deutsche Altertumskunde (Berlin, 1883-1900); E. von 
Wietersheim, Geschichte der Volkerwanderung, 2nd ed., ed. by F. 
Dahn (Leipzig, 1880-1881); G. Waitz, Deutsche Verfassungs- 
geschichte, vol. i. (4th ed. revised by Zeumer) ; R. Schroder, " Die 
Ausbreitung der salischen Franken," in Forschungen zur deutschen 
Geschichte, vol. xix. ; K. Lamprecht, Frankische Wanderungen und 
Ansiedelungen (Aix-la-Chapelle, 1882); W. Schultz, Deutsche 
Geschichte von der Urzeit bis zu den Karolingern, vol. ii. (Stuttgart, 
1896); Fustel de Coulanges, Histoire des institutions politiques de 
Vancienne France — Vinvasion germanique (Paris, 1891). Also the 
articles Salic Law and Germanic Laws, Early. (C. Pf.) 

FRANZ, ROBERT (1815-1892), German composer, was born 
at Halle on the 28th of June 1815. One of the most gifted of 
German song writers, he suffered in early life, as many musicians 
have suffered, from the hostility of his parents to a musical 
career. He was twenty years old when, his father's animosity 
conquered, he was allowed to live in Dessau to study organ- 
playing under Schneider. The two years of dry study under 
that famous teacher were advantageous chiefly in making him 
uncommonly intimate with the works of Bach and Handel, his 
knowledge of which he showed in his editions of the Matthdus 
Passion, Magnificat, ten cantatas, and of the Messiah and 
V Allegro, though some of these editions have long been a subject 
of controversy among musicians. In 1843 he published his first 
book of songs, which ultimately was followed by some fifty more 
books, containing in all about 250 songs. At Halle, Franz filled 
various public offices, including those of organist to the city, 
conductor of the Sing-akademie and of the Symphony concerts, 
and he was also a royal music-director and master of the music 
at the university. The first book of songs was warmly praised 
by Schumann and Liszt, the latter of whom wrote a lengthy 
review of it in Schumann's paper, Die neue Zeitschrift, which 
later was published separately. Deafness had begun to make 
itself apparent as early as 1841, and Franz suffered also from a 
nervous disorder, which in 1868 compelled him to resign his 



offices. His future was then provided for by Liszt, Dr Joachim, 
Frau Magnus and others, who gave him the receipts of a concert 
tour, amounting to some 100,000 marks. Franz died on the 24th 
of October 1892. On his seventieth birthday he published his 
first and only pianoforte piece. It is easy to find here and there 
among his songs gems that are hardly less brilliant than the best 
of Schumann's. Certainly no musician was ever more thoughtful 
and more painstaking. In addition to songs he wrote a setting 
for double choir of the 117th Psalm, and a four-part Kyrie; 
he also edited Astorga's Stabat Mater and Durante's Magnificat. 
FRANZEN, FRANS MIKAEL (1772-1847), Swedish poet, was 
born at Uleaborg in Finland on the 9th of February 1772. 
At thirteen he entered the university of Abo, where he attended 
the lectures of H. G. Porthan (1739-1804), a pioneer in the study 
of Finnish history and legend. He graduated in 1789, and 
became " eloquentiae docens " in 1792. Three years later he 
started on a tour through Denmark, Germany, France and 
England, returning in 1796 to accept the office of university 
librarian at Abo. In 1801 he became professor of history and 
ethics, and in 1 808 was elected a member of the Swedish Academy. 
On the cession of Finland to Russia, Franzen removed to Sweden, 
where he was- successively appointed parish priest of Kumla 
in the diocese of Strengnas (1810), minister of the Clara Church 
in Stockholm (1824) and bishop of Hernosand (1831). He died 
at Sabri parsonage on the 14th of August 1847. From the 
autumn of 1793, when his Till en ung Flicka and Menniskans 
anlete were inserted by Kellgren in the Stockholmspost, Franzen 
grew in popular favour by means of many minor poems of 
singular simplicity and truth, as Till Selma, Den gamle knekten, 
Riddar St Goran, De Stnd blommorna, Modren vid vaggan, 
Nyarsmorgonen and Stjernhimmelen. His songs Goda gosse 
glaset torn, Sorj ej den gryende dagen forut, Champagnevinet 
and Bevdringss&ng were widely sung, and in 1797 he won the prize 
of the Swedish Academy by his S&ng bfver grefve Filip Creutz. 
Henceforth his muse, touched with the academic spirit, grew 
more reflective and didactic. His longer works, as Emilieller 
en afton i Lappland, and the epics Svante Sture eller motet vid 
Alvastra, Kolumbus eller Amerikas upptUckt and Gustaf Adolf i 
Tyskland (the last two incomplete), though rich in beauties of 
detail, are far inferior to his shorter pieces. 

The poetical works of Franzen are collected under the title Skalde- 
stycken (7 vols., 1824-1861) ; new ed., Samlade dikter, with a biography 
by A. A. Grafstrom (1867-1869); also a selection {Valda dikter) 
in 2 vols. (1871). His prose writings, Om svenska drottningar (Abo, 
1798; Orebro, 1823), Skrifter i obunden stil, vol. i. (1835), Predik- 
ningar (5 vols., 1841-1845) and Minnesteckningar, prepared for the 
Academy (3 vols., 1848-1860), are marked by faithful portraiture and 
purity of style. See B. E. Malmstrom, in the Handlingar of the 
Swedish Academy (1852, new series 1887), vol. ii. ; S. A. Hollander, 
Minne af F. M. Franzen (Orebro, 1868); F. Cygnaeus, Teckningar 
ur F. M. Franzens lefnad (Helsingfors, 1872) ; and Gustaf Ljunggren, 
Svenska vitterhelens hdfder efter Gustaf III.'s dod, vol. ii. (1876). 

FRANZENSBAD, or Kaiser-Franzem»ad, a town and 
watering-place of Bohemia, Austria, 152 m. IfeN.W. of Prague by 
rail. Pop. (1900) 2330. It is situated at an altitude of about 
1500 ft. between the spurs of the Fichtelgebirge, the Bohmerwald 
and the Erzgebirge, and lies 4 m. N.W. of Eger. It possesses 
a large kursaal, several bathing establishments, a hospital for 
poor patients and several parks. There are altogether 12 
mineral springs with saline, alkaline and ferruginous waters, 
of which the oldest and most important is the Franzensquelle. 
One of the springs gives off carbonic acid gas and another contains 
a considerable proportion of lithia salts. The waters, which 
have an average temperature between 50-2° F. and 54-5° F., 
are used both internally and externally, and are efficacious in 
cases of anaemia, nervous disorders, sexual diseases, specially 
for women, and heart diseases. Franzensbad is frequently 
resorted to as an after-cure by patients from Carlsbad and 
Marienbad. Another important part of the cure is the so-called 
moor or mud-baths, prepared from the peat of the Franzensbad 
marsh, which is very rich in mineral substances, like sulphates 
of iron, of soda and of potash, organic acids, salt, &c. 

The first information about the springs dates from the 16th 
century, and an analysis of the waters was made in 1565. They 

were first used for bathing purposes in 1707. But the foundation 
of Franzensbad as a watering-place really dates from 1793, 
when Dr Adler built here the first Kurkaus, and the place 
received its name after the emperor Francis I. 

See Dr Loimann, Franzensbad (3rd ed., Vienna, 1900). 
FRANZ JOSEF LAND, an arctic archipelago lying E. of 
Spitsbergen and N. of Novaya Zemlya, extending northward 
from about 8o° to 82 N., and between 42 and 64 E. It is 
described as a lofty glacier-covered land, reaching an extreme 
elevation of about 2400 ft. The glaciers front, with a per- 
pendicular ice-wall, a shore of debris on which a few low plants 
are found to grow — poppies, mosses and the like. The islands 
are volcanic, the main geological formation being Tertiary or 
Jurassic basalt, which occasionally protrudes through the 
ice-cap in high isolated blocks near the shore. A connecting 
island-chain between Franz Josef Land and Spitzbergen is 
probable. The bear and fox are the only land mammals; insects 
are rare; but the avifauna is of interest, and the Jackson 
expedition distinguished several new species. 

August Petermann expressed the opinion that Baffin may 
have sighted the west of Franz Josef Land in 1614, but the 
first actual discovery is due to Julius Payer, a lieutenant in the 
Austrian army, who was associated with Weyprecht in the 
second polar expedition fitted out by Count Wilczek on the 
ship " Tegetthof " in 1872. On the 13th of August 1873, the 
" Tegetthof " being then beset, high land was seen to the north- 
west. Later in the season Payer led expeditions to Hochstetter 
and Wilczek islands, and after a second winter in the ice-bound 
ship, a difficult journey was made northward through Austria 
Sound, which was reported to separate two large masses of land, 
Wilczek Land on the east from Zichy Land on the west, to Cape 
Fligely, in 82 5' N., where Rawlinson Sound branched away to 
the north-east. Cape Fligely was the highest latitude attained 
by Payer, and remained the highest attained in the Old World 
till 1895. Payer reported that from Cape Fligely land (Rudolf 
Land) stretched north-east to a cape (Cape Sherard Osborn), 
and mountain ranges were visible to the north, indicating lands 
beyond the 83rd parallel, to which the names King Oscar Land 
and Petermann Land were given. In 1879 De Bruyne sighted 
high land in the Franz Josef Land region, but otherwise it 
remained untouched until Leigh Smith, in the yacht " Eira," 
explored the whole southern coast from 42 to 54° E. in 1881 
and 1882, discovering many islands and sounds, and ascertaining 
that the coast of Alexandra Land, in the extreme west, trended 
to north-west and north. 

After Leigh Smith came another pause, and no further mention 
is made of Franz Josef Land till 1894. In that year Mr Alfred 
Harmsworth (afterwards Lord Northcliffe) fitted out an expedi- 
tion in the ship " Windward " under the leadership of Mr F. 
G. Jackson, with the object of establishing a permanent base 
from which systematic exploration should be carried on for 
successive years and, if practicable, a journey should be made 
to the Pole. Mr Jackson and his party landed at " Elmwood " 
(which was named from Lord Northcliffe's seat in the Isle of 
Thanet), near Cape Flora, at the western extremity of Northbrook 
Island, on the 7th of September. After a preliminary reconnais- 
sance to the north, which afterwards turned out to be vitally 
important, the summer of 1895 was spent in exploring the coast 
to the north-west by a boating expedition. This expedition 
visited many of the points seen by Leigh Smith, and discovered 
land, which it has been suggested may be the Gillies Land 
reported by the Dutch captain Gillies in 1707. In 1896 the 
Jackson-Harmsworth expedition worked northwards through 
an archipelago for about 70 m. and reached Cape Richthofen, 
a promontory 700 ft. high, whence an expanse of open water 
was seen to the northward, which received the name of Queen 
Victoria Sea. To the west, on the opposite side of a wide opening 
which was called the British Channel, appeared glacier-covered 
land, and an island lay to the northward. The island was 
probably the King Oscar Land of Payer. To north and north- 
east was the land which had been visited in the reconnaissance 
of the previous year, but beyond it a water-sky appeared in the 



supposed position of Petermann Land. Thus Zichy Land 
itself was resolved into a group of islands, and the outlying 
land sighted by Payer was found to be islands also. Meanwhile 
Nansen, on his southward journey, had approached Franz 
Josef Land from the north-east, finding only sea at the north 
end of Wilczek Land, and seeing nothing of Payer's Rawlinson 
Sound, or of the north end of Austria Sound. Nansen wintered 
near Cape Norway, only a few miles from the spot reached by 
Jackson in 1895. He had finally proved that a deep oceanic 
basin lies to the north. On the 17th of June 1896 the dramatic 
meeting of Jackson and Nansen took place, and in the same 
year the "Windward" revisited " Elmwood " and brought 
Nansen home, the work of the Jackson-Harmsworth expedition 
being continued for another year. As the non-existence of land 
to the north had been proved, the attempt to penetrate north- 
wards was abandoned, and the last season was devoted to a 
survey and scientific examination of the archipelago, especially 
to the west; this was carried out by Messrs Jackson, Armitage, 
R. Koettlitz, H. Fisher and W. S. Bruce. 

Further light was thrown on the relations of Franz Josef Land 
and Spitsbergen during 1897 by the discoveries of Captain 
Robertson of Dundee, and Wyche's Land was circumnavigated 
by Mr Arnold Pike and Sir Savile Crossley. The latter voyage 
was repeated in the following year by a German expedition 
under Dr Th. Lerner and Captain Riidiger. In August 1898 an 
expedition under Mr Walter Wellman, an American, landed at 
Cape Tegetthof. Beginning a northward journey with sledges 
at the end of the winter, Wellman met with an accident 
which compelled him to return, but not before some exploration 
had been accomplished, and the eastern extension of the archi- 
pelago fairly well defined. In June 1899 H.R.H. the duke of 
Abruzzi started from Christiania in his yacht, the " Stella 
Polare," to make the first attempt to force a ship into the newly 
discovered ocean north of Franz Josef Land. The " Stella 
Polare " succeeded in making her way through the British 
Channel to Crown Prince Rudolf Land, and wintered in Teplitz 
Bay, in 81° 33' N. lat. The ship was nearly wrecked in the 
autumn, and the party had to spend most of the winter on shore, 
the duke of Abruzzi suffering severely from frost-bite. In March 
1900 a sledge party of thirteen, under Captain Cagni, started 
northwards. They found no trace of Petermann Land, but with 
great difficulty crossed the ice to 86° 33' N. lat., 20 m. beyond 
Nansen's farthest, and 240 m. from the Pole. The party, with 
the exception of three, returned to the ship after an absence 
of 104 days, and the "Stella Polare" returned to Tromso 
in September 1900. In 1901-1902 the Baldwin-Ziegler expedi- 
tion also attempted a northward journey from Franz Josef 

See Geographical Journal, vol. xi., February 1898; F. G. Jackson, 
A Thousand Days in the Arctic (1899). 

FRANZOS, KARL EMIL (1 848-1 904), German novelist, was 
born of Jewish parentage on the 25th of October 1848 in Russian 
Podolia, and spent his early years at Czortkow in Galicia. His 
father, a district physician, died early, and the boy, after attend- 
ing the gymnasium of Czernowitz, was obliged to teach in order 
to support himself and prepare for academic study. He studied 
law at the universities of Vienna and Graz, but after passing the 
examination for employment in the state judicial service 
abandoned ■ this career and, becoming a journalist, travelled 
extensively in south-east Europe, and visited Asia Minor and 
Egypt. In 1877 he returned to Vienna, where from 1884 to 
1886 he edited the Neue illustrierte Zeitung. In 1887 he removed 
to Berlin and founded the fortnightly review Deutsche Dichtung. 
Franzos died on the 28th of January 1904. His earliest collec- 
tions of stories and sketches, Aus Halb-Asien, Land und Leule 
des ostlichen Europas (1876) and Die Juden von Barnow (1877) 
depict graphically the life and manners of the races of south- 
eastern Europe. Among other of his works may be mentioned 
the short stories, Junge Liebe (1878), Stille Geschichten (1880), 
and the novels Moschko von Parma (1880), Ein Kampf urns 
Rechl (1882), Der President (1884), Judith Trachtenberg (1890), 
Der W ahrheiisucher (i8g4). 

FRASCATI, a town and episcopal see of Italy, in the province 
of Rome, 15 m. S.E. of Rome by rail, and also reached by electric 
tramway via Grottaferrata. Pop. (1901) 8453. The town is 
situated 1056 ft. above the sea-level, on the N. slopes of the outer 
crater ring of the Alban Hills, and commands a very fine view 
of the Campagna of Rome. The cathedral contains a memorial 
tablet to Charles Edward, the Young Pretender, whose body 
for some while rested here; his brother, Henry, Cardinal York, 
owned a villa at Frascati. The villas of the Roman nobility, 
with their beautiful gardens and fountains, are the chief attrac- 
tion of Frascati. The earliest in date is the Villa Falconieri, 
planned by Cardinal Ruffini before 1550; the most important 
of the rest are the Villa Torlonia (formerly Conti) , Lancelotti 
(formerly Piccolomini), Ruffinella (now belonging to Prince 
Lancellotti) , Aldobrandini, Borghese and Mondragone (now a 
Jesuit school) . The surrounding country, covered with remains 
of ancient villas, is fertile and noted for its wine. Frascati 
seems to have arisen on the site of a very large ancient villa, 
which, under Domitian at any rate, belonged to the imperial 
house about the 9th century in which period we find in the 
Liber Pontificalis the names of four churches in Frascata. 
The medieval ■ stronghold of the counts of Tusculum yq.v.), 
which occupied the site of the ancient city, was dismantled by 
the Romans in 1191, and the inhabitants put to the sword or 
mutilated. Many of the fugitives naturally took refuge in 
P'rascati. The see of Tusculum had, however, always had its 
cathedral church in Frascati. For the greater part of the middle 
ages Frascati belonged to the papacy. 

See G. Tomassetti, La Via Latina nel medio evo (Rome, 1886), 
170 seq.; T. Ashby in Papers of the British School at Rome, iv. 
(London, 1907). (T. As.) 

philosopher, was born at Ardchattan, Argyllshire, on the 3rd 
of September 1819. He was educated at Glasgow and Edinburgh, 
where, from 1846 to 1856, he was professor of Logic at New 
College. He edited the North British Review from 1850 to 1857, 
and in 1856, having previously been a Free Church minister, 
he succeeded Sir William Hamilton as professor of Logic and 
Metaphysics at Edinburgh University. In 1859 he became 
dean of the faculty of arts. He devoted himself to the study 
of English philosophers, especially Berkeley, and published a 
Collected Edition of the Works of Bishop Berkeley with Annota- 
tions, &c. (1871; enlarged 1901), a Biography of Berkeley (1881), 
an Annotated Edition of Locke's Essay (1894), the Philosophy of 
Theism (1896) and the Biography of Thomas Reid (1898). He 
contributed the article on John Locke to the Encyclopaedia 
Britannica. In 1904 he published an autobiography entitled 
Biographia philosophica, in which he sketched the progress of his 
intellectual development. From this work and from his Gifford 
lectures we learn objectively what had previously been inferred 
from his critical w^i^s. After a childhood spent in an austerity 
which stigmatized4ls unholy even the novels of Sir Walter Scott, 
he began his college career at the age of fourteen at a time when 
Christopher North and Dr Ritchie were lecturing on Moral 
Philosophy and Logic. His first philosophical advance was 
stimulated by Thomas Brown's Cause and Effect, which intro- 
duced him to the problems which were to occupy his thought. 
From this point he fell into the scepticism of Hume. In 1836 
Sir William Hamilton was appointed to the chair of Logic and 
Metaphysics, and Fraser became his pupil. He himself says, 
" I owe more to Hamilton than to any other influence." It 
was about this time also that he began his study of Berkeley and 
Coleridge, and deserted his early phenomenalism for the con- 
ception of a spiritual will as the universal cause. In the Bio- 
graphia this " Theistic faith " appears in its full development 
(see the concluding chapter), and is especially important as 
perhaps the nearest approach to Kantian ethics made by original 
English philosophy. Apart from the philosophical interest of 
the Biographia, the work contains valuable pictures of the Land 
of Lome and Argyllshire society in the early 19th century, of 
university life in Glasgow and Edinburgh, and a history of the 
North British Review. 



FRASER, JAMES (1818-1885), English bishop, was born at 
Prestbury, in Gloucestershire, on the 18th of August 1818, and 
was educated at Bridgnorth, Shrewsbury, and Lincoln College, 
Oxford. In 1839 he was Ireland scholar, and took a first class. 
In 1840 he gained an Oriel fellowship, and was for some time 
tutor of the college, but did not take orders until 1846. He was 
successively vicar of Cholderton, in Wiltshire, and rector of 
Ufton Nervet, in Berkshire; but his subsequent importance was 
largely due to W. K. Hamilton, bishop of Salisbury, who recom- 
mended him as an assistant commissioner of education. His 
report on the educational condition of thirteen poor-law unions, 
made in May 1859, was described by Thomas Hughes as " a 
superb, almost a unique piece of work." In 1865 he was com- 
missioned to report on the state of education in the United States 
and Canada, and his able performance of this task brought him 
an offer of the bishopric of Calcutta, which he declined, but in 
January 1870 he accepted the see of Manchester. The task 
before him was an arduous one, for although his predecessor, 
James Prince Lee, had consecrated no fewer than 130 churches, 
the enormous population was still greatly in advance of the 
ecclesiastical machinery. Fraser worked with the utmost 
energy, and did even more for the church by the liberality and 
geniality which earned him the title of " the bishop of all de- 
nominations." He was prominent in secular as well as religious 
works, interesting himself in every movement that promoted 
health, morality, or education; and especially serviceable as 
the friendly, unofficious counsellor of all classes. His theology 
was that of a liberal high-churchman, and his sympathies were 
broad. In convocation he seconded a motion for the disuse of 
the Athanasian Creed, and in the House of Lords he voted for 
the abolition of university tests. He died suddenly on the 22nd 
of October 1885. 

A biography by Thomas Hughes was published in 1887, and an 
account of his Lancashire life by J. W. Diggle (1889), who also edited 
2 vols, of University and Parochial Sermons (1887). 

FRASER, JAMES BAILLIE (1783-1856), Scottish traveller 
and author, was born at Reelick in the county of Inverness on 
the nth of June 1783. He was the eldest of the four sons of 
Edward Satchell Fraser of Reelick, all of whom found their way 
to the East, and gave proof of their ability. In early life he 
went to the West Indies and thence to India. In 181 5 he made 
a tour of exploration in the Himalayas, accompanied by his 
brother William (d. 1835). When Reza Kuli Mirza and Nejeff 
Kuli Mirza, the exiled Persian princes, visited England, he was 
appointed to look after them during their stay, and on their 
return he accompanied them as far as Constantinople. He was 
afterwards sent to Persia on a diplomatic mission by Lord 
Glenelg, and effected a most remarkable journey on horseback 
through Asia Minor to Teheran. His health, however, was 
impaired by the exposure. In 1823 he married a daughter 
of Alexander Fraser Tytler, Lord Woodhouselee, a sister of the 
historian Patrick Fraser Tytler. He died at Reelick in January 
1856. Fraser is said to have displayed great skill in water- 
colours, and several of his drawings have been engraved; and 
the astronomical observations which he took during some of 
his journeys did considerable service to the cartography of Asia. 
The works by which h» attained his literary reputation were 
accounts of his travels and fictitious tales illustrative of Eastern 
life. In both he employed a vigorous and impassioned style, 
which was on the whole wonderfully effective in spite of minor 
faults in taste and flaws in structure. 

Fraser's earliest writings are: Journal of a Tour through Part of 
the Himaia Mountains and to the Sources of the Jumna and the Ganges 
(1820); A Narrative of a Journey into Khorasan in the Years 1821 
and 1822, including some Account of the Countries to the North-East 
of Persia (1825) ; and Travels and Adventures in the Persian Provinces 
on the Southern Banks of the Caspian Sea (1826). His romances 
include The Kuzzilbash, a Tale of Khorasan (1828), and its sequel, 
The Persian Adventurer (1830) ; Allee Neemroo (1842) ; and The Dark 
Falcon (1844). He also wrote An Historical and Descriptive Account 
of Persia (1834I; A Winter's Journey (Tatar) from Constantinople 
to Teheran (1838) ; Travels in Koordislan, Mesopotamia, &c. (1840) ; 
Mesopotamia and Assyria (1842); and Military Memoirs of Col. 
James Skinner (1851). 

FRASER, SIR WILLIAM AUGUSTUS, Bart. (1826-1898), Eng- 
lish politician, author and collector, was born on the 10th of 
February 1826, the son of Sir James John Fraser, 3rd baronet, a 
colonel of the 7 th Hussars, who had served on Wellington's staff 
at Waterloo. He was educated at Eton and at Christ Church, 
Oxford, entered the 1st Life Guards in 1847, but retired with a 
captain's rank in 1852. He then set about entering parliament, 
and the ups and downs of his political career were rather remark- 
able. He was returned for Barnstaple in 1852, but the election 
was declared void on account of bribery, and the constituency 
was disfranchised for two years. At the election of 1857 Sir 
William, who had meantime been defeated at Harwich, was 
again returned at Barnstaple. He was, however, defeated in 
1859, but was elected in 1863 at Ludlow. This seat he held for 
only two years, when he was again defeated and did not re-enter 
parliament until 1874, when he was returned for Kidderminster, 
a constituency he represented for six years, when he retired. He 
was a familiar figure at the Carlton Club, always ready with a 
copious collection of anecdotes of Wellington, Disraeli and 
Napoleon III. He died on the 17th of August 1898. He was 
an assiduous collector of relics; and his library was sold for 
some £20,000. His own books comprise Words on Wellington 
(1889), Disraeli and his Day (1891), Hie et Ubique (1893), 
Napoleon III. (1896) and the Waterloo Ball (1897). 

FRASER, the chief river of British Columbia, Canada, rising 
in two branches among the Rocky Mountains near 52° 45' N., 
n8°3o'W. Length 740 m. It first flows N.W. for about 160 m., 
then rounds the head of the Cariboo Mountains, and flows 
directly S. for over 400 m. to Hope, where it again turns abruptly 
and flows W. for 80 m., falling into the Gulf of Georgia at New 
Westminster. After the junction of the two forks near its 
northern extremity, the first important tributary on its southern 
course is the Stuart, draining Lakes Stuart, Fraser and Francois, 
One hundred miles lower down the Quesnel, draining a large 
lake of the same name, flows in from the east at a town also so 
named. Farther on the Fraser receives from the west the 
Chilcotin, and at Lytton, about 180 m. from the sea, the Thomp- 
son, its largest tributary, flows in from the east, draining a series 
of mountain lakes, and receiving at Kamloops the North 
Thompson, which flows through deep and impassable canyons. 
Below Hope the Lillooet flows in from the north. The Fraser 
is a typical mountain stream, rapid and impetuous through all 
its length, and like most of its tributaries is in many parts not 
navigable even by canoes. On its southern course between 
Lytton and Yale, while bursting its way through the Coast 
Range, it flows through majestic canyons, which, like those 
of the Thompson, were the scene of many tragedies during the 
days of the gold-rush to the Cariboo district. At Yale, about 
80 m. from its mouth, it becomes navigable, though its course 
is still very rapid. In the Cariboo district, comprised within the 
great bend of the river, near Tete Jaune Cache, are many valuable 
gold deposits. With its tributaries the Fraser drains the whole 
province from 54 to 49 N., except the extreme south-eastern 
corner, which is within the basin of the Columbia and its tributary 
the Kootenay. 

FRASERBURGH, a police burgh and seaport, on the N. coast 
of Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Pop. (1891), 7466; (1901), 9105.- 
It is situated 47 J m. by rail N. of Aberdeen, from which there 
is a branch line, of which it is the terminus, of the Great North 
of Scotland railway. It takes its name from Sir Alexander 
Fraser, the ancestor of Lord Saltoun, whose seat, Philorth 
House, lies 2 m. to the south. Sir Alexander obtained for it 
in 16 1 3 a charter as a burgh of royalty, and also in 1592 a charter 
for the founding of a university. This latter project, however, 
was not carried out, and all that remains of the building in- 
tended for the college is a three-storeyed tower. The old castle 
of the Frasers on Kinnaird Head now contains a lighthouse, 
and close by is the Wine Tower, with a cave below. The 
town cross is a fine structure standing upon a huge hexagon, 
surmounted by a stone pillar 12 ft. high, ornamented by the 
royal and Fraser arms. The port is one of the leading stations 
of the herring fishery in the north of Scotland and the head 



of a fishery district. During the herring season (June to Sep- 
tember) the population is increased by upwards of i 0,000 per- 
sons. The fleet numbers more than 700 boats, and the annual 
value of the catch exceeds £200,000. The harbour, origin- 
ally constructed as a refuge for British ships of war, is one 
of the best on the east coast, and has been improved by the 
widening of the piers and the extension of the breakwaters. 
It has an area of upwards of eight acres, is easy of access, and 
affords anchorage for vessels of every size. 

FRASERVILLE (formerly Riviere du Loup en Bas),atown 
and watering-place in Temiscouata county, Quebec, Canada, 
107 m. (by water) north-east of Quebec, on the south shore of 
the St Lawrence river, and at the mouth of the Riviere du Loup, 
at the junction of the Intercolonial and Temiscouata railways. 
It contains a convent, boys' college, hospital, several mills, 
and is a favourite summer resort on account of the angling and 
shooting, and the magnificent scenery. Pop. (1901) 4569. 

FRATER, Frater House or Fratery, a term in architec- 
ture for the hall where the members of a monastery or friary 
met for meals or refreshment. The word is by origin the same as 
" refectory." The older forms, such as freitur, fraytor and the 
like, show the word to be an adaptation of the O.Fr. fraitour, 
a shortened form of rejraitour, from the Med. Lat. refeclorium. 
The word has been confused with frater, a brother or friar, 
and hence sometimes confined in meaning to the dining-hall 
of a friary, while " refectory " is used of a monastery. 

FRATERNITIES, COLLEGE, a class of student societies 
peculiar to the colleges and universities of the United States and 
Canada, with certain common characteristics, and mostly 
named from two or three letters of the Greek alphabet; hence 
they are frequently called " Greek Letter Societies." They are 
organized on the lodge system, and each fraternity comprises 
a number of affiliated lodges of which only one of any one 
fraternity is connected with the same institution. The lodges, 
called " chapters," in memory of the convocations of monks of 
medieval times, are usually designated by Greek letters also. 
They are nominally secret, with one exception {Delta Upsilon). 
Each chapter admits members from the lowest or freshman 
class, and of course loses its members as the students depart 
from college, consequently each chapter has in it at the same 
time members of all the four college classes and frequently those 
pursuing postgraduate studies. Where the attendance at a 
college is large the material from which fraternity members 
may be drawn is correspondingly abundant, and in some of the 
large colleges (e.g. at Cornell University and the University of 
Michigan) there are chapters of over twenty fraternities. All 
the fraternities aim to be select and to pick their members from 
the mass of incoming students. Where, however, the material 
to select from is not abundant and the rival fraternities are 
numerous, care in selection is impossible, and the chapters at any 
one college are apt to secure much the same general type of men. 
Many of the fraternities have, however, on account of a persistent 
selection of men of about the same tastes at different colleges, 
acquired a distinct character and individuality; for instance, 
Alpha Delta Phi is literary. 

The first of these fraternities was the Phi Beta Kappa, founded 
at the College of William and Mary at Williamsburg, Virginia, 
in 1776. It was a little social club of five students: John 
Heath, Richard Booker, Thomas Smith, Armistead Smith and 
John Jones. Its badge was a square silver medal displaying 
the Greek letters of its name and a few symbols. In 1779 it 
authorized Elisha Parmelee, one of its members, to establish 
" meetings " or chapters at Yale and Harvard, these chapters being 
authorized to establish subordinate branches in their respective 
states. In 1781 the College of William and Mary was closed, its 
buildings being occupied in turn by the British, French and 
American troops, and the society ceased to exist. The two 
branches, however, were established — that at Yale in 1780 and 
that at Harvard in 1781. Chapters were established at Dartmouth 
in 1787, at Union in 1817, at Bowdoin in 1824 and at Brown in 1830. 
This society changed its character in 1826 and became non-secret 
and purely honorary in character, admitting to membership a 

certain proportion of the scholars of highest standing in each 
class (only in classical courses, usually and with few exceptions 
only in graduating classes). More recent honorary societies 
of similar character among schools of science and engineering 
are Sigma Xi and Tau Beta Pi. 

In 1825, at Union College, Kappa Alpha was organized, 
copying in style of badge, membership restrictions and the like, 
its predecessor. In 1827 two other similar societies, Sigma Phi 
and Delta Phi, were founded at the same place. In 1831 Sigma 
Phi placed a branch at Hamilton College and in 1832 Alpha 
Delta Phi originated there. In 1833 Psi Upsilon, a fourth 
society, was organized at Union. In 1835 Alpha Delta Phi 
placed a chapter at Miami University, and in 1839 Beta Theta Pi 
originated there, and so the system spread. These fraternities, 
it will be observed, were all undergraduate societies among the 
male students. In 1910 the total number of men's general 
fraternities was 32, with 1068 living chapters, and owning 
property worth many millions of dollars. In 1864 Theta Xi, 
the first professional fraternity restricting its membership to 
students intending to engage in the same profession, was organ- 
ized. There were in 1910 about 50 of these organizations 
with some 400 chapters. In addition there are about 100 
local societies or chapters acting as independent units. Some 
of the older of these, such as Kappa Kappa Kappa at Dartmouth, 
IK A at Trinity, Phi Nu Theta at Wesleyan and Delta Psi at 
Vermont, are permanent in character, but the majority of them 
are purely temporary, designed to maintain an organization 
until the society becomes a chapter of one of the general fra- 
ternities. In 1870 the first women's society or " sorority," 
the Kappa Alpha Theta, was organized at De Pauw University. 
There were in 1910, 17 general sororities with some 300 active 

It is no exaggeration to say that these apparently insignificant 
organizations of irresponsible students have modified the college 
life of America and have had a wide influence. Members join 
in the impressionable years of their youth; they retain for their 
organizations a peculiar loyalty and affection, and freely contri- 
bute with money and influence to their advancement. 

Almost universally the members of any particular chapter 
(or part of them) live together in a lodge or chapter house. 
The men's fraternities own hundreds of houses and rent as many 
more. The fraternities form a little aristocracy within the 
college community. Sometimes the line of separation is invisible, 
sometimes sharply marked. Sometimes this condition militates 
against the college discipline and sometimes it assists it. Con- 
flicts not infrequently occur between the fraternity and non- 
fraternity element in a college. 

It can readily be understood how young men living together in 
the intimate relationship of daily contact in the same house, 
having much the same tastes, culture and aspirations would form 
among themselves enduring friendships. In addition each 
fraternity has a reputation to maintain, and this engenders an 
esprit du corps which at times places loyalty to fraternity 
interests above loyalty to college interest or the real advantage 
of the individual. At commencements and upon other occasions 
the former members of the chapters return to their chapter 
houses and help to foster the pride and loyalty of the under- 
graduates. The chapter houses are commonly owned by corpora- 
tions made up of the alumni. This brings the undergraduates 
into contact with men of mature age and often of national fame, 
who treat their membership as a serious privilege. 

The development of this collegiate aristocracy has led to 
jealousy and bitter animosity among those not selected for 
membership. Some of the states, notably South Carolina and 
Arkansas, have by legislation, either abolished the fraternities at 
state-controlled institutions or seriously limited the privileges 
of their members. The constitutionality of such legislation has 
never been tested. Litigation has occasionally arisen out of 
attempts on the part of college authorities to prohibit the 
fraternities at their several institutions. This, it has been held, 
may lawfully be done at a college maintained by private endow- 
ment but not at an institution supported by public funds. In 



the latter case all classes of the public are equally entitled to 
the same educational privileges and members of the fraternities 
may not be discriminated against. 

The fraternities are admirably organized. The usual system 
comprises a legislative body made up of delegates from the 
different chapters and an executive or administrative body 
elected by the delegates. Few of the fraternities have any 
judiciary. None is needed. The financial systems are sound, 
and the conventions of delegates meet in various parts of the 
United States, several hundred in number, spend thousands of 
dollars in travel 'and entertainment, and attract much public 
attention. Most of the fraternities have an inspection system 
by which chapters are periodically visited and kept up to a certain 
level of excellence. 

The leading fraternities publish journals usually from four to 
eight times during the college year. The earliest of these was 
the Beta Theta Pi, first issued in 1872. All publish catalogues 
of their members and the most prosperous have issued histories. 
They also publish song books, music and many ephemeral and 
local publications. 

The alumni of the fraternities are organized into clubs or associa- 
tions having headquarters at centres of population. These 
organizations are somewhat loose, but nevertheless are capable 
of much exertion and influence should occasion arise. 

The college fraternity system has no parallel among the students 
of colleges outside of America. One of the curious things about 
it, however, is that while it is practically uniform throughout 
the United States, at the three prominent universities of Harvard, 
Yale and Princeton it differs in many respects from its character 
elsewhere. At Harvard, although there are chapters of a few 
of the fraternities, their influence is insignificant, their place 
being taken by a group of local societies, some of them class 
organizations. At Yale, the regular system of fraternities 
obtains in the engineering or technical department (the Sheffield 
Scientific School), but in the classical department the fraternity 
chapters are called " junior " societies, because they limit their 
membership to the three upper classes and allow the juniors 
each year practically to control the chapter affairs. Certain 
senior societies, of which the oldest is the Skull and Bones, 
which are inter-fraternity societies admitting freely members of 
the fraternities, are more prominent at Yale than the fraternities 
themselves. Princeton has two (secret) literary and fraternal 
societies, the American Whig and the Cliosophic, and various 
local social clubs, with no relationship to organizations in other 
colleges and not having Greek letter names. 

At a few universities (for instance, Michigan, Cornell and Vir- 
ginia), senior societies or other inter-fraternity societies exert great 
influence and have modified the strength of the fraternity system. 
Of late years, numerous societies bearing Greek names and 
imitating the externals of the college fraternities have sprung 
up in the high schools and academies of the country, but have 
excited the earnest and apparently united opposition of the 
authorities of such schools. 

See William Raimond Baird, American College Fraternities (6th 
ed., New York, 1905); Albert C. Stevens, Cyclopedia of Fraternities 
(Paterson, N. J., 1899) ; Henry D. Sheldon, Student Life and Customs 
(New York, 1901); Homer L. Patterson, Patterson's College and 
School Directory (Chicago, 1904); H. K. Kellogg, College Secret 
Societies (Chicago, 1874); Albert P. Jacobs, Greek Letter Societies 
(Detroit, 1879). (W. R. B.*) 

FRATICELLI (plural diminutive of Ital. frale, brother), the 
name given during the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries to a number 
of religious groups in Italy, differing widely from each other, but 
all derived more or less directly from the Franciscan movement. 
Fra Salimbene says in his Chronicle (Parma ed., p. 108): " All 
who wished to found a new rule borrowed something from the 
Franciscan order, the sandals or the habit." As early as 1238 
Gregory IX., in his bull Quoniam abundavit iniquitas, condemned 
and denounced as forgers {tanquatn falsarios) all who begged or 
preached in a habit resembling that of the mendicant orders, 
and this condemnation was repeated by him or his successors. 
The term Fraticelli was used contemptuously to denote, not any 
particular sect, but the members of orders formed on the fringe 

of the church. Thus Giovanni Villani, speaking of the heretic 
Dolcino, says in his Chronicle (bk. viii. ch. 84): " He is not a 
brother of an ordered rule, but a Jraticello without an order." 
Similarly, John XXII., in his bull Sancta Romana et Universalis 
Ecclesia (28th of December 1317), condemns vaguely those 
" profanae multitudinis viri commonly called Fraticelli, or 
Brethren of the Poor Life, or Bizocchi, or Beguines, or by all 
manner of other names." 

Some historians, in their zeal for rigid classification, have 
regarded the Fraticelli as a distinct sect, and have attempted 
to discover its dogmas and its founder. Some of the con- 
temporaries of these religious groups fell into the same error, 
and in this way the vague term Fraticelli has sometimes been 
applied to the disciples of Armanno Pongilupo of Ferrara (d. 1 269), 
who was undoubtedly a Cathar, and to the followers of Gerard 
Segarelli and Dolcino, who were always known among them- 
selves as Apostolic Brethren (Apostolici). Furthermore, it seems 
absurd to classify both the Dolcinists and the Spiritual Franciscans 
as Fraticelli, since, as has been pointed out by Ehrle {Arch. f. 
Lit. u. Kirchengesch. des Mittelalters, ii. 107, &c), Angelo of 
Clarino, in his De septem tribulationibus, written to the glory of 
the Spirituals, does not scruple to stigmatize the Dolcinists as 
" disciples of the devil." It is equally absurd to include in the 
same category the ignorant Bizocchi and Segarellists and such 
learned disciples of Michael of Cesena and Louis of Bavaria as 
William of Occam and Bonagratia of Bergamo, who have often 
been placed under this comprehensive rubric. 

The name Fraticelli may more justly be applied to the most 
exalted fraction of Franciscanism. In 1322 some prisoners 
declared to the inquisitor Bernard Gui at Toulouse that the 
Franciscan order was divided into three sections — the Con- 
ventuals, who were allowed to retain their real and personal 
property; the Spirituals or Beguines, who were at that time 
the objects of persecution; and the Fraticelli of Sicily, whose 
leader was Henry of Ceva (see Gui's Practica Inquisitionis, v.). 
It is this fraction of the order which John XXII. condemned 
in his bull Gloriosam Ecclesiam (23rd of January 1318), but 
without calling them Fraticelli. Henry of Ceva had taken refuge 
in Sicily at the time of Pope Boniface VIII.'s persecution of the 
Spirituals, and thanks to the good offices of Frederick of Sicily, 
a little colony of Franciscans who rejected all property had soon 
established itself in the island. Under Pope Clement V., and 
more especially under Pope John XXII. , fresh Spirituals joined 
them; and this group of exalted and isolated ascetics soon 
began to regard itself as the sole legitimate order of the Minorites 
and then as the sole Catholic Church. After being excommuni- 
cated as " schismatics and rebels, founders of a superstitious 
sect, and propagators of false and pestiferous doctrines," they 
proceeded to elect a general (for Michael of Cesena had disavowed 
them) and then a pope called Celestine (L. Wadding, Annates, 
at date 1313). The rebels continued to carry on an active 
propaganda. In Tuscany particularly the Inquisition made 
persistent efforts to suppress them; Florence afflicted them 
with severe laws, but failed to rouse the populace against them. 
The papacy dreaded their social even more than their dogmatic 
influence. At first in Sicily and afterwards throughout Italy 
the Ghibellines gave them a warm welcome; the rigorists and 
the malcontents who had either left the church or were on the 
point of leaving it, were attracted by these communities of 
needy rebels; and the tribune Rienzi was at one time disposed 
to join them. To overcome these ascetics it was necessary to 
have recourse to other ascetics, and from the outset the reformed 
Franciscans, or Franciscans of the Strict Observance, under the 
direction of their first leaders, Paoluccio da Trinci (d. 1390), 
Giovanni Stronconi (d. 1405), and St Bernardine of Siena, had 
been at great pains to restore the Fraticelli to orthodoxy. These 
early efforts, however, had little success. Alarmed by the 
number of the sectaries and the extent of their influence, Pope 
Martin V., who had encouraged the Observants, and particularly 
Bernardine of Siena, fulminated two bulls (1418 and 1421) 
against the heretics, and entrusted different legates with the task 
of hunting them down. These measures failing, he decided, in 



1426, to appoint two Observants as inquisitors without territorial 
limitation to make a special crusade against the heresy of the 
Fraticelli. These two inquisitors, who pursued their duties 
under three popes (Martin V., Eugenius IV. and Nicholas V.) 
were Giovanni da Capistrano and Giacomo della Marca. The 
latter's valuable Dialogus contra Fraticellos (Baluze and Mansi, 
Miscellanea, iv. 505-610) gives an account of the doctrines of 
these heretics and of the activity of the two inquisitors, and shows 
that the Fraticelli not only constituted a distinct church but 
a distinct society. They had a pope called Rinaldo, who was 
elected in 1429 and was succeeded by a brother named Gabriel. 
This supreme head of their church they styled " bishop of 
Philadelphia," Philadelphia being the mystic name of their 
community; under him were bishops, e.g. the bishops of 
Florence, Venice, &c; and, furthermore, a member of the 
community named Guglielmo Majoretto bore the title of 
" Emperor of the Christians." This organization, at least in 
so far as concerns the heretical church, had already been observed 
among the Fraticelli in Sicily, and in 1423 the general council 
of Siena affirmed with horror that at Peniscola there was an 
heretical pope surrounded with a college of cardinals who made 
no attempt at concealment. From 1426 to 1449 the Fraticelli 
were unremittingly pursued, imprisoned and burned. The sect 
gradually died out after losing the protection of the common 
people, whose sympathy was now transferred to the austere 
Observants and their miracle-worker Capistrano. From 1466 
to 1471 there were sporadic burnings of Fraticelli, and in 1471 
Tommaso di Scarlino was sent to Piombino and the littoral of 
Tuscany to track out some Fraticelli who had been discovered 
in those parts. After that date the name disappears from history. 
See F. Ehrle, " Die Spiritualen, ihr Verhaltnis zum Franzis- 
kanerorden und zu den Fraticellen ■" and " Zur Vorgeschichte des 
Concils von Vienne," in Archiv fur Literatur- und Kirchengesckichte 
des Mittelalters, vols, i., ii., iii. ; Wetzer and Welte, Kirchenlexikon, 
s.v. " Fraticellen " ; H. C. Lea, History of the Inquisition of the Middle 
Ages, iii. 129-180 (London, 1888). (P. A.) 

FRAUD (L&t.fraus, deceit), in its widest sense, a term which 
has never been exhaustively defined by an English court of law, 
and for legal purposes probably cannot usefully be defined. But 
as denoting a cause of action for which damages can be recovered 
in civil proceedings it now has a clear and settled meaning. In 
actions in which damages are claimed for fraud, the difficulties 
and obscurities which commonly arise are due rather to the 
complexity of modern commerce and the ingenuity of modern 
swindlers than to any uncertainty or technicality in the modern 
law. To succeed in such an action, the person aggrieved must 
first prove a representation of fact, made either by words, by 
writing or by conduct, which is in fact untrue. Mere conceal- 
ment is not actionable unless it amounts not only to suppressio 
veri, but to suggcstio falsi. An expression of opinion or of 
intention is not enough, unless it can be shown that the opinion 
was not really held, or that the intention was not really enter- 
tained, in which case it must be borne in mind, to use the phrase 
of Lord Bowen, that the state of a man's mind is as much a matter 
of fact as the state of his digestion. Next, it must be proved that 
the representation was made without any honest belief in its 
truth, that is, either with actual knowledge of its falsity or with 
a reckless disregard whether it is true or false. It was finally 
established, after much controversy, in the case of Derry v. 
Peek in 1889, that a merely negligent misstatement is not action- 
able. Further, the person aggrieved must prove that the 
offender made the representation with the intention that he 
should act on it, though not necessarily directly to him, and that 
he did in fact act in reliance on it. Lastly, the complainant 
must prove that, as the direct consequence, he has suffered 
actual damage capable of pecuniary measurement. 

As soon as the case of Derry v. Peek had established, as the 
general rule of law, that a merely negligent misstatement is not 
actionable, a statutory exception was made to the rule in the 
case of directors and promoters of companies who publish 
prospectuses and similar documents. By the Directors' Liability 
Act r890, such persons are liable for damage caused by untrue 
statements in such documents, unless they can prove that they 

had reasonable grounds for believing the statements to be true. 
It is also to be observed that, though damages cannot be re- 
covered in an action for a misrepresentation made with an honest 
belief in its truth, still any person induced to enter into a con- 
tract by a misrepresentation, whether fraudulent or innocent, is 
entitled to avoid the contract and to obtain a declaration that 
it is not binding upon him. This is in accordance with the rule 
of equity, which since the Judicature Act prevails in all the 
courts. Whether the representation is fraudulent or innocent, 
the contract is not void, but voidable. The party misled must 
exercise his option to avoid the contract without delay, and 
before it has become impossible to restore the other party to the 
position in which he stood before the contract was made. If he 
is too late, he can only rely on his claim for damages, and in 
order to assert this claim it is necessary to prove that the mis- 
representation was fraudulent. Fraud, in its wider sense of 
dishonest dealing, though not a distinct cause of action, is often 
material as preventing the acquisition of a right, for which good 
faith is a necessary condition. Also a combination or conspiracy 
by two or more persons to defraud gives rise to liabilities not 
very clearly or completely defined. 

FRAUENBURG, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of 
Prussia, on the Frische Haff, at the mouth of the Bande, 41 m. 
S.W. from Konigsberg on the railway to Elbing. Pop. 2500. 
The cathedral (founded 1329), with six towers, stands on a 
commanding eminence adjoining the town and surrounded by 
castellated walls and bastions. This is known as Dom-Frauen- 
burg, and is the seat of the Roman Catholic bishop of Ermeland. 
Within the cathedral is a monument to the astronomer Copernicus 
bearing the inscription Astronomo celeberrimo, cujus nomen et 
gloria utrumque implevit orbem. There is a small port with 
inconsiderable trade. Frauenberg was founded in 1287 and 
received the rights of a town in 1310. 

FRAUENFELD, the capital of the Swiss canton of Thurgau, 
27 m. by rail N.E. of Zurich or 14! m. W. of Romanshorn. 
It is built on the Murg stream a little above its junction with the 
Thur. It is a prosperous commercial town, being situated at 
the meeting point of several routes, while it possesses several 
industrial establishments, chiefly concerned with different 
branches of the iron trade. In 1900 its population (including the 
neighbouring villages) was 7761, mainly German-speaking, 
while there were 5563 Protestants to 2188 Romanists. Frauen- 
feld is the artillery depot for North-East Switzerland. The upper 
town is the older part, and centres round the castle, of which the 
tower dates from the 10th century, though the rest is of a later 
period. Both stood on land belonging to the abbot of Reichenau, 
who, with the count of Kyburg, founded the town, which is first 
mentioned in 1255. The abbot retained all manorial rights till 
1803, while the political powers of the Kyburgers (who were the 
" protectors " of Reichenau) passed to the Habsburgs in 1273, 
and were seized by the Swiss in 1460 with the rest of the 
Thurgau. In 1712 the town succeeded Baden in Aargau as the 
meeting-place of the Federal Diet, and continued to be the capital 
of the Confederation till its transformation in 1798. In 1799 it 
was successively occupied by the Austrians and the French. 
The old Capuchin convent (1591-1848) is now occupied as a 
vicarage by the Romanist priest. (W. A. B. C.) 

FRAUENLOB, the name by which Heineich von Meissen, 
a German poet of the 13th century, is generally known. He 
seems to have acquired the sobriquet because in a famous 
Liederstreit with his rival Regenbogen he defended the use of the 
word Frau {i.e. frouwe, = \a,dy) instead of Weib (wtp = woman). 
Frauenlob was born about 1250 of a humble burgher family. 
His youth was spent in straitened circumstances, but he gradu- 
ally acquired a reputation as a singer at the various courts of 
the German princes. In 1278 we find him with Rudolph I. 
in the Marchfeld, in 1286 he was at Prague at the knighting Of 
Wenceslaus ( Wenzel) II. , and in 1 3 1 1 he was present at a knightly 
festival celebrated by Waldemar of Brandenburg before Rostock. 
After this he settled in Mainz, and there according to the popular 
account, founded the first school of Meistersingers (q.v.). He 
died in 1318, and was buried in the cloisters of the cathedral at 



Mainz. His grave is still marked by a copy made in 1783 of the 
original tombstone of 13 18; and in 1842 a monument by Sch wan- 
thaler was erected in the cloisters. Frauenlob's poems make a 
great display of learning; he delights in far-fetched metaphors, 
and his versification abounds in tricks of form and rhyme. 

Frauenlob's poetry was edited by L. Ettmiiller in 1843; a selection 
will be found in K. Bartsch, Deutsche Liederdichter des 12. bis 14. 
Jahrhunderts (3rd ed., 1893). An English translation of Frauenlob's 
Cantica canticorum, by A. E. Kroeger, with notes, appeared in 1877 
at St Louis, U.S.A. See A. Boerkel, Frauenlob (2nd ed., 1881). 

FRAUNCE, ABRAHAM (c. 1558-1633), English poet, a native 
of Shropshire, was born between 1558 and 1560. His name was 
registered as a pupil of Shrewsbury School in January 157 1/2, 
and he joined St John's College, Cambridge, in 1576, becoming a 
fellow in 1580/81. His Latin comedy of Victoria, dedicated to 
Sidney, was probably written at Cambridge, where he remained 
until he had taken his M.A. degree in 1583. He was called to the 
bar at Gray's Inn in 1588, and then apparently practised as a 
barrister in the court of the Welsh marches. After the death of 
his patron Sir Philip Sidney, Fraunce was protected by Sidney's 
sister Mary, countess of Pembroke. His last work was published 
in 1592, and we have no further knowledge of him until 1633, 
when he is said to have written an Epithalamium in honour 
of the marriage of Lady Magdalen Egerton, 7th daughter of the 
earl of Bridgwater, whose service he may possibly have entered. 

His works are: The Lamentations of Amintas for the death 
if Phyllis (1587), a version in English hexameters of his friend's, 
Thomas Watson's, Latin Amyntas; The Lawiers Logike, exem- 
plifying the praecepts of Logike by the practise of the common 
Lawe (158S); Arcadian Rhetorike (1588); Abrahami Fransi 
Insignium, Armorum . . . explicatio (1588); The Countess of 
Pembroke's Yvychurch (1591/2), containing a translation of 
Tasso's Aminta, a reprint of his earlier version of Watson, 
" The Lamentation of Corydon for the love of Alexis " (Virgil, 
eclogue ii.), a short translation from Heliodorus, and, in the third 
part (1592) " Aminta's Dale," a collection of "conceited" 
tales supposed to be related by the nymphs of Ivychurch; 
The Countess of Pembroke's Emanuell (1591); The Third Part 
of the Countess of Pembroke's Ivychurch, entituled Aminta's Dale 
(1502). His Arcadian Rhetorike owes much to earlier critical 
treatises, but has a special interest from its references to Spenser, 
and Fraunce quotes from the Faerie Queene a year before the 
publication of the first books. In " Colin Clout's come home 
again," Spenser speaks of Fraunce as Corydon, on account of his 
translations of Virgil's second eclogue. His poems are written in 
classical metres, and he was regarded by his contemporaries 
as the best exponent of Gabriel Harvey's theory. Even Thomas 
Nashe had a good word for " sweete Master France." 

The Countess of Pembroke's Emanuell, hexameters on the nativity 
and passion of Christ, with versions of some psalms, were reprinted 
by Dr A. B. Grosart in the third volume of his Miscellanies of the 
Fuller Worthies Library (1872). Joseph Hunter in his Chorus Vatum 
stated that five of Fraunce's songs were included in Sidney's Astrophel 
and Stella, but it is probable that these should be attributed not to 
Fraunce, hut to Thomas Campion. See a life prefixed to the tran- 
scription of a MS. Latin comedy by Fraunce, Victoria, by Professor 
G. C. Moore Smith, published in Bang's Materialien zur Kunde des 
alteren englischen Dramas, vol. xiv., 1906. 

FRAUNHOFER, JOSEPH VON (1787-1826), German optician 
and physicist, was born at Straubing in Bavaria on the 6th of 
March 1787, the son of a glazier who died in 1798. He was 
apprenticed in 1 799 to Weichselberger, a glass-polisher andlooking- 
glass maker. On the 21st of July 1801 he nearly lost his life 
by the fall of the house in which he lodged, and the elector of 
Bavaria, Maximilian Joseph, who was present at his extrication 
from the ruins, gave him 18 ducats. With a portion of this sum 
he obtained release from the last six months of his apprenticeship, 
and with the rest he purchased a glass-polishing machine. He 
now employed himself in making optical glasses, and in engraving 
on metal, devoting his spare time to the perusal of works on 
mathematics and optics. In 1806 he obtained the place of 
optician in the mathematical institute which in 1804 had been 
founded at Munich by Joseph von Utzschneider, G. Reichenbach 
and J. Liebherr; and in 1807 arrangements were made by 

Utzschneider for his instruction by Pierre Louis Guinand, a 
skilled optician, in the fabrication of flint and crown glass, in 
which he soon became an adept (see R. Wolf, Gesch. der Wissensch. 
in Deulschl. bd. xvi. p. 586). With Reichenbach and Utz- 
schneider, Fraunhofer established in 1809 an optical institute 
at Benedictbeuern, near Munich, of which he in 1818 became 
sole manager. The institute was in 181 9 removed to Munich, 
and on Fraunhofer's death came under the direction of G. Merz. 

Amongst the earliest mechanical contrivances of Fraunhofer 
was a machine for polishing mathematically uniform spherical 
surfaces. He was the inventor of the stage-micrometer, and of 
a form of heliometer; and in 1816 he succeeded in constructing 
for the microscope achromatic glasses of long focus, consisting of 
a single lens, the constituent glasses of which were in juxta- 
position, but not cemented together. The great reflecting 
telescope at Dorpat was manufactured by him, and so great was 
the skill he attained in the making of lenses for achromatic 
telescopes that, in a letter to Sir David Brewster, he expressed 
his willingness to furnish an achromatic glass of 18 in. diameter. 
Fraunhofer is especially known for the researches, published in 
the Denkschriften der Miinchener Akademie for 1814-1815, by 
which he laid the foundation of solar and stellar chemistry. 
The dark lines of the spectrum of sunlight, earliest noted by 
Dr W. H. Wollaston {Phil. Trans., 1802, p. 378), were inde- 
pendently discovered, and, by means of the telescope of a 
theodolite, between which and a distant slit admitting the 
light a prism was interposed, were for the first time carefully 
observed by Fraunhofer, and have on that account been desig- 
nated " Fraunhofer's lines." He constructed a map of as many 
as 576 of these lines, the principal of which he denoted by the 
letters of the alphabet from A to G; and by ascertaining their 
refractive indices he determined that their relative positions are 
constant, whether in spectra produced by the direct rays of the 
sun, or by the reflected light of the moon and planets. The 
spectra of the stars he obtained by using, outside the object-glass 
of his telescope, a large prism, through which the light passed 
to be brought to a focus in front of the eye-piece. He showed that 
in the spectra of the fixed stars many of the dark lines were 
different from those of the solar spectrum, whilst other well- 
known solar lines were wanting; and he concluded that it was 
not by any action of the terrestrial atmosphere upon the light 
passing through it that the lines were produced. He further 
expressed the belief that the dark lines D of the solar spectrum 
coincide with the bright lines of the sodium flame. He was also 
the inventor of the diffraction grating. 

In 1823 he was appointed conservator of the physical cabinet 
at Munich, and in the following year he received from the king 
of Bavaria the civil order of merit. He died at Munich on the 7th 
of June 1826, and was buried near Reichenbach, whose decease 
had taken place eight years previously. On his tomb is the 
inscription " Approximavit sidera." 

See J. von Utzschneider, Kurzer Umriss der Lebensgeschichte des 
Herrn Dr J. von Fraunhofer (Munich, 1826) ; and G. Merz, Das Leben 
und Wirken Fraunhofers (Landshut, 1865) 

FRAUSTADT (Polish, Wszowa), a town of Germany, in the 
Prussian province of Posen, in a flat sandy country, dotted with 
windmills, 50 m. S.S.W. of Posen, on the railway Lissa-Sagan. 
Pop. (including a garrison) 7500. It has three Evangelical 
and two Roman Catholic churches, a classical school and a 
teachers' seminary; the manufactures include woollen and 
cotton goods, hats, morocco leather and gloves, and there is a 
considerable trade in corn, cattle and wool. Fraustadt was 
founded by Silesians in 1348, and afterwards belonged to the 
principality of Glogau. Near the town the Swedes under Charles 
XII. defeated the Saxons on the 13th of February 1706. 

1841), French prelate and statesman, distinguished as an orator 
and as a controversial writer, was born of humble parentage 
at Curieres, in the department of Aveyron, on the 9th of May 
1765. He owes his reputation mainly to the lectures on dog- 
matic theology, known as the " conferences " of Saint Sulpice, 
delivered in the church of Saint Sulpice, Paris, from 1803 to 



1809, to which admiring crowds were attracted by his lucid 
exposition and by his graceful oratory. The freedom of his lan- 
guage in 1809, when Napoleon had arrested the pope and de- 
clared the annexation of Rome to France, led to a prohibition 
of his lectures; and the dispersion of the congregation of Saint 
Sulpice in 181 1 was followed by his temporary retirement from 
the capital. He returned with the Bourbons, and resumed his 
lectures in 18 14; but the events of the Hundred Days again 
compelled him to withdraw into private life, from which he did 
not emerge until February 1816. As court preacher and almoner 
to Louis XVIII., he now entered upon the period of his greatest 
public activity and influence. In connexion with the con- 
troversy raised by the signing of the reactionary concordat of 
18 1 7, he published in 18 18 a treatise entitled Vrais Principes 
de I'eglise Gallicane sur la puissance ecclisiastique, which though 
unfavourably criticized by Lamennais, was received with favour 
by the civil and ecclesiastical authorities. The consecration of 
Frayssinous as bishop of Hermopolis " in partibus," his election 
to the French Academy, and his appointment to the grand-master- 
ship of the university, followed in rapid succession. In 1824, 
on the accession of Charles X., he became minister of public in- 
struction and of ecclesiastical affairs under the administration 
of Villele; and about the same time he was created a peer of 
France with the title of count. His term of office was chiefly 
marked by the recall of the Jesuits. In 1825 he published his 
lectures under the title Defense \du christianisme. The work 
passed through 15 editions within 18 years, and was translated 
into several European languages. In 1828 he, along with his 
colleagues in the Villele ministry, was compelled to resign office, 
»nd the subsequent revolution of July 1830 led to his retire- 
ment to Rome. Shortly afterwards he became tutor to the duke 
of Bordeaux (Comte de Chambord) at Prague, where he con- 
tinued to live until 1838. He died at St Geniez on the 12th of 
December 1841. 

See Bertrand, Bibl. Sulpicienne (t. ii. 135 sq.; iii. 253) for biblio- 
graphy, and G. A. Henrion (Paris, 2 vols., 1844) for biography. 

FRECHETTE, LOUIS HONORS (1839-1908), French-Cana- 
dian poet, was born at Levis, Quebec, on the 16th of November 
1839, the son of a contractor. He was educated in his native 
province, and called to the Canadian bar in 1864. He started 
the Journal de Levis, and his revolutionary doctrines compelled 
him to leave Canada for the United States. After some years 
spent in journalism at Chicago, he was in 1874 elected as the 
Liberal candidate to represent Levis in the Canadian parliament. 
At the elections of 1878 and 1882 he was defeated, and there- 
after confined himself to litera ture. He edited La-Patrie and other 
French papers in the Dominion; and in 1889 was appointed 
clerk of the Quebec legislative council. He was long a warm 
advocate of the political union of Canada and the United States, 
but in later life became less ardent, and in 1897 accepted the 
honour of C.M.G. from Queen Victoria. He was president of the 
Royal Society of Canada, and of the Canadian Society of Arts, 
and received numerous honorary degrees. His works include: 
Mes Loisirs (1863); La Voix d'un exilS (1867), a satire against 
the Canadian government; PUe-mele (1877); Les Fleurs 
boriales, and Les Oiseaux de neige (1880), crowned by the French 
academy; La Ltgende d'un peuple (1887); two historical 
dramas, Papineau (1880) and Felix PoutrS (1880); La Noel au 
Canada (1900), and several prose works and translations. An 
exponent of local French sentiment, he won the title of the 
" Canadian Laureate." He died on the 1st of June 1908. 

FREDEGOND (Fredigundis) (d. 597), Frankish queen. Origin- 
ally a serving-woman, she inspired the Frankish king, Chilperic 
I., with a violent passion. At her instigation he repudiated his 
first wife Audovera, and strangled his second, Galswintha, 
Queen Brunhilda's sister. A few days after this murder Chilperic 
married Fredegond (567). This woman exercised a most per- 
nicious influence over him. She forced him into war against 
Austrasia, in the course of which she procured the assassination 
of the victorious king Sigebert (575) ; she carried on a malignant 
struggle against Chilperic's sons by his first wife, Theodebert, 
Merwich and Clovis, who all died tragic deaths; and she per- 

sistently endeavoured to secure the throne for her own children. 
Her first son Thierry, however, to whom Bishop Ragnemod of 
Paris stood godfather, died soon after birth, and Fredegond 
tortured a number of women whom she accused of having 
bewitched the child. Her second son also died in infancy. Finally, 
she gave birth to a child who afterwards became king as Clotaire 
II. Shortly after the birth of this third son, Chilperic himself 
perished in mysterious circumstances ( 5 84) . Fredegond has been 
accused of complicity in his murder, but with little show of 
probability, since in her husband she lost her principal supporter. 

Henceforth Fredegond did all in her power to gain the king- 
dom for her child. Taking refuge at the church of Notre Dame 
at Paris, she appealed to King Guntram of Burgundy, who 
took Clotaire under his protection and defended him against his 
other nephew, Childebert II., king of Austrasia. From that 
time until her death Fredegond governed the western kingdom. 
She endeavoured to prevent the alliance between King Guntram 
and Childebert, which was cemented by the pact of Andelot; 
and made several attempts to assassinate Childebert by sending 
against him hired bravoes armed with poisoned scramasaxes 
(heavy single-edged knives). After the death of Childebert 
in 59 s she resolved to augment the kingdom of Neustria at the 
expense of Austrasia, and to this end seized some cities near 
Paris and defeated Theodebert at the battle of Laffaux, near 
Soissons. Her triumph, however, was short-lived, as she died 
quietly in her bed in 597 soon after her victory. 

See V. N. Augustin Thierry, Recits des temps merovingiens (Brussels, 
1840); Ulysse Chevalier, Bio-bibliographie (2nd ed.), s.v. " Frede- 
gonde." (C. Pf.) 

FREDERIC, HAROLD (1856-1898), Anglo-American novelist, 
was born on the 19th of August 1856 at Utica, N.Y., was edu- 
cated there, and took to journalism. He went to live in England 
as London correspondent of the New York Times in 1884, and 
was soon recognized for his ability both as a writer and as a 
talker. He wrote several clever early stories, but it was not 
till he published Illumination (1896), followed by Gloria Mundi 
(1898), that his remarkable gifts as a novelist were fully realized. 
He died in England on the 19th of October 1898. 

FREDERICIA (Friedericia), a seaport of Denmark, near the 
S.E. corner of Jutland, on the west shore of the Little Belt 
opposite the island of Fixnen. Pop. (1901) 12,714. It has 
railway communication with both south and north, and a steam 
ferry connects with Middelfart, a seaside resort and railway 
station on Fiinen. There is a considerable shipping trade, and 
the industries comprise the manufacture of tobacco, salt and 
chicory, and of cotton goods and hats. A small fort was erected 
on the site of Fredericia by Christian IV. of Denmark, and his 
successor, Frederick III., determined about 1650 to make it a 
powerful fortress. Free exercise of religion was offered to all 
who should settle in the new town, which at first bore the name 
of Frederiksodde, and only received its present designation in 
1664. In 1657 it was taken by storm by the Swedish general 
Wrangel, and in 1659, after the fortress had been dismantled, 
it was occupied by Frederick William of Brandenburg. It was 
not till 1 709-1 7 10 that the works were again put in a state of 
defence. In 1848 no attempt was made by the Danes to 
oppose the Prussians, who entered on the 2nd of May, and main- 
tained their position against the Danish gunboats. During the 
armistice of 1848-1849 the fortress was strengthened, and soon 
afterwards it stood a siege of two months, which was brought 
to a glorious close by a successful sortie on the 6th of July 1849. 
In memory of the victory several monuments have been erected in 
the town and its vicinity, of which the most noticeable are the 
bronze statue of the Danish Land Soldier by Bissen (one of 
Thorvaldsen's pupils), and the great barrow over 500 Danes in 
the cemetery of the Holy Trinity Church, with a bas-relief by 
the same sculptor. On the outbreak of the war of 1864, the 
fortress was again strengthened by new works and an entrenched 
camp; but the Danes suddenly evacuated it on the 28th of April 
after a siege of six weeks. The Austro-Prussian army partly 
destroyed the fortifications, and kept possession of the town 
till the conclusion of peace. 



FREDERICK (Mod. Ger. Friedrich; Ital. Federigo; Fr. 
Frideric and Fediric; M.H.G. Friderich; O.H.G. Fridurlh, 
" king or lord of peace," from O.H.G. fridu, AS. frith, " peace," 
and rth " rich," " a ruler," for derivation of which see Henry), 
a Christian name borne by many European sovereigns and 
princes, the more important of whom are given below in the 
following order: — (i) Roman emperors and German kings; 
(2) other kings in the alphabetical order of their states; (3) 
other reigning princes in the same order. 

FREDERICK I. (c. n 23-1 190), Roman emperor, surnamed 
" Barbarossa " by the Italians, was the son of Frederick II. of 
Hohenstaufen, duke of Swabia, and Judith, daughter of Henry 
IX. the Black, duke of Bavaria. The precise date and place of 
his birth, together with details of his early life, are wanting; but 
in 1 143 he assisted his maternal uncle, Count Welf VI., in his 
attempts to conquer Bavaria, and by his conduct in several local 
feuds earned the reputation of a brave and skilful warrior. When 
his father died in 1147 Frederick became duke of Swabia, and im- 
mediately afterwards accompanied his uncle, the German king 
Conrad III., on his disastrous crusade, during which he greatly 
distinguished himself and won the complete confidence of the 
king. Abandoning the cause of the Welfs, he fought for Conrad 
against them, and in 11 52 the dying king advised the princes to 
choose Frederick as his successor to the exclusion of his own 
young son. Energetically pressing his candidature, he was 
chosen German king at Frankfort on the 4th or 5th of March 
1152, and crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle on the 9th of the same 
month, owing his election partly to his personal qualities, and 
partly to the fact that he united in himself the blood of the rival 
families of Welf and Waiblingen. 

The new king was anxious to restore the Empire to the position 
it had occupied under Charlemagne and Otto the Great, and saw 
clearly that the restoration of order in Germany was a necessary 
preliminary to the enforcement of the imperial rights in Italy. 
Issuing a general order for peace, he was prodigal in his concessions 
to the nobles. Count Welf was made duke of Spoleto and mar- 
grave of Tuscany; Berthold VI., duke of Zahringen, was en- 
trusted with extensive rights in Burgundy; and the king's 
nephew, Frederick, received the duchy of Swabia. Abroad 
Frederick decided a quarrel for the Danish throne in favour of 
Svend, or Peter as he is sometimes called, who did homage for 
his kingdom, and negotiations were begun with the East Roman 
emperor, Manuel Comnenus. It was probably about this time 
that the king obtained a divorce from his wife Adela, daughter 
of Dietpold, margrave of .Vohburg and Cham, on the ground 
of consanguinity, and made a vain effort to obtain a bride 
from the court of Constantinople. On his accession Frederick 
had communicated the news of his election to Pope Eugenius 
III., but neglected to ask for the papal confirmation. In spite 
of this omission, however, and of some trouble arising from a 
double election to the archbishopric of Magdeburg, a treaty was 
concluded between king and pope at Constance in March 1153, 
by which Frederick promised in return for his coronation to make 
no peace with Roger I. king of Sicily, or with the rebellious 
Romans, without the consent of Eugenius, and generally to help 
and defend the papacy. 

The journey to Italy made by the king in n 54 was the pre- 
cursor of five other expeditions which engaged his main energies 
for thirty years, during which the subjugation of the peninsula 
was the central and abiding aim of his policy. Meeting the new 
pope, Adrian IV., near Nepi, Frederick at first refused to hold 
his stirrup; but after some negotiations he consented and 
received the kiss of peace, which was followed by his coronation 
as emperor at Rome on the 18th of June 1155. As his slender 
forces were inadequate to encounter the fierce hostility which 
he aroused, he left Italy in the autumn of 11 55 to prepare for a 
new and more formidable campaign. Disorder was again rampant 
in Germany, especially in Bavaria, but general peace was restored 
by Frederick's vigorous measures. Bavaria was transferred 
from Henry II. Jasomirgott, margrave of Austria, to Henry the 
Lion, duke of Saxony; and the former was pacified by the 
erection of his margraviate into a duchy, while Frederick's 

step-brother Conrad was invested with the Palatinate of the Rhine. 
On the 9th of June 1156 the king was married at Wurzburg 
to Beatrix, daughter and heiress of the dead count of Upper 
Burgundy, Renaud III., when Upper Burgundy or Franche 
Comte, as it is sometimes called, was added to his possessions. 
An expedition into Poland reduced Duke Boleslaus IV. to an 
abject submission, after which Frederick received the homage of 
the Burgundian nobles at a diet held at Besancon in October 

1157, which was marked by a quarrel between pope and emperor. 
A Swedish archbishop, returning from Rome, had been seized by 
robbers, and as Frederick had not punished the offenders Adrian 
sent two legates to remonstrate. The papal letter when trans- 
lated referred to the imperial crown as a benefice conferred by 
the pope, and its reading aroused great indignation. The 
emperor had to protect the legates from the fury of the nobles; 
and afterwards issued a manifesto to his subjects declaring that 
he held the Empire from God alone, to which Adrian replied that 
he had used the ambiguous word bencficia as meaning benefits, 
and not in its feudal sense. 

In June n 58 Frederick set out upon his second Italian ex- 
pedition, which was signalized by the establishment of imperial 
officers called podestas in the cities of northern Italy, the revolt 
and capture of Milan, and the beginning of the long struggle with 
pope Alexander III., who excommunicated the emperor on the 
2nd of March 1160. During this visit Frederick summoned the 
doctors of Bologna to the diet held near Roncaglia in November 

1158, and as a result of their inquiries into the rights belonging 
to the kingdom of Italy he obtained a large amount of wealth. 
Returning to Germany towards the close of 1162, Frederick 
prevented a conflict between Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony, 
and a'number of neighbouring princes, and severely punished the 
citizens of Mainz for their rebellion against Archbishop Arnold. 
A further visit to Italy in n 63 saw his plans for the conquest 
of Sicily checked by the formation of a powerful league against 
him, brought together mainly by the exactions of the podestas 
and the enforcement of the rights declared by the doctors of 
Bologna. Frederick had supported an anti-pope Victor IV. 
against Alexander, and on Victor's death in n 63 a new anti- 
pope called Paschal III. was chosen to succeed him. Having 
tried in vain to secure the general recognition of Victor and 
Paschal in Europe, the emperor held a diet at Wurzburg in May 
1 165; and by taking an oath, followed by many of the clergy 
and nobles, to remain true to Paschal and his successors, brought 
about a schism in the German church. A temporary alliance 
with Henry II., king of England, the magnificent celebration 
of the canonization of Charlemagne at Aix-la-Chapelle, and the 
restoration of peace in the Rhineland, occupied Frederick's 
attention until October 1166, when he made his fourth journey 
to Italy. Having captured Ancona, he marched to Rome, stormed 
the Leonine city, and procured the enthronement of Paschal, and 
the coronation of his wife Beatrix; but his victorious career 
was stopped by the sudden outbreak of a pestilence which 
destroyed the German army and drove the emperor as a fugitive 
to Germany, where he remained for the ensuing six years. 
Henry the Lion was again saved from a threatening combination; 
conflicting claims to various bishoprics were decided; and the 
imperial authority was asserted over Bohemia, Poland and 
Hungary. Friendly relations were entered into with the emperor 
Manuel, and attempts made to come to a better understanding 
with Henry II., king of England, and Louis VII., king of France. 

In 1 1 74, when Frederick made his fifth expedition to Italy, 
the Lombard league had been formed, and the fortress of Ales- 
sandria raised to check his progress. The campaign was a com- 
plete failure. The refusal of Henry the Lion to bring help into 
Italy was followed by the defeat of the emperor at Legnano on 
the 29th of May 1176, when he was wounded and believed to be 
dead. Reaching Pavia, he began negotiations for peace with 
Alexander, which ripened into the treaty of Venice in August 
1 1 77, and at the same time a truce with the Lombard league 
was arranged for six years. Frederick, loosed from the papal 
ban, recognized Alexander as the rightful pope, and in July 1177 
knelt before him and kissed his feet. The possession of the vast 

4 6 


estates left by Matilda, marchioness of Tuscany, and claimed 
by both pope and emperor, was to be decided by arbitration, and 
in October 1178 the emperor was again in Germany. Various 
small feuds were suppressed; Henry the Lion was deprived of his 
duchy, which was dismembered, and sent into exile; a treaty was 
made with the Lombard league at Constance in June 1183; 
and most important of all, Frederick's son Henry was betrothed 
in 1 1 84 to Constance, daughter of Roger L, king of Sicily, and aunt 
and heiress of the reigning king, William II. This betrothal, 
which threatened to unite Sicily with the Empire, made it difficult 
for Frederick, when during his last Italian expedition in 1184 
he met Pope Lucius III. at Verona, to establish friendly relations 
with the papacy. Further causes of trouble arose, moreover, 
and when the potentates separated the question of Matilda's 
estates was undecided; and • Lucius had refused to crown 
Henry or to recognize the German clergy who had been ordained 
during the schism. Frederick then formed an alliance with 
Milan, where the citizens witnessed a great festival on the 27th 
of January 1186. The emperor, who had been crowned king of 
Burgundy, or Aries, at Aries on the 30th of July 1178, had this 
ceremony repeated; while his son Henry was crowned king of 
Italy and married to Constance, who was crowned queen of 

The quarrel with the papacy was continued with the new 
pope Urban III., and open warfare was begun. But Frederick 
was soon recalled to Germany by the news of a revolt raised by 
Philip of Heinsberg, archbishop of Cologne, in alliance with the 
pope. The German clergy remained loyal to the emperor, and 
hostilities were checked by the death of Urban and the election of 
a new pope as Gregory VIII. , who adopted a more friendly policy 
towards the emperor. In 1 188 Philip submitted, and immediately 
afterwards Frederick took the cross in order to stop the victorious 
career of Saladin, who had just taken Jerusalem. After extensive 
preparations he left Regensburg in May 1189 at the head of a 
splendid army, and having overcome the hostility of the East 
Roman emperor Isaac Angelus, marched into Asia Minor. On 
the 10th of June 1100 Frederick was either bathing or crossing 
the river Calycadnus (Geuksu), near Seleucia (Selefke) in Cilicia, 
when he was carried away by the stream and drowned. The 
place of his burial is unknown, and the legend which says he still 
sits in a cavern in the Kyffhauser mountain in Thuringia waiting 
until the need of his country shall call him, is now thought to 
refer, at least in its earlier form, to his grandson, the emperor 
Frederick II. He left by his wife, Beatrix, five sons, of whom 
the eldest afterwards became emperor as Henry VI. 

Frederick's reign, on the whole, was a happy and prosperous 
time for Germany. He encouraged the growth of towns, easily 
suppressed the few risings against his authority, and took 
strong and successful measures to establish order. Even after 
the severe reverses which he experienced in Italy, his position in 
Germany was never seriously weakened; and in 1181, when, 
almost without striking a blow, he deprived Henry the Lion of 
his duchy, he seemed stronger than ever. This power rested upon 
his earnest and commanding personality, and also upon the sup- 
port which he received from the German church, the possession of 
a valuable private domain, and the care with which he exacted 
feudal dues from his dependents. 

Frederick I. is said to have taken Charlemagne as his model; 
but the contest in which he engaged was entirely different both 
in character and results from that in which his great predecessor 
achieved such a wonderful temporary success. Though Frederick 
failed to subdue the republics, the failure can scarcely be said to 
reflect either on his prudence as a statesman or his skill as a 
general, for his ascendancy was finally overthrown rather by the 
ravages of pestilence than by the might of human arms. In 
Germany his resolute will and sagacious administration subdued 
or disarmed all discontent, and he not only succeeded in welding 
the various rival interests into a unity of devotion to himself 
against which papal intrigues were comparatively powerless, 
but won for the empire a prestige such as it had not possessed 
since the time of Otto the Great. The wide contrast between his 
German and Italian rule is strikingly exemplified in the fact that, 

while he endeavoured to overthrow the republics in Italy, he 
held in check the power of the nobles in Germany, by conferring 
municipal franchises and independent rights on the principal 
cities. Even in Italy, though his general course of action was 
warped by wrong prepossessions, he in many instances manifested 
exceptional practical sagacity in dealing with immediate diffi- 
culties and emergencies. Possessing frank and open manners, 
untiring and unresting energy, and a prowess which found its 
native element in difficulty and danger, he seemed the embodi- 
ment of the chivalrous and warlike spirit of his age, and was 
the model of all the qualities which then won highest admiration. 
Stern and ambitious he certainly was, but his aims can scarcely 
be said to have exceeded his prerogatives as emperor; and though 
he had sometimes recourse when in straits to expedients almost 
diabolically ingenious in their cruelty, yet his general conduct 
was marked by a clemency which in that age was exceptional. 
His quarrel with the papacy was an inherited conflict, not re- 
flecting at all on his religious faith, but the inevitable con- 
sequence of inconsistent theories of government, which had been 
created and could be dissipated only by a long series of events. 
His interference in the quarrels of the republics was not only quite 
justifiable from the relation in which he stood to them, but seemed 
absolutely necessary. From the beginning, however, he treated 
the Italians, as indeed was only natural., less as rebellious subjects 
than as conquered aliens; and it must be admitted that in regard 
to them the only effective portion of his procedure was, not his 
energetic measures of repression nor his brilliant victories, but, 
after the battle of Legnano, his quiet and cheerful acceptance of 
the inevitable, and the consequent complete change in his policy, 
by which if he did not obtain the great object of his ambition, 
he at least did much to render innoxious for the Empire his 
previous mistakes. 

In appearance Frederick was a man of well-proportioned, 
medium stature, with flowing yellow hair and a reddish beard. 
He delighted in hunting and the reading of history, was zealous 
in his attention to public business, and his private life was un- 
impeachable. Carlyle's tribute to him is interesting: " No king 
so furnished out with apparatus and arena, with personal faculty 
to rule and scene to do it in, has appeared elsewhere. A mag- 
nificent, magnanimous man; holding the reins of the world, not 
quite in the imaginary sense; scourging anarchy down, and 
urging noble effort up, really on a grand scale. A terror to evil- 
doers and a praise to well-doers in this world, probably beyond 
what was ever seen since." 

The principal contemporary authority for the earlier part of the 
reign of Frederick is the Gesta Friderici imperatoris, mainly the work 
of Otto, bishop of Freising. This is continued from 1 156 to 1 160 by 
Rahewin, a canon of Freising, and from 1160 to 1 170 by an anony- 
mous author. The various annals and chronicles of the period, 
among which may be mentioned the Chronica regia Coloniensis 
and the Annates Magdeburgenses, are also important. Other 
authorities for the different periods in Frederick's reign are Tageno 
of Passau, Descriptio expeditionis asiaticae Friderici I. ; Burchard, 
Historia Friderici imperatoris magni; Godfrey of Viterbo, Carmen 
de gestis Friderici I., which are all found in the Monumenta Germaniae 
historica. Scriptores (Hanover and Berlin, 1826-1892); Otto 
Morena of Lodi, Historia rerum Laudensium, continued by his son, 
Acerbus, also in the Monumenta; Ansbert, Historia de expeditione 
Friderici, 1187-1196, published in the Fontes rerum Auslriacarum. 
Scriptores (Vienna, 1855 fol.). Many valuable documents are found 
in the Monumenta Germaniae selecta, Band iv., edited by M. Doeberl 
(Munich, 1889-1890). 

The best modern authorities are J . Jastrow, Deutsche Geschichte 
im Zeitalter der Hohenstaufen (Berlin, 1893); W. von Giesebrecht, 
Geschichte der deutschen Kaiserzeit, Band iv. (Brunswick, 1877); 
H. von Biinau, Leben und Thaten Friedrichs I. (Leipzig, 1872); H. 
Prutz, Kaiser Friedrich I. (Dantzig, 1871-1874);^. Peters, Die 
Wahl Kaiser Friedrichs I. in the Forschungen zur deutschen Geschichte, 
Band xx. (Gottingen, 1862-1886) ; W. Gundlach, Barbarossalieder 
(Innsbruck, 1899). For a complete bibliography see Dahlmann- 
Waitz, Quellenkunde der deutschen Geschichte (Gottingen, 1894), and 
U. Chevalier, Repertoire des sources historiques du moyen dge, 
tome iii. (Paris, 1904). 

FREDERICK II. (1194-1250), Roman emperor, king of Sicily 
and Jerusalem, was the son of the emperor Henry VI. and Con- 
stance, daughter of Roger I., king of Sicily, and therefore grand- 
son of the emperor Frederick I. and a member of the Hohenstaufen 



family. Born at Jesi near Ancona on the 26th of December 
1 194, he was baptized by the name of Frederick Roger, chosen 
German king at Frankfort in n 96, and after his father's death 
crowned king of Sicily at Palermo on the 17th of May 11 98. 
His mother, who assumed the government, died in November 
1 198, leaving Pope Innocent III. as regent of Sicily and guardian 
of her son. The young king passed his early years amid the 
terrible anarchy in his island kingdom, which Innocent was 
powerless to check; but his education was not neglected, and 
his character and habits were formed by contact with men of 
varied nationalities and interests, while the darker traits of his 
nature were developed in the atmosphere of lawlessness in which 
he lived. In 1208 he was declared of age, and soon afterwards 
Innocent arranged a marriage, which was celebrated the following 
year, between him and Constance, daughter of Alphonso II. 
king of Aragon, and widow of Emerich or Imre, king of Hungary. 
The dissatisfaction felt in Germany with the emperor Otto IV. 
came to a climax in September 121 1, when a number of influential 
princes met at Nuremberg, declared Otto deposed, and invited 
Frederick to come and occupy the vacant throne. In spite of 
the reluctance of his wife, and the opposition of the Sicilian nobles, 
he accepted the invitation; and having recognized the papal 
supremacy over Sicily, and procured the coronation of his son 
Henry as its king, reached Germany after an adventurous journey 
in the autumn of 121 2. This step was taken with the approval 
of the pope, who was anxious to strike a blow at Otto IV. 

Frederick was welcomed in Swabia, and the renown of the 
Hohenstaufen name and a liberal distribution of promises made 
his progress easy. Having arranged a treaty against Otto with 
Louis, son of Philip Augustus, king of France, whom he met at 
Vaucouleurs, he was chosen German king a second time at Frank- 
fort on the 5th of December 121 2, and crowned four days later 
at Mainz. Anxious to retain the support of the pope, Frederick 
promulgated a bull at Eger on the 12th of July 12 13, by which 
he renounced all lands claimed by the pope since the death of the 
emperor Henry VI. in 1197, gave up the right of spoils and all 
interference in episcopal elections, and acknowledged the right 
of appeal to Rome. He again affirmed the papal supremacy 
over Sicily, and promised to root out heresy in Germany. The 
victory of his French allies at Bouvines on the 27th of July 12 14 
greatly strengthened his position, and a large part of the Rhine- 
land having fallen into his power, he was crowned German king 
at Aix-la-Chapelle on the 25th of July 1215. His cause continued 
to prosper, fresh supporters gathered round his standard, and in 
May 1218 the death of Otto freed him from his rival and left him 
undisputed ruler of Germany. A further attempt to allay the 
pope's apprehension lest Sicily should be united with the Empire 
had been made early in 1 216, when Frederick, in a letter to Inno- 
cent, promised after his own coronation^ emperor to recognize 
his son Henry as king of Sicily, and to place him under the 
suzerainty of Rome. Henry nevertheless was brought to Germany 
and chosen German king at Frankfort in April 1220, though 
Frederick assured the new pope, Honorius III., that this step 
had been taken without his consent. The truth, however, seems 
to be that he had taken great trouble to secure this election, and 
for the purpose had won the support of the spiritual princes by 
extensive concessions. In August 1220 Frederick set out for 
Italy, and was crowned emperor at Rome on the 22nd of November 
1220; after which he repeated the undertaking he had entered 
into at Aix-la-Chapelle in 1215 to go on crusade, and made lavish 
promises to the Church. The clergy were freed from taxation 
and from lay jurisdiction, the ban of the Empire was to follow 
the ban of the Church, and heretics were to be severely punished. 
Neglecting his promise to lead a crusade, Frederick was 
occupied until 1225 in restoring order in Sicily. The island was 
seething with disorder, but by stern and sometimes cruel 
measures the emperor suppressed the anarchy of the barons, 
curbed the power of the cities, and subdued the rebellious 
Saracens, many of whom, transferred to the mainland and 
settled at Nocera, afterwards rendered him valuable military 
service. Meanwhile the crusade was postponed again and 
again; until under a threat of excommunication, after the fall of 

Damietta in 1221, Frederick definitely undertook by a treaty 
made at San Germano in 1225 to set out in August 1227 or to 
submit to this penalty. His own interests turned more strongly 
to the East, when on the 9th of November 1225, after having been 
a widower since 1222, he married Iolande (Yolande or Isabella), 
daughter of John, count of Brienne, titular king of Jerusalem. 
John appears to have expected that this alliance would restore 
him to his kingdom, but his hopes were dashed to the ground 
when Frederick himself assumed the title of king of Jerusalem. 
The emperor's next step was an attempt to restore the imperial 
authority in northern Italy, and for the purpose a diet was called 
at Cremona. But the cities, watchful and suspicious, renewed the 
Lombard league and took up a hostile attitude. Frederick's 
reply was to annul the treaty of Constance and place the cities 
under the imperial ban; but he was forced by lack of military 
strength to accept the mediation of Pope Honorius and the 
maintenance of the status quo. 

After these events, which occurred early in 1227, preparations 
for the crusade were pressed on, and the emperor sailed from 
Brindisi on the 8th of September. A pestilence, however, which 
attacked his forces compelled him to land in Italy three days 
later, and on the 29th of the same month he was excommunicated 
by the new pope, Gregory IX. The greater part of the succeeding 
year was spent by pope and emperor in a violent quarrel. 
Alarmed at the increase in his opponent's power, Gregory de- 
nounced him in a public letter, to which Frederick replied in a 
clever document addressed to the princes of Europe. The reading 
of this manifesto, drawing attention to the absolute power 
claimed by the popes, was received in Rome with such evidences 
of approval that Gregory was compelled to fly to Viterbo. Having 
lost his wife Isabella on the 8th of May 1228, Frederick again set 
sail for Palestine, where he met with considerable success, the 
result of diplomatic rather than of military skill. By a treaty 
made in February 1229 he secured possession of Jerusalem, 
Bethlehem, Nazareth and the surrounding neighbourhood. 
Entering Jerusalem, he crowned himself king of that city on the 
1 8th of March 1229. These successes had been won in spite of 
the hostility of Gregory, which deprived Frederick of the assist- 
ance of many members of the military orders and of the clergy 
of Palestine. But although the emperor's possessions on the 
Italian mainland had been attacked in his absence by the papal 
troops and their allies, Gregory's efforts had failed to arouse 
serious opposition in Germany and Sicily; so that when Frederick 
returned unexpectedly to Italy in June 1229 he had no difficulty 
in driving back his enemies, and compelling the pope to sue for 
peace. The result was the treaty of San Germano, arranged in 
July 1230, by which the emperpr, loosed from the ban, promised 
to respect the papal territory, and to allow freedom of election 
and other privileges to the Sicilian clergy. Frederick was next 
engaged in completing the pacification of Sicily. In 1231 a 
series of laws were published at Melfi which destroyed the 
ascendancy of the feudal nobles. Royal officials were appointed 
for administrative purposes, large estates were recovered for the 
crown, and fortresses were destroyed, while the' church was 
placed under the royal jurisdiction and all gifts to it were pro- 
hibited. At the same time certain privileges of self-government 
were granted to the towns, representatives from which were 
summoned to sit in the diet. In short, by means of a centralized 
system of government, the king established an almost absolute 
monarchical power. 

In Germany, on the other hand, an entirely different policy was 
pursued. The concessions granted by Frederick in 1220, together 
with the Privilege of Worms, dated the 1st of May 1231, made 
the German princes virtually independent. All jurisdiction over 
their lands was vested in them, no new mints or toll-centres were 
to be erected on their domains, and the imperial authority was 
restricted to a small and dwindling area. A fierce attack was also 
made on the rights of the cities. Compelled to restore all their 
lands, their jurisdiction was bounded by their city- walls; they 
were forbidden to receive the dependents of the princes; all 
trade gilds were declared abolished; and all official appointments 
made without the consent of the archbishop or bishop were 

4 8 


annulled. A further attack on the Lombard cities at the diet of 
Ravenna in 1231 was answered by a renewal of their league, and 
was soon connected with unrest in Germany. About 1231 a 
breach took place between Frederick and his elder son Henry, 
who appears to have opposed the Privilege of Worms and to have 
favoured the towns against the princes. After refusing to travel 
to Italy, Henry changed his mind and submitted to his father at 
Aquileia in 1232; and a temporary peace was made with the 
Lombard cities in June 1233. But on his return to Germany 
Henry again raised the standard of revolt, and made a league 
with the Lombards in December 1234. Frederick, meanwhile, 
having helped Pope Gregory against the rebellious Romans and 
having secured the friendship of France and England, appeared 
in Germany early in 1235 and put down this rising without 
difficulty. Henry was imprisoned, but his associates were treated 
leniently. In August 1235 a splendid diet was held at Mainz, 
during which the marriage of the emperor with Isabella (1214- 
1241), daughter of John, king of England, was celebrated. A 
general peace (Landfrieden) , which became the basis of all such 
peaces in the future, was sworn to; a new office, that of imperial 
justiciar, was created, and a permanent judicial record was first 
instituted. Otto of Brunswick, grandson of Henry the Lion, 
duke of Saxony, was made duke of Brunswick-Luneburg; and 
war was declared against the Lombards. 

Frederick was now at the height of his power. His second son, 
Conrad, was invested with the duchy of Swabia, and the claim 
of Wenceslaus, king of Bohemia, to some lands which had 
belonged to the German king Philip was bought off. The attitude 
of Frederick II. (the Quarrelsome), duke of Austria, had been 
considered by the emperor so suspicious that during a visit paid 
by Frederick to Italy a war against him was begun. Compelled 
to return by the ill-fortune which attended this campaign, the 
emperor took command of his troops, seized Austria, Styria 
and Carinthia, and declared these territories to be immediately 
dependent on the Empire. In January 1237 he secured the 
election of his son Conrad as German king at Vienna; and in 
September went to Italy to prosecute the war which had broken 
out with the Lombards in the preceding year. Pope Gregory 
attempted to mediate, but the cities refused to accept the insult- 
ing terms offered by Frederick. The emperor gained a great 
victory over their forces at Cortenuova in November 1237; but 
though he met with some further successes, his failure to take 
Brescia in October 1238, together with the changed attitude of 
Gregory, turned the fortune of war. The pope had become 
alarmed when the emperor brought abou^i marriage between the 
heiress of Sardinia, Adelasia, and his natural son Enzio, who 
afterwards assumed the title of king of Sardinia. But as his 
warnings had been disregarded, he issued a document after the 
emperor's retreat from Brescia, teeming with complaints against 
Frederick, and followed it up by an open alliance with the 
Lombards, and by the excommunication of the emperor on the 
20th of March 1239. A violent war of words ensued. Frederick, 
accused of heresy, blasphemy and other crimes, called upon all 
kings and princes to unite against the pope, who on his side made 
vigorous efforts to arouse opposition in Germany, where his 
emissaries, a crowd of wandering friars, were actively preaching 
rebellion. It was, however, impossible to find an anti-king. 
In Italy, Spoleto and Ancona were declared part of the imperial 
dominions, and Rome itself, faithful on this occasion to the 
pope, was threatened. A number of ecclesiastics proceeding to a 
council called by Gregory were captured by Enzio at the sea- 
fight of Meloria, and the emperor was about to undertake the 
siege of Rome, when the pope died (August 1241). Germany was 
at this time menaced by the Mongols; but Frederick contented 
himself with issuing directions for a campaign against them, 
until in 1242 he was able to pay a short visit to Germany, where 
he gained some support from the towns by grants of extensive 

The successor of Gregory was Pope Celestine IX. But this 
pontiff died soon after his election; and after a delay of eighteen 
months, during which Frederick marched against Rome on two 
occasions and devastated the lands of his opponents, one of his 

partisans, Sinibaldo Fiesco,was chosen pope, and took the name 
of Innocent IV. Negotiations for peace were begun, but the 
relations of the Lombard cities to the Empire could not be 
adjusted, and when the emperor began again to ravage the 
papal territories Innocent fled to Lyons. Hither he summoned a 
general council, which met in June 1245; but although Frederick 
sent his justiciar, Thaddeus of Suessa, to represent him, and 
expressed his willingness to treat, sentence of excommunication 
and deposition was pronounced against him. Once more an 
interchange of recriminations began, charged with all the violent 
hyperbole characteristic of the controversial style of the age. 
Accused of violating treaties, breaking oaths, persecuting the 
church and abetting heresy, Frederick replied by an open letter 
rebutting these charges, and in equally unmeasured terms 
denounced the arrogance and want of faith of the clergy from 
the'pope downwards. The source of all the evil was, he declared, 
the excessive wealth of the church, which, in retaliation for the 
sentence of excommunication, he threatened to confiscate. In 
vain the mediation of the saintly king of France, Louis IX., was 
invoked. Innocent surpassed his predecessors in the ferocity and 
unscrupulousness of his attacks on the emperor (see Innocent 
IV.). War soon became general in Germany and Italy. 
Henry Raspe, landgrave of Thuringia, was chosen German 
king in opposition to Frederick in May 1246, but neither he nor 
his successor, William II., count of Holland, was successful in 
driving the Hohenstaufen from Germany. In Italy, during the 
emperor's absence, his cause had been upheld by Enzio and 
by the ferocious Eccelino da Romano. In 1246 a formidable 
conspiracy of the discontented Apulian barons against the 
emperor's power and life, fomented by papal emissaries, was 
discovered and crushed with ruthless cruelty. The emperor's 
power seemed more firmly established than ever, when suddenly 
the news reached him that Parma, a stronghold of the imperial 
authority in the north, had been surprised, while the garrison was 
off its guard, by the Guelphs. To recover the city was a matter 
of prime importance, and in 1247 Frederick concentrated his 
forces round it, building over against it a wooden town which, 
in anticipation of the success that astrologers had predicted, 
he named Vittoria. The siege, however, was protracted, and 
finally, in February 1248, during the absence of the emperor on a 
hunting expedition, was brought to an end by a sudden sortie of 
the men of Parma, who stormed the imperial camp. The disaster 
was complete. The emperor's forces were destroyed or scattered; 
the treasury, with the imperial insignia, together with Frederick's 
harem and some of the most trusted of his ministers, fell into the 
hands of the victors. Thaddeus of Suessa was hacked to pieces by 
the mob ; the imperial crown was placed in mockery on the head 
of a hunch-backed beggar, who was carried back in triumph into 
the city. 

Frederick struggled hard to retrieve his fortunes, and for a 
while with success. But his old confidence had left him ; he had 
grown moody and suspicious, and his temper gave a ready handle 
to his enemies. Pier della Vigna, accused of treasonable designs, 
was disgraced; and the once all-powerful favourite and minister, 
blinded now and in rags, was dragged in the emperor's train, as a 
warning to traitors, till in despair he dashed out his brains. 
Then, in May 1248, came the tidings of Enzio's capture by the 
Bolognese, and of his hopeless imprisonment, the captors refusing 
all offers of ransom. This disaster to his favourite son broke the 
emperor's spirit. He retired to southern Italy, and after a short 
illness died at Fiorentino on the 13th of December 1250, after 
having been loosed from the ban by the archbishop of Palermo. 
He was buried in the cathedral of that city, where his splendid 
tomb may still be seen. By his will he appointed his son Conrad 
to succeed him in Germany and Sicily, and Henry, his son by 
Isabella of England, to be king of Jerusalem or Aries, neither of 
which kingdoms, however, he obtained. Frederick left several 
illegitimate children: Enzio has already been referred to; 
Frederick, who was made the imperial vicar in Tuscany; and 
Manfred, his son by the beloved Bianca Lancia or Lanzia, who 
was legitimatized just before his father's death, and was appointed 
by his will prince of Tarento and regent of Sicily. 



The character of Frederick is one of extraordinary interest and 
versatility, and contemporary opinion is expressed in the words 
stupor mundi et immutator mirabUis. Licentious and luxurious in 
his manners, cultured and catholic in his tastes, he united in his 
person the most diverse qualities. His Sicilian court; was a centre 
of intellectual activity. Michael Scott, the translator of some 
treatises of Aristotle and of the commentaries of Averroes, 
Leonard of Pisa, who introduced Arabic numerals and algebra to 
the West, and other scholars, Jewish and Mahommedan as well as 
Christian, were welcome at his court. Frederick himself had a 
knowledge of six languages, was acquainted with mathematics, 
philosophy and natural history, and took an interest in medicine 
and architecture. In 1224 he founded the university of Naples, 
and he was a liberal patron of the medical school at Salerno. 
He formed a menagerie of strange animals, and wrote a treatise 
on falconry {De arte venandi cum avibus) which is remarkable for 
its accurate observation of the habits of birds. 1 It was at his 
court, too, that — as Dante points out — Italian poetry had its 
birth. Pier della Vigna there wrote the first sonnet, and Italian 
lyrics by Frederick himself are preserved to us. His wives were 
kept secluded in oriental fashion; a harem was maintained at 
Lucera, and eunuchs were a prominent feature of his household. 
His religious ideas have been the subject of much controversy. 
The theory of M. Huillard-Breholles that he wished to unite to the 
functions of emperor those of a spiritual pontiff, and aspired to be 
the founder of a new religion, is insufficiently supported by 
evidence to be credible. Although at times he persecuted 
heretics with great cruelty, he tolerated Mahommedans and Jews, 
and both acts appear rather to have been the outcome of political 
considerations than of religious belief. His jests, which were used 
by his enemies as a charge against him, seem to have originated 
in religious indifference, or perhaps in a spirit of inquiry which 
anticipated the ideas of a later age. Frederick's rule in Germany 
and Italy was a failure, but this fact may be accounted for by the 
conditions of the time and the inevitable conflict with the papacy. 
In Germany the enactments of 1220 and 1231 contributed to the 
disintegration of the Empire and the fall of the Hohenstaufen, 
while conflicting interests made the government of Italy a problem 
of exceptional difficulty. In Sicily Frederick was more successful. 
He quelled disorder, and under his rule the island was prosperous 
and contented. His ideas of government were those of an 
absolute monflfch, and he probably wished to surround himself 
with some of the pomp which had encircled the older emperors of 
Rome. His chief claim to fame, perhaps, is as a lawgiver. The 
code of laws which he gave to Sicily in 1 23 1 bears the impress of 
his personality, and has been described as " the fullest and most 
adequate body of legislation promulgated by any western ruler 
since Charlemagne." Without being a great soldier, Frederick 
was not unskilful in warfare, but was better acquainted with the 
arts of diplomacy. In person he is said to have been " red, bald 
and short-sighted," but with good features and a pleasing 
countenance. It was seriously believed in Germany for about a 
century after his death that Frederick was still alive, and many 
impostors attempted to personate him. A legend, afterwards 
transferred to Frederick Barbarossa, told how he sat in a cavern 
in the Kyffhausser before a stone table through which his beard 
had grown, waiting for the time for him to awake and restore to 
the Empire the golden age of peace. 

Thecontemporary documents relating to the reign of Frederick II. 
are very numerous. Among the most important are: Richard of 
San Germano, Chronica regni Siciliae; Annates Placentini, Gibellini; 
Albert of Stade, Annates; Matthew Paris, Historia major Angliae; 
Burchard, Chronicon Urspergense. All these are in the Monumenta 
Germaniae historica. Scriptores] (Hanover and Berlin, 1826-1892). 
The Rerum Italicarum scriptores, edited by L. A. Muratori (Milan, 
1723-1751), contains Annates Mediolanenses; Nicholas of Jamsilla, 
Historia de rebus gestis Friderici II., and Vita Gregorii IX. pontificis. 
There are also the Epistolarum libri of Peter della Vigna, edited 
by J. R. Iselin (Basel, 1740); and Salimbene of Parma's Chronik, 
published at Parma (1857). Many of the documents concerning 
the history of the time are found in the Historia diplomatica Friderici 
II., edited by M. Huillard-Breholles (Paris, 1852-1861); Acta 

1 First printed at Augsburg in 1596; a German edition was pub- 
lished at Berlin in 1896. 

imperii selecta. Urkunden deutscher Konige und Kaiser, edited by 
J. F Bohmer and J. Ficker (Innsbruck, 1870); Acta imperii inedita 
seculi XIII. Urkunden und Briefe zur Geschichte des Kaiserreichs 
und des Kbnigreichs Sicilien, edited by E. Winkelmann (Innsbruck, 
1880) ; Epistolae saeculi XIII. selecta e regestis pontificum Romano- 
rum, edited by C. Rodenberg, tome i. (Berlin, 1883) ; P. Pressutti, 
Regesta Honorii papae III. (Rome, 1888) ; L. Auvray, Les Registres de 
GrSgoire IX (Paris, 1890). 

The best modern authorities are W. von Giesebrecht, Geschichte 
der deutschen Kaiserzeit, Band v. (Leipzig, 1888); J. Jastrow, 
Deutsche Geschichte im Zeitalter der Hohenstaufen (Berlin, 1893) ; 
F. W. Schirrmacher, Kaiser Friedrich der Zweite (Gottingen, 1859- 
1865); " Beitrage zur Geschichte Kaiser Friedrichs II." in the For- 
schungen zur deutschen Geschichte, Band xi. (Gottingen, 1862-1886), 
and Die letzten Hohenstaufen (Gottingen, 1871); E. Winkelmann, 
Geschichte Kaiser Friedrichs II und seiner Reiche (Berlin, 1865) and 
Kaiser Friedrich II. (Leipzig, 1889) ; G. Blondel, Htude sur la 
politique de I'empereur Frederic II. en Allemagne (Paris, 1892) ; 
M. Halbe, Friedrich II. und der papstliche Stuhl (Berlin, 1888) ; 
R. Rohricht, Die Kreuzfahrt des Kaisers Friedrich II. (Berlin, 1874) ; 
C. Kohler, Das Verhaltnis Kaiser Friedrichs II. zu den Pdpsten 
seiner Zeit (Breslau, 1888); J. Felten, Papst Gregor IX. (Freiburg, 
1886); C. Rodenberg, Innocenz IV. und das Konigreich Sicilien 
(Halle, 1892); K. Lamprecht, Deutsche Geschichte, Band iii. (Berlin, 
1891); M. Huillard-Breholles, Vie et correspondance de Pierre de la 
Vigne (Paris, 1865) ; A. del Vecchio, La legislazione de Federico II 
(Turin, 1874) ; and K. Hampe, Kaiser Friedrich II. (Munich, 
1899). (A. W. H.*) 

FREDERICK III. (1415-1493), Roman emperor, — as Frederick 
IV., German king, and as Frederick V., archduke of Austria, — 
son of Ernest of Habsburg, duke of Styria and Carinthia, was born 
at Innsbruck on the 21st of September 1415. After his father's 
death in 1424 he passed his time at the court of his uncle and 
guardian, Frederick IV., count of Tirol. In 1435, together with 
his brother, Albert the Prodigal, he undertook the government 
of Styria and Carinthia, but the peace of these lands was disturbed 
by constant feuds between the brothers, which lasted until 
AJbert's death in 1463. In 1439 tne deaths of the German 
king Albert II. and of Frederick of Tirol left Frederick the 
senior member of the Habsburg family, and guardian of Sigis- 
mund, count of Tirol. In the following year he also became 
guardian of Ladislaus, the posthumous son of Albert II., and heir 
to Bohemia, Hungary and Austria, but these responsibilities 
brought only trouble and humiliation in their train. On the 2nd 
of February 1440 Frederick was chosen German king at Frankfort, 
but, owing to his absence from Germany, the coronation was 
delayed until the 17 th of June 1442, when it took place at Aix-la- 

Disregarding the neutral attitude of the German electors 

towards the papal schism, and acting under the influence of 

Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini, afterwards Pope Pius II., Frederick 

in 1445 made a secret treaty with Pope Eugenius IV. This 

developed into the Concordat of Vienna, signed in 1448 with the 

succeeding pope, Nicholas V., by which the king, in return for a 

sum of money and a promise of the imperial crown, pledged the 

obedience of the German people to Rome, and so checked for a 

time the rising tide of liberty in the German church. Taking up 

the quarrel between the Habsburgs and the Swiss cantons, 

Frederick invited the Armagnacs to attack his enemies, but 

after meeting with a stubborn resistance at St Jacob on the 26th 

of August 1444, these allies proved faithless, and the king soon 

lost every vestige of authority in Switzerland. In 1451 Frederick, 

disregarding the revolts in Austria and Hungary, travelled to 

Rome, where, on the 16th of March 1452, his marriage with 

Leonora, daughter of Edward, king of Portugal, was celebrated, 

and three days later he was crowned emperor by pope Nicholas. 

On his return he found Germany seething with indignation. 

His capitulation to the pope was not forgotten; his refusal to 

attend the diets, and his apathy in the face of Turkish aggressions, 

constituted a serious danger; and plans for his deposition failed 

only because the electors could not unite upon a rival king. In 

1457 Ladislaus, king of Hungary and Bohemia, and archduke of 

Austria, died; Frederick failed to secure either kingdom, but 

obtained lower Austria, from which, however, he was soon driven 

by his brother Albert, who occupied Vienna. On Albert's death 

in 1463 the emperor united upper and lower Austria under his 

rule, but these possessions were constantly ravaged by George 



PodSbrad, king of Bohemia, and by Matthias Corvinus, king of 
Hungary. A visit to Rome in 1468 to discuss measures against 
the Turks with Pope Paul II. had no result, and in 1470 Frederick 
began negotiations for a marriage between his son Maximilian 
and Mary, daughter and heiress of Charles the Bold, duke of 
Burgundy. The emperor met the duke at Treves in 1473, when 
Frederick, disliking to bestow the title of king upon Charles, left 
the city secretly, but brought about the marriage after the duke's 
death in 1477. Again attacked by Matthias, the emperor was 
driven from Vienna, and soon handed over the government of his 
lands to Maximilian, whose election as king of the Romans he 
vainly opposed in i486. Frederick then retired to Linz, where he 
passed his time in the study of botany, alchemy and astronomy, 
until his death on the 19th of August 1493. 

Frederick was a listless and incapable ruler, lacking alike the 
qualities of the soldier and of the diplomatist, but- possessing a 
certain cleverness in evading difficulties. With a fine presence, 
he had many excellent personal qualities, is spoken of as mild and 
just, and had a real love of learning. He had a great belief in the 
future greatness of his family, to which he contributed largely by 
arranging the marriage of Maximilian with Mary of Burgundy, 
and delighted to inscribe his books and other articles of value 
with the letters A.E.I. O.U. (Austriae est imperare orbi universo; 
or in German, Alles Erdreich ist Oesterreich unterthan) . His 
personality counts for very little in German history. One 
chronicler says: "He was a useless emperor, and the nation 
during his long reign forgot that she had a king." His tomb, a 
magnificent work in red and white marble, is in the cathedral of 
St Stephen at Vienna. 

See Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini, De rebus et gestis Friderici III. 
(trans. Th. Ilgen, Leipzig, 1889); J. Chmel, Geschichte Kaiser 
Friedrichs IV. und seines Sohnes Maximilians I. (Hamburg, 1840); 
A. Bachmann, Deutsche Reichs geschichte im Zeitalter Friedrichs III. 
und Maximilians I. (Leipzig, 1884); A. Huber, Geschichte Oster- 
reichs (Gotha, 1885-1892); and E. M. Fiirst von Lichnowsky, 
Geschichte des Hauses Habsburg (Vienna, 1 836-1 844). 

FREDERICK HI. (c. 1286-1330), surnamed "the Fair," 
German king and duke of Austria, was the second son of the 
German king, Albert I., and consequently a member of the 
Habsburg family. In 1298, when his father was chosen German 
king, Frederick was invested with some of the family lands, and 
in 1306, when his elder brother Rudolph became king of Bohemia, 
he succeeded to the duchy of Austria. In 1307 Rudolph died, 
and Frederick sought to obtain the Bohemian throne; but an 
expedition into that country was a failure, and his father's 
murder in May 1308 deprived him of considerable support. He 
was equally unsuccessful in his efforts to procure the German 
crown af this time, and the relations between the new king, 
Henry VII., and the Habsburgs were far from friendly. Frederick 
asked not only to be confirmed in the possession of Austria, but to 
be invested with Moravia, a demand to which Henry refused to 
accede ; but an arrangement was subsequently made by which the 
duke agreed to renounce Moravia in return for a payment of 
50,000 marks. Frederick then became involved in a quarrel with 
his cousin Louis IV., duke of Upper Bavaria (afterwards the 
emperor Louis IV.), over the guardianship of Henry II., duke 
of Lower Bavaria. Hostilities broke out, and on the 9th of 
November 13 13 he was defeated by Louis at the battle of Gam- 
melsdorf and compelled to renounce his claim. 

Meanwhile the emperor Henry VII. had died in Italy, and a 
stubborn contest ensued for the vacant throne. After a long 
delay Frederick was chosen German king at Frankfort by a 
minority of the electors on the 19th of October 1314, while a 
majority elected Louis of Bavaria. Six days later Frederick 
was crowned at Bonn by the archbishop of Cologne, and war 
broke out at once between the rivals. During this contest, 
which was carried on in a desultory fashion, Frederick drew his 
chief strength from southern and eastern Germany, and was 
supported by the full power of the Habsburgs. The defeat of 
his brother Leopold by the Swiss at Morgarten in November 
13 1 5 was a heavy blow to him, but he prolonged the struggle for 
seven years. On the 28th of September 1322 a decisive battle 
was fought at Muhldorf; Frederick was defeated and sent as a 

prisoner to Trausnitz. Here he was retained until three years 
later a series of events induced Louis to come to terms. By the 
treaty of Trausnitz, signed on the 13th of March 1325, Frederick 
acknowledged the kingship of Louis in return for freedom, and 
promised to return to captivity unless he could induce his brother 
Leopold to make a similar acknowledgment. As Leopold re- 
fused to take this step, Frederick, although released from his oath 
by Pope John XXII., travelled back to Bavaria, where he was 
treated by Louis rather as a friend than as a prisoner. A 
suggestion was then made that the kings should rule jointly, but 
as this plan aroused some opposition it was agreed that Frederick 
should govern Germany while Louis went to Italy for the imperial 
crown. But this arrangement did not prove generally acceptable, 
and the death of Leopold in 13 26 deprived Frederick of a powerful 
supporter. In these circumstances he returned to Austria broken 
down in mind and body, and on the 13th of January 1330 he 
died at Gutenstein, and was buried at Mauerbach, whence his 
remains were removed in 1783 to the cathedral of St Stephen at 
Vienna. He married Elizabeth, daughter of James I., king of 
Aragon, and left two daughters. His voluntary return into 
captivity is used by Schiller in his poem Deutsche Treue, and by 
J. L. Uhland in the drama Ludwig der Bayer. 

The authorities for the life of Frederick are found in the Pontes 
rerum Germanicarum. Band i., edited by J. F. Bohmer (Stuttgart, 
1843-1868), and in the Fontes rerum Austriacarum, part i. (Vienna, 
1855). Modern works which may be consulted are: E. M. Fiirst 
von Lichnowsky, Geschichte des Hauses Habsburg (Vienna, 1836- 
1844) ; Th.' Lindner, Deutsche Geschichte unter den Habsburgern 
und Luxemburgern (Stuttgart, 1888-1893). R. Dobner, Die Aus- 
einandersetzung zwischen Ludwig IV. dem Bayer und Friedrich dem 
Schonen von Osterreich (Gottingen, 1875); E- Kurz, Osterreich 
unter Kbnig Friedrich dem Schonen (Linz, 1818); F. Krones, Hand- 
buch der Geschichte Osterreichs (Berlin, 1876-1879) ; H. Schrohe, 
Der Kampf der Gegenkonige Ludwig und Friedrich (Berlin, igo2) ; 
W. Friedensburg, Ludwig IV. der Bayer und Friedrich von Oster- 
reich (Gottingen, 1877); B. Gebhardt, Handbuch der deutschen 
Geschichte (Berlin, 1901). 

FREDERICK II. (1534-1588), king of Denmark and Norway, 
son of Christian III., was born at Hadersleben on the ist of July 
1534. His mother, Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg, was the elder 
sister of Catherine, the first wife of Gustavus Vasa and the mother 
of Eric XIV. The two little cousins, born the same year, were 
destined to be lifelong rivals. At the age of two Frederick was 
proclaimed successor to the throne at the Rigsdag of Copenhagen 
(October 30th, 1536), and homage was done to him at Oslo for 
Norway in 1548. The choice of his governor, the patriotic 
historiographer HansSvaning, was so far fortunate that it ensured 
the devotion of the future king of Denmark to everything 
Danish; but Svaning was a poor pedagogue, and the wild and 
wayward lad suffered all his life from the defects of his early 
training. Frederick's youthful, innocent attachment to the 
daughter of his former tutor, Anna Hardenberg, indisposed him 
towards matrimony at the beginning of his reign (1558). After 
the hands of Elizabeth of England, Mary of Scotland and Renata 
of Lorraine had successively been sought for him, the council of 
state grew anxious about the succession, but he finally married 
his cousin, Sophia of Mecklenburg, on the 20th of July 1572. 

The reign of Frederick II. falls into two well-defined divisions : 
(1) a period of war, 1559-1570; and (2) a period of peace, 1570- 
1588. The period of war began with the Ditmarsh expedition, 
when the independent peasant-republic of the Ditmarshers of 
West Holstein, which had stoutly maintained its independence 
for centuries against the counts of Holstein and the Danish kings, 
was subdued by a Dano-Holstein army of 20,000 men in 1559, 
Frederick and his uncles John and^Ldolphus, dukes of Holstein, 
dividing the land between them. Equally triumphant was 
Frederick in his war with Sweden, though here the contest was 
much more severe, lasting as it did for seven years; whence it is 
generally described in northern history as the Scandinavian 
Seven Years' War. The tension which had prevailed between 
the two kingdoms during the last years of Gustavus Vasa reached 
breaking point on the accession of Gustavus's eldest son Eric 
XIV. There were many causes of quarrel between the two 
ambitious young monarchs, but the detention at Copenhagen in 
1563 of a splendid matrimonial embassy on its way to Germany, 



to negotiate a match between Eric and Christina of Hesse, which 
King Frederick for political reasons was determined to prevent, 
precipitated hostilities. During the war, which was marked by 
extraordinary ferocity throughout, the Danes were generally 
victorious on land owing to the genius of Daniel Rantzau, but 
at sea the Swedes were almost uniformly triumphant. By 1570 
the strife had degenerated into a barbarous devastation of border 
provinces; and in July of the same year both countries accepted 
the mediation of the Emperor, and peace was finally concluded 
at Stettin on Dec. 13, 1570. During the course of this 
Seven Years' War Frederick II. had narrowly escaped the fate 
of his deposed cousin Eric XIV. The war was very unpopular 
in Denmark, and the closing of the Sound against foreign shipping, 
in order to starve out Sweden, had exasperated the maritime 
powers and all the Baltic states. On New Year's Day 1570 
Frederick's difficulties seemed so overwhelming that he 
threatened to abdicate; but the peace of Stettin came in time 
to reconcile all parties, and though Frederick had now to re- 
linquish his ambitious dream of re-establishing the Union of 
Kalmar, he had at least succeeded in maintaining the supremacy 
of Denmark in the north. After the peace Frederick's policy 
became still more imperial. He aspired to the dominion of all 
the seas which washed the Scandinavian coasts, and before he 
died he succeeded in suppressing the pirates who so long had 
haunted the Baltic and the German Ocean. He also erected the 
stately fortress of Kronborg, to guard the narrow channel of the 
Sound. Frederick possessed the truly royal gift of discovering 
and employing great men, irrespective of personal preferences 
and even of personal injuries. With infinite tact and admirable 
self-denial he gave free scope to ministers whose superiority 
in their various departments he frankly recognized, rarely inter- 
fering personally unless absolutely called upon to do so. His 
influence, always great, was increased by his genial and unaffected 
manners as a host. He is also remarkable as one of the few 
kings of the house of Oldenburg who had no illicit liaison. 
He died at Antvorskov on the 4th of April 1588. No other 
Danish king was ever so beloved by his people. 

See Lund (Troels), Danmarks og Norges Historic i Slutningen af 
del XVI. Aarh. (Copenhagen, 1879); Danmarks Riges Historie 
(Copenhagen, 1897-1905), vol. 3; Robert Nisbet Bain, Scandinavia, 
cap. 4 (Cambridge, 1905). (R. N. B.) 

FREDERICK III. (1609-1670), king of Denmark and Norway, 
son of Christian IV. and Anne Catherine of Brandenburg, was 
born on the 18th of March 1609 at Hadersleben. His position 
as a younger son profoundly influenced his future career. In his 
youth'and early manhood there was no prospect of his ascending 
the Danish throne, and he consequently became the instrument of 
his father's schemes of aggrandizement in Germany. While still 
a lad he became successively bishop of Bremen, bishop of Verden 
and coadjutor of Halberstadt, while at the age of eighteen he 
was the chief commandant of the fortress of Stade. Thus 
from an early age he had considerable experience as an adminis- 
trator, while his general education was very careful and thorough. 
He had always a pronounced liking for literary and scientific 
studies. On the 1st of October 1643 Frederick wedded Sophia 
Amelia of Brunswick Liineburg, whose energetic, passionate 
and ambitious character was profoundly to affect not only 
Frederick's destiny but the destiny of Denmark. During the 
disastrous Swedish War of 1643-1645 Frederick was appointed 
generalissimo of the duchies by his father, but the laurels he won 
were scanty, chiefly owing to his quarrels with the Earl-Marshal 
Anders Bille, w%> commanded the Danish forces. This was 
Frederick's first collision with the Danish nobility, who ever 
afterwards regarded him with extreme distrust. The death of his 
elder brother Christian in June 1647 first opened to him the pros- 
pect of succeeding to the Danish throne, but the "question was 
still unsettled when Christian IV. died on the 28th of February 
1648. Not till the 6th of July in the same year did Frederick III. 
receive the homage of his subjects, and only after he had signed 
a Haandfaestning or charter, by which the already diminished 
royal prerogative was still further curtailed. It had been doubt- 
ful at first whether he would be allowed to inherit his ancestral 

throne at all; but Frederick removed the last scruples of the 
Rigsraad by unhesitatingly accepting the conditions imposed 
upon him. 

The new monarch was a reserved, enigmatical prince, who 
seldom laughed, spoke little and wrote less — a striking contrast 
to Christian IV. But if he lacked the brilliant qualities of his 
impulsive, jovial father, he possessed in a high degree the com- 
pensating virtues of moderation, sobriety and self-control. 
But with all his good qualities Frederick was not the man to take 
a clear view of the political horizon, or even to recognize his own 
and his country's limitations. He rightly regarded the accession 
of Charles X. of Sweden (June 6th, 1654) as a source of danger to 
Denmark. He felt that temperament and policy would combine 
to make Charles an aggressive warrior-king: the only uncertainty 
was in which direction he would turn his arms first. Charles's 
invasion of Poland (July 1654) came as a distinct relief to the 
Danes, though even the Polish War was full of latent peril to 
Denmark. Frederick was resolved upon a rupture with Sweden 
at the first convenient opportunity. The Rigsdag which 
assembled on the 23rd of February 1657 willingly granted 
considerable subsidies for mobilization and other military 
expenses; on the 15th of April Frederick III. desired, and on- 
the 23rd of April he received, the assent of the majority of the 
Rigsraad to attack Sweden's German provinces; in the beginning 
of May the still pending negotiations with that power were broken 
off, and on the 1st of June Frederick signed the manifesto justify- 
ing a war which was never formally declared. The Swedish 
king traversed all the plans of his enemies by his passage of the 
frozen Belts, in January and February 1658 (see Charles X. 
of Sweden). The effect of this unheard-of achievement on the 
Danish government was crushing. Frederick III. at once sued 
for peace; and, yielding to the persuasions of the English and 
French ministers, Charles finally agreed to be content with 
mutilating instead of annihilating the Danish monarchy (treaties 
of Taastrup, February 18th, and of Roskilde, February 26th, 
1658). The conclusion of peace was followed by a remarkable 
episode. Frederick expressed the desire to make the personal 
acquaintance of his conqueror; and Charles X. consented to be 
his guest for three days (March 3-5) at the castle of Fredriksborg. 
Splendid banquets lasting far into the night, private and intimate 
conversations between the princes who had only just emerged 
from a mortal struggle, seemed to point to nothing but peace and 
friendship in the future. But Charles's insatiable lust for con- 
quest, and his ineradicable suspicion of Denmark, induced him, 
on the 17th of July, without any reasonable cause, without a 
declaration of war, in defiance of all international equity, to 
endeavour to despatch an inconvenient neighbour. 

Terror was the first feeling produced at Copenhagen by the 
landing of the main Swedish army at Korsor in Zealand. None 
had anticipated the possibility of such a sudden and brutal attack, 
and every one knew that the Danish capital was very inadequately 
fortified and garrisoned. Fortunately Frederick had never been 
deficient in courage. " I will die in my nest " were the memor- 
able words with which he rebuked those counsellors who advised 
him to seek safety in flight. On the 8th of August representatives 
from every class in the capital urged the necessity of a vigorous 
resistance ; and the citizens of Copenhagen, headed by the great 
burgomaster Hans Nansen (q.v.), protested their unshakable 
loyalty to the king, and their determination to defend Copen- 
hagen to the uttermost. The Danes had only three days' warning 
of the approaching danger; and the vast and dilapidated line 
of defence had at first but 2000 regular defenders. But the 
government and the people displayed a memorable and ex- 
emplary energy, under the constant supervision of the king, 
the queen, and burgomaster Nansen. By the beginning of 
September all the breaches were repaired, the walls bristled with 
cannon, and 7000 men were under arms. So strong was the city 
by this time that Charles X., abandoning his original intention 
of carrying the place by assault, began a regular siege; but this 
also he was forced to abandon when, on the 29th of October, an 
auxiliary Dutch fleet, after reinforcing and reprovisioning the 
garrison, defeated, in conjunction with the Danish fleet, the 



Swedish navy of 44 liners in the Sound. Thus the Danish capital 
had saved the Danish monarchy. But it was Frederick III. 
who profited most by his spirited defence of the common interests 
of the country and the dynasty. The traditional loyalty of the 
Danish middle classes was transformed into a boundless enthusi- 
asm for the king personally, and for a brief period Frederick found 
himself the most popular man in his kingdom. He made use of 
his popularity by realizing the dream of a lifetime and converting 
an elective into an absolute monarchy by the Revolution of 1660 
(see Denmark: History). Frederick III. died on the 6th of 
February 1670 at the castle of Copenhagen. 

See R. Nisbet Bain, Scandinavia, caps. ix. and x. (Cambridge, 
1905). (R N. B.) 

FREDERICK VIII. (1843- ), king of Denmark, eldest son 
of King Christian IX., was born at Copenhagen on the 3rd of 
June 1843. As crown prince of Denmark he took part in the war 
of 1864 against Austria and Prussia, and subsequently assisted 
his father in the duties of government, becoming king on 
Christian's death in January 1906. In 1869 Frederick married 
Louise (b. 1851), daughter of Charles XV., king of Sweden, 
by whom he had a family of four sons and four daughters. His 
eldest son Christian, crown prince of Denmark (b. 1870), was 
married in 1898 to Alexandrina (b. 1879), daughter of Frederick 
Francis III., grand-duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin; and his 
second son, Charles (b. 1872), who married his cousin Maud, 
daughter of Edward VII. of Great Britain, became king of 
Norway as Haakon VII. in 1905. 

FREDERICK I. (1657-1713), king of Prussia, and (as Frederick 
III.) elector of Brandenburg, was the second son of the great 
elector, Frederick William, by his first marriage with Louise 
Henriette, daughter of Frederick Henry of Orange. Born at 
Konigsberg on the 1 ith of July 1657, he was educated and greatly 
influenced by Eberhard Danckelmann, and became heir to the 
throne of Brandenburg through the death of his elder brother, 
Charles Emil, in 1674. He appears to have taken some part in 
public business before the death of his father; and the court 
at Berlin was soon disturbed by quarrels between the young 
prince and his stepmother, Dorothea of Holstein-Gliicksburg. 
In 1686 Dorothea persuaded her husband to bequeath outlying 
portions of his lands to her four sons; and Frederick, fearing 
he would be poisoned, left Brandenburg determined to prevent 
any diminution of his inheritance. By promising to restore 
Schwiebus to Silesia after his accession he won the support of the 
emperor Leopold I. ; but eventually he gained his end in a peace- 
able fashion. Having become elector of Brandenburg in May 
1688, he came to terms with his half-brothers and their mother. 
In return for a sum of money these princes renounced their rights 
under their father's will, and the new elector thus secured the 
whole of Frederick William's territories. After much delay and 
grumbling he fulfilled his bargain with Leopold and gave up 
Schwiebus in 1695. At home and abroad Frederick continued 
the policy of the great elector. He helped William of Orange 
to make his descent on England; added various places, including 
the principality of Neuchatel, to his lands; and exercised some 
influence on the course of European politics by placing his large 
and efficient army at the disposal of the emperor and his allies 
(see Brandenburg). He was present in person at the siege of 
Bonn in 1689, but was not often in command of his troops. The 
elector was very fond of pomp, and, striving to model his court 
upon that of Louis XIV., he directed his main energies towards 
obtaining for himself the title of king. In spite of the assistance 
he had given to the emperor his efforts met with no success for 
some years; but towards 1700 Leopold, faced with the prospect 
of a new struggle with France, was inclined to view the idea more 
favourably. Having insisted upon various conditions, prominent 
among them being military aid for the approaching war, he gave 
the imperial sanction to Frederick's request in November 1700; 
whereupon the elector, hurrying at once to Konigsberg, crowned 
himself with great ceremony king of Prussia on the 18th of 
January 1701. According to his promise the king sent help to 
the emperor; and during the War of the Spanish Succession the 
troops of Brandenburg-Prussia rendered great assistance to the 

allies, fighting with distinction at Blenheim and elsewhere. 
Frederick, who was deformed through an injury to his spine, 
died on the 25th of February 1713. By his extravagance the king 
exhausted the treasure amassed by his father, burdened his 
country with heavy taxes, and reduced its finances to chaos. His 
constant obligations to the emperor drained Brandenburg of 
money which might have been employed more profitably at 
home, and prevented her sovereign from interfering in the politics 
of northern Europe. Frederick, however, was not an unpopular 
ruler, and by making Prussia into a kingdom he undoubtedly 
advanced it several stages towards its future greatness. He 
founded the university of Halle, and the Academy of Sciences at 
Berlin; welcomed and protected Protestant refugees from France 
and elsewhere; and lavished money on the erection of public 

The king was married three times. His second wife, Sophie 
Charlotte (1668-1705), sister of the English king George I., was 
the friend of Leibnitz and one of the most cultured princesses of 
the age; she bore him his only son, his successor, King Frederick 
William I. 

See W. Hahn, Friedrich I., Konig in Preussen (Berlin, 1876) ; 
J. G. Droysen, Geschichte der preussischen Politik, Band iv. (Leipzig, 
1872) ; E. Heyck, Friedrich I. und die Begrundung des preussischen 
Konigtums (Bielefeld, 1901) ; C. Graf von Dohna, Memoires origin 
naux sur le regne et la cour de Frederic I" (Berlin, 1883) ; Aus dem 
Briefwechsel Konig Friedrichs I. von Preussen und seiner Familie 
(Berlin, 1901) ; and T. Carlyle, History of Frederick the Great, vol. i. 
(London, 1872). 

FREDERICK II., known as "the Great" (1712-1786), king 
of Prussia, born on the 24th of January 1712, was the eldest son 
of Frederick William J. He was brought up with extreme rigour, 
his father devising a scheme of education which was intended 
to make him a hardy soldier, and prescribing for him every 
detail of his conduct. So great was Frederick William's horror 
of everything which did not seem to him practical, that he 
strictly excluded Latin from the list of his son's studies. 
Frederick, however, had free and generous impulses which could 
not be restrained by the sternest system. Encouraged by his 
mother, and under the influence of his governess Madame de 
Roucoulle, and of his first tutor Duhan, a French refugee, he 
acquired an excellent knowledge of French and a taste for litera- 
ture and music. He even received secret lessons in Latin, 
which his father invested with all the charms of forbidden 
fruit. As he grew up he became extremely dissatisfied with the 
dull and monotonous life he was compelled to lead; and his 
discontent was heartily shared by his sister, Wilhelmina, a bright 
and intelligent young princess for whom Frederick had a warm 

Frederick William, seeing his son apparently absorbed in 
frivolous and effeminate amusements, gradually conceived for 
him an intense dislike, which had its share in causing him to 
break off the negotiations for a double marriage between the 
prince of Wales and Wilhelmina, and the princess Amelia, 
daughter of George II., and Frederick; for Frederick had been 
so indiscreet as to carry on a separate correspondence with the 
English court and to vow that he would marry Amelia or no one. 
Frederick William's hatred of his son, openly avowed, displayed 
itself in violent outbursts and public insults, and so harsh was 
his treatment that Frederick frequently thought of running 
away and taking refuge at the English court. He at last resolved 
to do so during a journey which he made with the king to south 
Germany in 1730, when he was eighteen years of age. He was 
helped by his two friends, Lieutenant Katte and Lieutenant 
Keith ; but by the imprudence of the former the secret was found 
out. Frederick was placed under arrest, deprived of his rank 
as crown prince, tried by court-martial, and imprisoned in the 
fortress of Ciistrin. Warned by Frederick, Keith escaped; 
but Katte delayed his flight too long, and a Court-martial decided 
that he should be punished with two years' fortress arrest. But 
the king was determined by a terrible example to wake Frederick 
once for all to a consciousness of the heavy responsibility of his 
position. He changed the sentence on Katte to one of death and 
ordered the execution to take place in Frederick's presence, 



himself arranging its every detail; Frederick's own fate would 
depend upon the effect of this terrible object-lesson and the 
response he should make to the exhortations of the chaplain sent 
to re&son with him. On the morning of the 7th of November 
Katte was beheaded before Frederick's window, after the crown 
prince had asked his pardon and received the answer that there 
was nothing to forgive. On Frederick himself lay the terror of 
death, and the chaplain was able to send to the king a favourable 
report of his orthodoxy and his changed disposition. Frederick 
William, whose temper was by no means so ruthlessly Spartan 
as tradition has painted it.was overjoyed, and commissioned the 
clergyman to receive from the prince an oath of filial obedience, 
and in exchange for this proof of " his intention to improve in 
real earnest " his arrest was to be lightened, pending the earning 
of a full pardon. " The whole town shall be his prison," wrote 
the king; " I will give him employment, from morning to night, 
in the departments of war, and agriculture, and of the govern- 
ment. He shall work at financial matters, receive accounts, 
read minutes and make extracts. . . . But if he kicks or rears 
again, he shall forfeit the succession to the crown, and even, 
according to circumstances, life itself." 

* For about fifteen months Frederick lived in Ciistrin, busy 
ccording to the royal programme with the details of the Prussian 
administrative system. He was very careful not to " kick or 
rear," and his good conduct earned him a further stage in the 
restoration to favour. During this period of probation he had 
been deprived of his status as a soldier and refused the right to 
wear uniform, while officers and soldiers were forbidden to give 
him the military salute; in 1732 he was made colonel in command 
of the regiment at Neuruppin. In the following year he married, 
in obedience to the king's orders, the princess Elizabeth Christina, 
daughter of the duke of Brunswick-Bevern. He was given the 
estate of Rheinsberg in the neighbourhood of Neuruppin, and 
there he lived until he succeeded to the throne. These years were 
perhaps the happiest of his life. He discharged his duties with so 
much spirit and so conscientiously that he ultimately gained 
the esteem of Frederick William, who no longer feared that he 
would leave the crown to one unworthy of wearing it. At the 
same time the crown prince was able to indulge to the full his 
personal tastes. He carried on a lively correspondence with 
Voltaire and other French men of letters, and was a diligent 
student of philosophy, history and poetry. Two of his best- 
known works were written at this time — Considerations sur 
I'itat present du corps politique de V Europe and his A nti-Macchiavel. 
In the former he calls attention to the growing strength of 
Austria and France, and insists on the necessity of some third 
power, by which he clearly means Prussia, counterbalancing their 
excessive influence. The second treatise, which was issued by 
Voltaire in Hague in 1740, contains a generous exposition of 
some of the favourite ideas of the 18th-century philosophers 
respecting the duties of sovereigns, which may be summed up 
in the famous sentence: " the prince is not the absolute master, 
but only the first servant of his people." 

On the 31st of May 1740 he became king. He maintained all 
the forms of government established by his father, but ruled 
in a far more enlightened spirit; he tolerated every form of re- 
ligious opinion, abolished the use of torture, was most careful 
to secure an exact and impartial administration of justice, and, 
while keeping the reins of government strictly in his own hands, 
allowed every one with a genuine grievance free access to his 
presence. The Potsdam regiment of giants was disbanded, but 
the real interests of the army were carefully studied, for Frederick 
realized that the two pillars of the Prussian state were sound 
finances and a strong army. On the 20th of October 1740 the 
emperor Charles VI. died. Frederick at once began to make 
extensive military preparations, and it was soon clear to all the 
world that he intended to enter upon some serious enterprise. 
He had made up his mind to assert the ancient claim of the house 
of Brandenburg to the three Silesian duchies, which the Austrian 
rulers of Bohemia had ever denied, but the Hohenzollerns had 
never abandoned. Projects for the assertion of this claim by 
force of arms had been formed by more than one of Frederick's 

predecessors, and the extinction of the male line of the house of 
Habsburg may well have seemed to him a unique opportunity 
for realizing an ambition traditional in his family. For this 
resolution he is often abused still by historians, and at the time 
he had the approval of hardly any one out of Prussia. He him- 
self, writing of the scheme in his Memoires, laid no claim to lofty 
motives, but candidly confessed that "it was a means of acquiring 
reputation and of increasing the power of the state." He 
firmly believed, however, in the lawfulness of his claims; and 
although his father had recognized the Pragmatic Sanction, 
whereby the hereditary dominions of Charles VI. were to descend 
to his daughter, Maria Theresa, Frederick insisted that this 
sanction could refer only to lands which rightfully belonged to the 
house of Austria. He could also urge that, as Charles VI. had 
not fulfilled the engagements by which Frederick William's 
recognition of the Pragmatic Sanction had been secured, Prussia 
was freed from her obligation. 

Frederick sent an ambassador to Vienna, offering, in the event 
of his rights in Silesia being conceded, to aid Maria Theresa 
against her enemies. The queen of. Hungary, who regarded the 
proposal as that of a mere robber, haughtity declined; whereupon 
Frederick immediately invaded Silesia with an army of 30,000 
men. His first victory was gained at Mollwitz on the 10th of 
April 1 74 1. Under the impression, in consequence of a furious 
charge of Austrian cavalry, that the battle was lost, he rode 
rapidly away at an early stage of the struggle — a mistake 
which gave rise for a time to the groundless idea that he lacked 
personal courage^ A second Prussian victory was gained at 
Chotusitz, near Caslau, on the 17th May 1742; by this time 
Frederick was master of all the fortified places of Silesia. Maria 
Theresa, in the heat of her struggle with France and the elector 
of Bavaria, now Charles VII., and pressed by England to rid 
herself of Frederick, concluded with him, on the nth of June 
1 742, the peace of Breslau, conceding to Prussia, Upper and Lower 
Silesia as far as the Oppa, together with the county of Glatz. 
Frederick made good use of the next two years, fortifying his new 
territory, and repairing the evils inflicted upon it by the war. 
By the death of the prince of East Friesland without heirs, he 
also gained possession of that country (1 744). He knew well that 
Maria Theresa would not, if she could help it, allow him to 
remain in Silesia; accordingly, in 1744, alarmed by her victories, 
he arrived at a secret understanding with France, and pledged 
himself, with Hesse-Cassel and the palatinate, to maintain the 
imperial rights of Charles VII., and to defend his hereditary 
Bavarian lands. Frederick began the second Silesian War by 
entering Bohemia in August 1744 and taking Prague. By this 
brilliant but rash venture he put himself in great danger, and 
soon had to retreat; but in 1745 he gained the battles of Hohen- 
friedberg, Soor and Hennersdorf ; and Leopold of Dessau (" Der 
alte Dessauer ")won for him the victory of Kesselsdorf in Saxony. 
The latter victory was decisive, and the peace of Dresden 
(December 25, 1745) assured to Frederick a second time the 
possession of Silesia. (See Austrian Succession, War op the.) 
Frederick had thus, at the age of thirty-three, raised himself 
to a great position in Europe, and henceforth he was the most 
conspicuous sovereign of his time. He was a thoroughly absolute 
ruler, his so-called ministers being mere clerks whose business 
was to give effect to his will. To use his own famous phrase, 
however, he regarded himself as but " the first servant of the 
state"; and during the next eleven years he proved that the 
words expressed his inmost conviction and feeling. All kinds of 
questions were submitted to him, important and unimportant; 
and he is frequently censured for having troubled himself so 
much with mere details. But in so far as these details related 
to expenditure he was fully justified, for it was absolutely 
essential for him to have a large army, and with a small state 
this was impossible unless he carefully prevented unnecessary 
outlay. Being a keen judge of character, he filled the public 
offices with faithful, capable, energetic men, who were kept up 
to a high standard of duty by the consciousness that their work 
might at any time come under his strict supervision. The 
Academy of Sciences, which had fallen into contempt during 



his father's reign, he restored, infusing into it vigorous life; and 
he did more to promote elementary education than any of his 
predecessors. He did much too for the economic development 
of Prussia, especially for agriculture; he established colonies, 
peopling them with immigrants, extended the canal system, 
drained and diked the great marshes of the Oderbruch, turning 
them into rich pasturage, encouraged the planting of fruit 
trees and of root crops; and, though in accordance with his 
ideas of discipline he maintained serfdom, he did much to lighten 
the burdens of the peasants. All kinds of manufacture, too, 
particularly that of silk, owed much to his encouragement. 
To the army he gave unremitting attention, reviewing it at 
regular intervals, and sternly punishing negligence on the part 
of the officers. Its numbers were raised to 160,000 men, while 
fortresses and magazines were always kept in a state of readiness 
for war. The influence of the king's example was felt far beyond 
the limits of his immediate circle. The nation was proud of his 
genius, and displayed something of his energy in all departments 
of life. Lessing, who as a youth of twenty came to Berlin in 
1749, composed enthusiastic odes in his honour, and Gleim, 
the Halberstadt poet, wrote of him as of a kind of demi-god. 
These may be taken as fair illustrations of the popular feeling 
long before the Seven Years' War. 

He despised German as the language of boors, although it is 
remarkable that at a later period, in a French essay on German 
literature, he predicted for it a great future. He habitually 
wrote and spoke French, and had a strong ambition to rank 
as a distinguished French author. Nobody can now read his 
verses, but his prose writings have a certain calm simplicity 
and dignity, without, however, giving evidence of the splendid 
mental qualities which he revealed in practical life. To this 
period belong his Memoires pour servir a I'histoire de Brandebourg 
and his poem L' Art de la guerre. The latter, judged as literature, 
is intolerably dull; but the former is valuable, throwing as it 
does considerable light on his personal sympathies as well as on 
the motives of important epochs in his career. He continued to 
correspond with French writers, and induced a number of them 
to settle in Berlin, Maupertuis being president of the Academy. 
In 1752 Voltaire, who had repeatedly visited him, came at 
Frederick's urgent entreaty, and received a truly royal welcome. 
The famous Hirsch trial, and Voltaire's vanity and caprice, 
greatly lowered him in the esteem of the king, who, on his side, 
irritated his guest by often requiring him to correct bad verses, 
and by making him the object of rude banter. The publication 
of Doctor Akakia, which brought down upon the president of the 
Academy a storm of ridicule, finally alienated Frederick; while 
Voltaire's wrongs culminated in the famous arrest at Frankfort, 
the most disagreeable elements of which were due to the mis- 
understanding of an order by a subordinate official. 

The king lived as much as possible in a retired mansion, to 
which he gave the name of Sanssouci — not the palace so called, 
which was built after the Seven Years' War, and was never a 
favourite residence. He rose regularly in summer at five, in 
winter at six, devoting himself to public business till about eleven. 
During part of this time, after *coffee, he would aid his reflections 
by playing on the flute, of which he was passionately fond, 
being a really skilful performer. At eleven came parade, and an 
hour afterwards, punctually, dinner, which continued till two, 
or later, if conversation happened to be particularly attractive. 
After dinner he glanced through and signed cabinet orders written 
in accordance with his morning instructions, often adding 
marginal notes and postscripts, many of which were in a caustic 
tone. These disposed of, he amused himself for a couple of hours 
with literary work; between six and seven he would converse 
with his friends or listen to his reader (a post held for some time 
by La Mettrie) ; at seven there was a concert ; and at half-past 
eight he sat down to supper, which might go on till midnight. 
He liked good eating and drinking, although even here the cost 
was sharply looked after, the expenses of his kitchen mounting 
to no higher figure than £1800 a year. At supper he was always 
surrounded by a number of his most intimate friends, mainly 
Frenchmen; and he insisted on the conversation being perfectly 

free. His wit, however, was often cruel, and any one who re- 
sponded with too much spirit was soon made to feel that the 
licence of talk was to be complete only on one side. 

At Frederick's court ladies were seldom seen, a circumstance 
that gave occasion to much scandal for which there seems to have 
been no foundation. The queen he visited only on rare occasions. 
She had been forced upon him by his father, and he had never 
loved her; but he always treated her with marked respect, and 
provided her with a generous income, half of which she gave away 
in charity. Although without charm, she was a woman of many 
noble qualities; and, like her husband, she wrote French books, 
some of which attracted a certain attention in their day. She 
survived him by eleven years, dying in 1797. 

Maria Theresa had never given up hope that she would recover 
Silesia; and as all the neighbouring sovereigns were bitterly 
jealous of Frederick, and somewhat afraid of him, she had no 
difficulty in inducing several of them to form a scheme for his 
ruin. Russia and Saxony entered into it heartily, and France, 
laying aside her ancient enmity towards Austria, joined the 
empress against the common object of dislike. Frederick, 
meanwhile, had turned towards England, which saw in him a 
possible ally of great importance against the French. A con- 
vention between Prussia and Great Britain was signed in January 
1756, and it proved of incalculable value to both countries, 
leading as it did to a close alliance during the administration of 
Pitt. Through the treachery of a clerk in the Saxon foreign office 
Frederick was made aware of the future which was being prepared 
for him. Seeing the importance of taking the initiative, and 
if possible, of securing Saxony, he suddenly, on the 24th of 
August 1756, crossed the frontier of that country, and shut in 
the Saxon army between Pirna and Konigstein, ultimately 
compelling it, after a victory gained over the Austrians at 
Lobositz, to surrender. Thus began the Seven Years' War, 
in which, supported by England, Brunswick and Hesse-Cassel, 
he had for a long time to oppose Austria, France, Russia, Saxony 
and Sweden. Virtually the whole Continent was in arms against 
a small state which, a few years before, had been regarded by most 
men as beneath serious notice. But it happened that this small 
state was led by a man of high military genius, capable of infusing 
into others his own undaunted spirit, while his subjects had 
learned both from him and his predecessors habits of patience, 
perseverance and discipline. In 1757, after defeating the 
Austrians at Prague, lie was himself defeated by them at Kolin; 
and by the shameful convention of Closter-Seven, he was freely 
exposed to the attack of the French. In November 1757, how- 
ever, when Europe looked upon him as ruined, he rid himself of 
the French by his splendid victory over them at Rossbach, and 
in about a month afterwards, by the still more splendid victory 
at Leuthen, he drove the Austrians from Silesia. From this time 
the French were kept well employed in the west by Prince 
Ferdinand of Brunswick, who defeated them at Crefeld in 1758, 
and at Minden in 1 7 59. In the former year Frederick triumphed , 
at a heavy cost, over the Russians at Zorndorf; and although, 
through lack of his usual foresight, he lost the battle of Hoch- 
kirch, he prevented the Austrians from deriving any real 
advantage from their triumph, Silesia still remaining in his 
hands at the end of the year. The battle of Kunersdorf, fought 
on the 1 2th of August 1759, was the most disastrous to him in 
the course of the war. He had here to contend both with the 
Russians and the Austrians; and although at first he had some 
success, his army was in the end completely broken. " All is lost 
save the royal family," he wrote to his minister Friesenstein ; 
" the consequences of this battle will be worse than the battle 
itself. I shall not survive the ruin of the Fatherland. Adieu for 
ever!" But he soon recovered from his despair, and in 1760 
gained the important victories of Liegnitz and Torgau. He had 
now, however, to act on the defensive, and fortunately for him, 
the Russians, on the death of the empress Elizabeth, not only 
withdrew in 1762 from the compact against him, but for a time 
became his allies. On the 29th of October of that year he gained 
his last victory over the Austrians at Freiberg. Europe was by 
that time sick of war, every power being more or less exhausted. 



The result was that, on the 15th of February 1763, a few days 
after the conclusion of the peace of Paris, the treaty of Hubertus- 
burg was signed, Austria confirming Prussia in the possession of 
Silesia. (See Seven Years' War.) 

It would be difficult to overrate the importance of the con- 
tribution thus made by Frederick to the politics of Europe. 
Prussia was now universally recognized as one of the great 
powers of the Continent, and she definitely took her place in 
Germany as the rival of Austria. From this time it was inevitable 
that there should be a final struggle between the two nations 
for predominance, and that the smaller German states should 
group themselves around one or the other. Frederick himself 
acquired both in Germany and Europe the indefinable influence 
which springs from the recognition of great gifts that have been 
proved by great deeds. 

His first care after the war was, as far as possible, to enable 
the country to recover from the terrific blows by which it had 
been almost destroyed; and he was never, either before or after, 
seen to better advantage than in the measures he adopted for 
this end. Although his resources had been so completely 
drained that he had been forced to melt the silver in his palaces 
and to debase the coinage, his energy soon brought back the 
national prosperity. Pomerania and Neumark were freed from 
taxation for two years, Silesia for six months. Many nobles 
whose lands had been wasted received corn for seed; his war 
horses were within a few months to be found on farms all over 
Prussia; and money was freely spent in the re-erection of houses 
which had been destroyed. The coinage was gradually restored 
to its proper value, and trade received a favourable impulse by 
the foundation of the Bank of Berlin. All these matters were 
carefully looked into by Frederick himself, who, while acting 
as generously as his circumstances would allow, insisted on every- 
thing being done in the most efficient manner at the least possible 
cost. Unfortunately, he adopted the French ideas of excise, 
and the French methods of imposing and collecting taxes — a 
system known as the Regie. This system secured for him a 
large revenue, but it led to a vast amount of petty tyranny, 
which was all the more intolerable because it was carried out by 
French officials. It was continued to the end of Frederick's 
reign, and nothing did so much to injure his otherwise immense 
popularity. He was quite aware of the discontent the system ex- 
cited, and the good-nature with which he tolerated the criticisms 
directed against it and him is illustrated by a well-known incident. 
Riding along the Jager Strasse one day, he saw a crowd of people. 
" See what it is," he said to the groom who was attending him. 
" They have something posted up about your Majesty," said the 
groom, returning. Frederick, riding forward, saw a caricature of 
himself: " King in very melancholy guise," says Preuss (as 
translated by Carlyle), " seated on a stool, a coffee-mill between 
his knees, diligently grinding with the one hand, and with the 
other picking up any bean that might have fallen. ' Hang it 
lower,' said the king, beckoning his groom with a wave of the 
finger; ' lower, that they may not have to hurt their necks 
about it.' No sooner were the words spoken, which spread 
instantly, than there rose from the whole crowd one universal 
huzzah of joy. They tore the caricature into a thousand pieces, 
and rolled after the king with loud ' Lebe Hoch, our Frederick 
for ever,' as he rode slowly away." There are scores of anecdotes 
about Frederick, but not many so well authenticated as this. 

There was nothing about which Frederick took so much 
trouble as the proper administration of justice. He disliked the 
formalities of the law, and in one instance, " the miller Arnold 
case," in connexion with which he thought injustice had been 
done to a poor man, he dismissed the judges, condemned them 
to a year's fortress arrest, and compelled them to make good out 
of their own pockets the loss sustained by their supposed victim — 
not a wise proceeding, but one springing from a generous motive. 
He once defined himself as " l'avocat du pauvre," and few things 
gave him more pleasure than the famous answer of the miller 
whose windmill stood on ground which was wanted for the king's 
garden. The miller sturdily refused to sell it. " Not at any 
price?" said the king's agent; "could not the king take it 

from you for nothing, if he chose ? " " Have we not the 
Kammergericht at Berlin ? " was the answer, which became a 
popular saying in Germany. Soon after he came to the throne 
Frederick began to make preparations for a new code. In 1747 
appeared the Codex Fridericianus, by which the Prussian judicial 
body was established. But a greater monument of Frederick's 
interest in legal reform was the Allgemeines preussisches Land- 
recht, completed by the grand chancellor Count Johann H. C. 
von Carmer (1721-1801) on the basis of the Project des Corporis 
Juris Fridericiani, completed in the year 1749-1751 by the 
eminent jurist Samuel von Cocceji (1679-1755). The Landrecht, 
a work of vast labour and erudition, combines the two systems 
of German and Roman law supplemented by the law of nature; 
it was the first German code, but only came into force in 1704, 
after Frederick's death. 

Looking ahead after the Seven Years' War, Frederick saw no 
means of securing himself so effectually as by cultivating the good- 
will of Russia. In 1764 he accordingly concluded a treaty of 
alliance with the empress Catherine for eight years. Six years 
afterwards, unfortunately for his fame, he joined in the first 
partition of Poland, by which he received Polish Prussia, without 
Danzig and Thorn, and Great Poland as far as the river Netze. 
Prussia was then for the first time made continuous with Branden- 
burg and Pomerania. 

The emperor Joseph II. greatly admired Frederick, and visited 
him at Neisse,'in Silesia, in 1769, a visit which Frederick returned, 
in Moravia, in the following year. The young emperor was frank 
and cordial; Frederick was more cautious, for he detected 
under the respectful manner of Joseph a keen ambition that might 
one day become dangerous to Prussia. Ever after these inter- 
views a portrait of the emperor hung conspicuously in the rooms 
in which Frederick lived, a circumstance on which some one 
remarked. " Ab yes," said Frederick, " I am obliged to keep 
that young gentleman in my eye." Nothing came of these 
suspicions till 1777, when, after the death of Maximilian Joseph, 
elector of Bavaria, without children, the emperor took possession 
of the greater part of his lands. The elector palatine, who 
lawfully inherited Bavaria, came to an arrangement, which was 
not admitted by his heir, Charles, duke of Zweibrucken. Under 
these circumstances the latter appealed to Frederick, who, 
resolved that Austria should gain no unnecessary advantage, 
took his part, and brought pressure to bear upon the emperor. 
Ultimately, greatly against his will, Frederick felt compelled 
to draw the sword, and in July 1778 crossed the Bohemian 
frontier at the head of a powerful army. No general engagement 
was fought, and after a great many delays the treaty of Teschen 
was signed on the 13th of May 1779. Austria received the 
circle of Burgau, and consented that the king of Prussia should 
take the Franconian principalities. Frederick never abandoned 
his jealousy of Austria, whose ambition he regarded as the chief 
danger against which Europe had to guard. He seems to have 
had no suspicion that evil days were coming in France. It was 
Austria which had given trouble in his time; and if her pride 
were curbed, he fancied that Prussia at least would be safe. 
Hence one of the last important acts of his life was to form, in 
1785, a league of princes (the " Fiirstenbund ") for the defence 
of the imperial constitution, believed to be imperilled by Joseph's 
restless activity. The league came to an end after Frederick's 
death; but it is of considerable historical interest, as the first 
open attempt of Prussia to take the lead in Germany. 

Frederick's chief trust was always in his treasury and his 
army. " By continual economy he left in the former the immense 
sum of 70 million thalers; the latter, at the time of his death, 
numbered 200,000 men, disciplined with all the strictness to 
which he had throughout life accustomed his troops. He died 
at Sanssouci on the 17th of August 1786; his death being 
hastened by exposure to a storm of rain, stoically borne, during 
a military review. He passed away on the eve of tremendous 
events, which for a time obscured his fame; but now that he 
can be impartially estimated, he is seen to have been In many 
respects one of the greatest figures in modern history. 

He was rather below the middle size, in youth inclined to 



stoutness, lean in old age, but of vigorous and active habits. An 
expression of keen intelligence lighted up his features, and his 
large, sparkling grey eyes darted penetrating glances at every 
one who approached him. In his later years an old blue uniform 
with red facings was his usual dress, and on his breast was gener- 
ally some Spanish snuff, of which he consumed large quantities. 
He shared many of the chief intellectual tendencies of his age, 
having no feeling for the highest aspirations of human nature, 
but submitting all things to a searching critical analysis. Of 
Christianity he always spoke in the mocking tone of the " en- 
lightened " philosophers, regarding it as the invention of priests; 
but it is noteworthy that after the Seven Years' War, the trials 
of which steadied his character, he sought to strengthen the 
church for the sake of its elevating moral influence. In his 
judgments of mankind he often talked as a misanthrope. He 
was once conversing with Sulzer, who was a school inspector, 
about education. Sulzer expressed the opinion that education 
had of late years greatly improved. " In former times, your 
Majesty," he said, " the notion being that mankind were natur- 
ally inclined to evil, a system of severity prevailed in schools; 
but now, when we recognize that the inborn inclination of men 
is rather to good than to evil, schoolmasters have adopted a 
more generous procedure." " Ah, my dear Sulzer," replied the 
king, " you don't know this damned race " (" Ach, mein lieber 
Sulzer, er kennt nicht diese verdammte Race "). This fearful 
saying unquestionably expressed a frequent mood of Frederick's; 
and he sometimes acted with great harshness, and seemed to 
take a malicious pleasure in tormenting his acquaintances. 
Yet he was capable of genuine attachments. He was beautifully 
loyal to his mother and his sister Wilhelmina; his letters to 
the duchess of Gotha are full of a certain tender reverence; 
the two Keiths found him a devoted friend. But the true 
evidence that beneath his misanthropical moods there was an 
enduring sentiment of humanity is afforded by the spirit in 
which he exercised his kingly functions. Taking his reign as 
a whole, it must be said that he looked upon his power rather 
as a trust than as a source of personal advantage; and the trust 
was faithfully discharged according to the best lights of his day. 
He has often been condemned for doing nothing to encourage 
German literature; and it is true that he was supremely in- 
different to it. Before he died a tide of intellectual life was rising 
all about him; yet he failed to recognize it, declined to give 
Lessing even the small post of royal librarian, and thought Gbtz 
von Berlichingen a vulgar imitation of vulgar English models. 
But when his taste was formed, German literature did not exist; 
the choice was between Racine and Voltaire on the one hand and 
Gottsched and Gellert on the other. He survived into the era 
of Kant, Goethe and Schiller, but he was not of it, and it would 
have been unreasonable to expect that he should in old age 
pass beyond the limits of his own epoch. As Germans now 
generally admit, it was better that he let their literature alone, 
since, left to itself, it became a thoroughly independent product. 
Indirectly he powerfully promoted it by deepening the national 
life from which it sprang. At a time when there was no real bond 
of cohesion between the different states, he stirred among them 
a common enthusiasm; and in making Prussia great he laid the 
foundation of a genuinely united empire. 

Bibliographical Note. — The main sources for the biography of 
Frederick the Great are his own works, which, in the words of 
Leopold von Ranke, " deal with the politics and wars of the period 
with the greatest possible objectivity, i.e. truthfulness, and form 
an imperishable monument of his life and opinions." A magnificent 
edition of Frederick's complete works was issued (1846-1857), at 
the instance of Frederick William IV., under the supervision of the 
historian Johann D. E. Preuss (1785-1868). It is in thirty volumes, 
of which six contain verse, seven are historical, two philosophical, 
and three military, twelve being made up of correspondence. So 
long as the various state archives remained largely inaccessible 
historians relied upon this as their chief authority. Among works 
belonging to this period may be mentioned Thomas Carlyle, History 
of Frederick II. of Prussia (6 vols., London, 1858-1865); J. G. 
Droysen, Friedrich der Grosse (2 vols., Leipzig, 1874-1876, forming 
part V. of his Geschichte der preussischen Politik); Ranke, Friedrich 
II., Konig von Preussen (Werke, vols. li. and lii.). A great stimulus 

to the study of Frederick's history has since been given by the pub- 
lication of collections of documents preserved in various archives. 
Of these the most important is the great official edition of Frederick's 
political correspondence (Berlin, 1879), of which the thirty-first 
vol. appeared in 1906. Of later works, based on modern research, 
may be mentioned R. Koser, Konig Friedrich der Grosse, Bd. 2 (Stutt- 
gart, 1893 and 1903; 3rd ed., 1905); Bourdeau, Le Grand Frediric 
(2 vols., Paris, I 900-1902) ; L. Paul-Dubois, Frideric le Grand, d'apres 
sa correspondance politique (Paris, 1903) ; W. F. Reddaway, Frederick 
the Great and the Rise of Prussia (London, 1904). Of the numerous 
special studies may be noticed E. Zeller, Friedrich der Grosse als 
Philosoph (Berlin, 1886); H. Pigge, Die Staatstheorie Friedrichs des 
Grossen (Munster, 1904) ; T. von Bernhardi, Friedrich der Grosse als 
Feldherr (2 vols., Berlin, 1881); Ernest Lavisse, La Jeunesse du 
Grand Frederic (Paris, 1891, 3rd ed., 1899; Eng. transl., London, 
1891); R. Brode, Friedrich der Grosse und der Konflikt mit seinem 
Vater (Leipzig, 1904) ; W. von Bremen, Friedrich der Grosse (Bd. ii. 
of Erzieher des preussischen Heeres, Berlin, 1905) ; G. Winter, 
Friedrich der Grosse (3 vols, in Geisteshelden series, Berlin, 1906); 
Dreissig Jahre am Hofe Friedrichs des Grossen. Aus den Tagebuchern 
des Reichsgrafen Ahasucrus Heinrich von Lehndorff, Kammerherm der 
Konigin Elisabett Christine von Preussen (Gotha, 1907). _ The great 
work on the wars of Frederick is that issued by the Prussian General 
Staff: Die Kriege Friedrichs des Grossen (12 vols, in three parts, 
Berlin, 1890-1904). For a full list of other works see Dahlmann- 
Waitz, Quellenkunde (Leipzig, 1906). (J- Si.; W. A. P.) . 

FREDERICK III. (1831-1888), king of Prussia and German 
emperor, was born at Potsdam on the 18th of October 1831, 
being the eldest son of Prince William of Prussia, afterwards 
first German emperor, and the princess Augusta. He was care- 
fully educated, and in 1849-1850 studied at the university of 
Bonn. The next years were spent in military duties and in 
travels, in which he was accompanied by Moltke. In 1851 he 
visited England on the occasion of the Great Exhibition, and in 
1855 became engaged to Victoria, princess royal of Great Britain, 
to whom he was married in London on the 25th of January 1858. 
On the death of his uncle in 1861 and the accession of his father, 
Prince Frederick William, as he was then always called, became 
crown prince of Prussia. His education, the influence of his 
mother, and perhaps still more that of his wife's father, the Prince 
Consort, had made him a strong Liberal, and he was much dis- 
tressed at the course of events in Prussia after the appointment 
of Bismarck as minister. He was urged by the Liberals to put 
himself into open opposition to the government; this he refused 
to do, but he remonstrated privately with the king. In June 1863, 
however, he publicly dissociated himself from the press ordinances 
which had just been published. He ceased to attend meetings 
of the council of state, and was much away from Berlin. The 
opposition of the crown prince to the ministers was increased 
during the following year, for he was a warm friend of the prince 
of Augustenburg, whose claims to Schleswig-Holstein Bismarck 
refused to support. During the war with Denmark he had his 
first military experience, being attached to the staff of Marshal 
von Wrangel; he performed valuable service in arranging the 
difficulties caused by the disputes between the field marshal and 
the other officers, and was eventually given a control over him. 
After the war he continued to support the prince of Augustenburg 
and was strongly opposed to the war with Austria. During the 
campaign of 1866 he received the command of an army con- 
sisting of four army corps; he was assisted by General von 
Blumenthal, as chief of the staff, but took a very active part 
in directing the difficult operations by which his army fought its 
way through the mountains from Silesia to Bohemia, fighting 
four engagements in three days, and showed that he possessed 
genuine military capacity. In the decisive battle of Koniggratz 
the arrival of his army on the field of battle, after a march of 
nearly 20 m., secured the victory. During the negotiations 
which ended the war he gave valuable assistance by persuading 
the king to accept Bismarck's policy as regards peace with Austria. 
From this time he was very anxious to see the king of Prussia 
unite the whole of Germany, with the title of emperor, and was 
impatient of the caution with which Bismarck proceeded. In 1869 
he paid a visit to Italy, and in the same year was present at the 
opening of the Suez Canal; on his way he visited the Holy Land. 
He played a conspicuous part in the year 1870-1871, being 
appointed to command the armies of the Southern States, 



General Blumenthal again being his chief of the staff; his troops 
won the victory of Worth, took an important part in the battle 
of Sedan, and later in the siege of Paris. The popularity he won 
was of political service in preparing the way for the union of 
North and South Germany, and he was the foremost advocate 
of the imperial idea at the Prussian court. During the years that 
followed, little opportunity for political activity was open to him. 
He and the crown princess took a great interest in art and 
industry, especially in the royal museums; and the excavations 
conducted at Olympia and Pergamon with such great results 
were chiefly due to him. The crown princess was a keen advocate 
of the higher education of women, and it was owing to her 
exertions that the Victoria Lyceum at Berlin (which was named 
after her) was founded. In 1878, when the emperor was in- 
capacitated by the shot, of an assassin, the prince acted for some 
months as regent. His palace was the centre of all that was best 
in the literary and learned society of the capital. He publicly 
expressed his disapproval of the attacks on the Jews in 1878; 
and the coalition of Liberal parties founded in 1884 was popularly 
known as the " crown prince's party," but he scrupulously 
refrained from any act that might embarrass his father's govern- 
ment. For many reasons the accession of the prince was looked 
forward to with great hope by a large part of the nation. Un- 
fortunately he was attacked by cancer in the throat; he spent the 
winter of 1887-1888 at San Remo; in January 1888 the operation 
of tracheotomy had to be performed. On the death of his father, 
which took place on the 9th of March, he at once journeyed to 
Berlin; but his days were numbered, and he came to the throne 
only to die. In these circumstances his accession could not have 
the political importance which would otherwise have attached 
to it, though it was disfigured by a vicious outburst of party 
passion in which the names of the emperor and the empress were 
constantly misused. While the Liberals hoped the emperor 
would use his power for some signal declaration of policy, the 
adherents of Bismarck did not scruple to make bitter attacks 
on the empress. The emperor's most important act was a severe 
reprimand addressed to Herr von Puttkamer, the reactionary 
minister of the interior, which caused his resignation; in the 
distribution of honours he chose many who belonged to classes 
and parties hitherto excluded from court favour. A serious 
difference of opinion with the chancellor regarding the proposal 
for a marriage between Prince Alexander of Battenberg and the 
princess Victoria of Prussia was arranged by the intervention 
of Queen Victoria, who visited Berlin to see her dying son-in-law. 
He expired at Potsdam on the 15th of June 18S8, after a reign of 
ninety-nine days. 

After the emperor's death Professor Geffcken, a personal friend, 
published in the Deutsche Rundschau extracts from the diary 
of the crown prince containing passages which illustrated his 
differences with Bismarck during the war of 1870. The object 
was to injure Bismarck's ieputation, and a very unseemly dispute 
ensued. Bismarck at first, in a letter addressed to the new 
emperor, denied the authenticity of the extracts on the ground 
that they were unworthy of the crown prince. Geffcken was then 
arrested and imprisoned. He had undoubtedly shown that he 
was an injudicious friend, for the diary proved that the prince, 
in his enthusiasm for German unity, had allowed himself to con- 
sider projects which would have seriously compromised the 
relations of Prussia and Bavaria. The treatment of the crown 
prince's illness also gave rise to an acrimonious controversy. 
It arose from the fact that as early as May 1887 the German 
physicians recognized the presence of cancer in the throat, but 
Sir Moreil Mackenzie, the English specialist who was also con- 
sulted, disputed the correctness of this diagnosis, and advised 
that the operation for removal of the larynx, which they had 
recommended, should not be undertaken. His advice was 
followed, and the differences between the medical men were made 
the occasion for a considerable display of national and political 

The empress Victoria, who, after the death of her husband, 
was known as the empress Frederick, died on the 5th of August 
1 90 1 at the castle of Friedrichskron, Cronberg, near Komburg 

v. d. H., where she spent her last years. Of the emperor's 
children two, Prince Sigismund (1864-1866) and Prince Waldemar 
(1869-1879), died in childhood. He left two sons, William, his 
successor as emperor, and Henry, who adopted a naval career. 
Of his daughters, the princess Charlotte was married to Bernard, 
hereditary prince of Meiningen; the princess Victoria to Prince 
Adolf of Schaumburg-Lippe; the princess Sophie to the duke 
of Sparta, crown prince of Greece; and the princess Margaretha 
to Prince Friedrich Karl of Hesse. 

Authorities. — M. von Poschinger, Kaiser Friedrich (3 vols., 
Berlin, 1898-1900). Adapted into English by Sidney Whitman, 
Life of the Emperor Frederick (1901). See also Bismarck, Reflection* 
and Reminiscences; Rennell Rodd, Frederick, Crown Prince and 
Emperor (1888) ; Gustav Freytag, Der Kronprinz und die deutsche 
Kaiserkrone (1889; English translation, 1890); Otto Richter, 
Kaiser Friedrich III. (2nd ed., Berlin, 1903). For his illness, the 
official publications, published both in English and German: Die 
Krankheit Kaiser Friedrichs III. (Berlin, 1888), and Moreil Mac- 
kenzie, The Fatal Illness of Frederick the Noble (1888). Most of the 
copies of the Deutsche Rundschau containing the extracts from the 
crown prince's diary were confiscated, but there is an English edition, 
published in 1889. (J. W. He.) 

FREDERICK III. (1272-1337), king of Sicily, third son of 
King Peter of Aragon and Sicily, and of Constance, daughter of 
Manfred. Peter died in 1285, leaving Aragon to his eldest son 
Alphonso, and Sicily to his second son James. When Alphonso 
died in 1291 James became king of Aragon, and left his brother 
Frederick as regent of Sicily. The war between the Angevins and 
the Aragonese for the possession of Sicily was still in progress, 
and although the Aragonese were successful in Italy James's 
position in Spain became very insecure to internal troubles 
and French attacks. Peace negotiations were begun with Charles 
II. of Anjou, but were interrupted by the successive deaths of 
two popes; at last under the auspices of Boniface VIII. James 
concluded a shameful treaty, by which, in exchange for being left 
undisturbed in Aragon and promised possession of Sardinia 
and Corsica, he gave up Sicily to the Church, for whom it was to 
be held by the Angevins (1295). The Sicilians refused to be made 
over once more to the hated French whom they had expelled in 
1282, and found a national leader in the regent Frederick. In 
vain the pope tried to bribe him with promises and dignities; 
he was determined to stand by his subjects, and was crowned 
king by the nobles at Palermo in 1296. Young, brave and hand- 
some, he won the love and devotion of his people, and guided 
them through the long years of storm and stress with wisdom 
and ability. Although the second Frederick of Sicily, he called 
himself third, being the third son of King Peter. He reformed 
the administration and extended the powers of the Sicilian 
parliament, which was composed of the barons, the prelates 
and the representatives of the towns. 

His refusal to comply with the pope's injunctions led to a 
renewal of the war. Frederick landed in Calabria, where he 
seized several towns, encouraged revolt in Naples, negotiated 
with the Ghibellines of Tuscany and Lombardy, and assisted 
the house of Colonna against Pope Boniface. In the meanwhile 
James, who received many favours from the Church, married his 
sister Yolanda to Robert, the third son of Charles II. Un- 
fortunately for Frederick, a part of the Aragonese nobles of 
Sicily favoured King James, and both John of Procida and 
Ruggiero di Lauria, the heroes of the war of the Vespers, went 
over to the Angevins, and the latter completely defeated the 
Sicilian fleet off Cape Orlando. Charles's sons Robert and Philip 
landed in Sicily, but after capturing Catania were defeated by 
Frederick, Philip being taken prisoner (1299), while several 
Calabrian towns were captured by the Sicilians. For two years 
more the fighting continued with varying success, until Charles 
of Valois, who had been sent by Boniface to invade Sicily, was 
forced to sue for peace, his army being decimated by the plague, 
and in August 1302 the treaty of Caltabellotta was signed, by 
which Frederick was recognized king of Trinacria (the name 
Sicily was not to be used) for his lifetime, and was to marry 
Eleonora, the daughter of Charles II.; at his death the king- 
dom was to revert to the Angevins (this clause was inserted 
chiefly to save Charles's face), and his children would receive 



compensation elsewhere. Boniface tried to induce King Charles 
to break the treaty, but the latter was only too anxious for 
peace, and finally in May 1303 the pope ratified it, Frederick 
agreeing to pay him a tribute. 

For a few years Sicily enjoyed peace, and the kingdom was 
reorganized. But on the descent of the emperor Henry VII., 
Frederick entered into an alliance with him, and in violation 
of the pact of Caltabellotta made war on the Angevins again 
(13 13) and captured Reggio. He set sail for Tuscany to co- 
operate with the emperor, but on the latter's death (13 14) he 
returned to Sicily. Robert, who had succeeded Charles II. in 
1309, made several raids into the island, which suffered much 
material injury. A truce was concluded in 13 17, but as the 
Sicilians helped the north Italian Ghibellines in the attack on 
Genoa, and Frederick seized some Church revenues for military 
purposes, the pope (John XXII.) excommunicated him and 
placed the island under an interdict (1321) which lasted until 
J 33S- An Angevin fleet and army, under Robert's son Charles, 
was defeated at Palermo by Giovanni, da Chiaramonte in 1325, 
and in 1326 and 1327 there were further Angevin raids on the 
island, until the descent into Italy of the emperor Louis the 
Bavarian distracted their attention. The election of Pope 
Benedict XII. (1334), who was friendly to Frederick, promised 
a respite; but after fruitless negotiations the war broke out once 
more, and Chiaramonte went over to Robert, owing to a private 
feud. In 1337 Frederick died at Paternione, and in spite of the 
peace of Caltabellotta his son Peter succeeded. Frederick's 
great merit was that during his reign the Aragonese dynasty 
became thoroughly national and helped to weld the Sicilians 
into a united people. 

Bibliography. — G. M. Mira, Bibliografia Siciliana (Palermo, 
!875); of the contemporary authorities N. Speciale's " Historia 
Sicula " (in Muratori's Script, rer. ital. x.) is the most important; 
for the first years of Frederick's reign see M. Amari, La Guerra del 
Vespro Siciliano (Florence, 1876), and F. Lanzani, Storia dei Comuni 
italiani (Milan, 1882); for the latter years C. Cipolla, Storia delle 
signorie ilaliane (Milan, 1881); also Testa, Vita di Federigo di 
Sicilia. (L. V.) 

FREDERICK I. (c. 1371-1440), elector of Brandenburg, 
founder of the greatness of the House of Hohenzollern, was a son 
of Frederick V., burgrave of Nuremberg, and first came into 
prominence by saving the life of Sigismund, king of Hungary, 
at the battle of Nicopolis in 1396. In 1397 he became burgrave 
of Nuremberg, and after his father's death in 1398 he shared 
Ansbach, Bayreuth, and the smaller possessions of the family, 
with his only brother John, but became sole ruler after his 
brother's death in T420. Loyal at first to King Wenceslaus, 
the king's neglect of Germany drove Frederick to take part in 
his deposition in 1400, and in the election of Rupert III., count 
palatine of the Rhine, whom he accompanied to Italy in the 
following year. In 1401 he married Elizabeth, or Elsa, daughter 
of Frederick, duke of Bavaria -Landshut (d. 1393), and after 
spending some time in family and other feuds, took service again 
with King Sigismund in 1409, whom he assisted in his struggle 
with the Hungarian rebels. The double election to the German 
throne in 1410 first brought Frederick into relation with Branden- 
burg. Sigismund, anxious to obtain another vote in the electoral 
college, appointed Frederick to exercise the Brandenburg vote 
on his behalf, and it was largely through his efforts that Sigis- 
mund was chosen German king. Frederick then passed some 
time as administrator of Brandenburg, where he restored a 
certain degree of order, and was formally invested with the 
electorate and margraviate by Sigismund at Constance on the 
18th of April 1417 (see Brandenburg). He took part in the war 
against the Hussites, but became estranged from Sigismund 
when in 1423 the king invested Frederick of Wettin, margrave 
of Meissen, with the vacant electoral duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg. 
In 1427 he sold his rights as burgrave to the town of Nuremberg, 
and he was a prominent member of the band of electors who 
sought to impose reforms upon Sigismund. After having been 
an unsuccessful candidate for the German throne in 1438, 
Frederick was chosen king of Bohemia in 1440, but declined the 
proffered honour. He took part in the election of Frederick III. 

as German king in 1440, and died at Radolzburg on the 21st of 
September in the same year. In 1902 a bronze statue was erected 
to his memory at Friesack, and there is also a marble one of the 
elector in the " Siegesallee " at Berlin. 

See A. F. Riedel, Zehn Jahre aus der Geschichte der Ahnherren des 
preussischen Konigshauses (Berlin, 1851); E. Brandenburg, Konig 
Sigmund und Kurfurst Friedrich I. von Brandenburg (Berlin, 1891); 
and O. Franklin, Die deutsche Politik Friedrichs I. Kurfiirsten tor. 
Brandenburg (Berlin, 185 1). 

FREDERICK I. (1425-1476), elector palatine of the Rhine, 
surnamed " the Victorious," and called by his enemies " wicked 
Fritz," second son of the elector palatine Louis III., was born 
on the 1st of August 1425. He inherited a part of the Palatinate 
on his father's death in 1439, but soon surrendered this inherit- 
ance to his elder brother, the elector Louis IV. On his brother's 
death in 1449, however, he became guardian of the young elector 
Philip, and ruler of the land. In 1451 he persuaded the nobles to 
recognize him as elector, on condition that Philip should be his 
successor, a scheme which was disliked by the emperor Frederick 
III. The elector was successful in various wars with neighbouring 
rulers, and was a leading member of the band of princes who 
formed plans to secure a more efficient government for Germany, 
and even discussed the deposition of Frederick III. Frederick 
himself was mentioned as a candidate for the German throne, 
but the jealousies of the princes prevented any decisive action, 
and soon became so acute that in 1459 they began to fight among 
themselves. In alliance with Louis IX., duke of Bavaria- 
Landshut, Frederick gained several victories during the struggle, 
and in 1462 won a decisive battle at Seckenheim over Ulrich V., 
count of Wurttemberg. In 1472 the elector married Clara Tott, 
or Dett, the daughter of an Augsburg citizen, and by her he had 
two sons, Frederick, who died during his father's lifetime, and 
Louis (d. 1524), who founded the lineof the counts of Lowenstein. 
He died at Heidelberg on the 12th of December 1476, and was 
succeeded, according to the compact, by his nephew Philip. 
Frederick was a cultured prince, and, in spite of his warlike 
career, a wise and intelligent ruler. He added largely to the 
area of the Palatinate, and did not neglect to further its internal 

See N. Feeser, Friedrich der Siegreiche, Kurfurst von der Pfalz 
(Neuburg, 1880) ; C. J. Kremer, Geschichte des Kurfiirsten Friedrichs 
I. von der Pfalz (Leipzig, 1765); and K. Menzel, Kurfurst Friedrich 
der Siegreiche von der Pfalz (Munich, 1861). 

FREDERICK II. (1482-1556), surnamed "the Wise," elector 
palatine of the Rhine, fourth son of the elector Philip, was born 
on the 9th of December 1482. Of an active and adventurous 
temperament, he fought under the emperor Maximilian I. in 1 508, 
and afterwards served the Habsburgs loyally in other ways. He 
worked to secure the election of Charles, afterwards the emperor 
Charles V., as the successor of Maximilian in 1519; fought in 
two campaigns against the Turks; and being disappointed 
in his hope of obtaining the hand of one of the emperor's sisters, 
married in 1535 Dorothea (d. 1580), daughter of Christian II., 
who had been driven from the Danish throne. The Habsburgs 
promised their aid in securing this crown for Frederick, but, like 
many previous promises made to him, this came to nothing. 
Having spent his time in various parts of Europe, and incurred 
heavy debts on account of his expensive tastes, Frederick became 
elector palatine by the death of his brother, Louis V., in March 
1 544- With regard to the religious troubles of Germany, he took 
up at first the r&le of a mediator, but in 1545 he joined the league 
of Schmalkalden, and in 1546 broke definitely with the older 
faith. He gave a little assistance to the league in its war with 
Charles, but soon submitted to the emperor, accepted the 
Interim issued from Augsburg in May 1548, and afterwards 
acted in harmony with Charles. The elector died on the 26th of 
February 1536, and as he left no children was succeeded by his 
nephew, Otto Henry (1 502-1 559). He was a great benefactor 
to the university of Heidelberg. 

Frederick's life, Annates de vita et rebus gestis Friderici II. electoris 
Palatini (Frankfort, 1624), was written by his secretary Hubert 
Thomas Leodius; this has been translated into German by E. von 
Biilow (Breslau, 1849). See also Rott, Friedrich II. von der Pfalz 
und die Reformation (Heidelberg, 1904). 



FREDERICK HI. (1515-1576), called "the Pious," elector 
palatine of the Rhine, eldest son of John II., count palatine of 
Simmern, was born at Simmern on the 14th of February 1515. 
In 1537 he married Maria (d. 1567), daughter of Casimir, prince 
of Bayreuth, and in 1 546, mainly as a result of this union, adopted 
the reformed doctrines, which had already made considerable 
progress in the Palatinate. He lived in comparative obscurity 
and poverty until 1557, when he became count palatine of 
Simmern by his father's death, succeeding his kinsman, Otto 
Henry (1 502-1 559), as elector palatine two years later. Although 
inclined to the views of Calvin rather than to those of Luther, 
the new elector showed great anxiety to unite the Protestants; 
but when these efforts failed, and the breach between the 
followers of the two reformers became wider, he definitely 
adopted Calvinism. This form of faith was quickly established 
in the Palatinate; in its interests the " Heidelberg Catechism " 
was drawn up in 1563; and Catholics and Lutherans were 
persecuted alike, while the churches were denuded of all their 
ornaments. The Lutheran princes wished to root out Calvinism 
in the Palatinate, but were not willing to exclude the elector from 
the benefits of the religious peace of Augsburg, which were 
confined to the adherents of the confession of Augsburg, and the 
matter came before the diet in 1566. Boldly defending his posi- 
tion, Frederick refused to give way an inch, and as the Lutherans 
were unwilling to proceed to extremities the emperor Maximilian 
II. could only warn him to mend his ways. The elector was an 
ardent supporter of the Protestants abroad, whom, rather than 
the German Lutherans, he regarded as his co-religionists. He 
aided the Huguenots in France and the insurgents in the Nether- 
lands with men and money; one of his sons, John Casimir 
( 1 543-1 592), took a prominent part in the French wars of religion, 
while another, Christopher, was killed in 1574 fighting for the 
Dutch at Mooker Heath. In his later years Frederick failed 
in his efforts to prevent the election of a member of the Habsburg 
family as Roman king, to secure the abrogation of the " ecclesi- 
astical reservation " clause in the peace of Augsburg, or to 
obtain security for Protestants in the territories of the spiritual 
princes. He was assiduous in caring for the material, moral and 
educational welfare of his electorate, and was a benefactor to 
the university of Heidelberg. The elector died at Heidelberg on 
the 26th of October 1576, and was succeeded by his elder sur- 
viving son, Louis (1 539-1 583), who had offended his father by 
adopting Lutheranism. 

See A. Kluckhohn, Friedrich der Fromme (Nordlingen, 1877-1879) ; 
and Briefe Friedrichs des Frommen, edited by Kluckhohn (Bruns- 
wick, 1868-1872). 

FREDERICK IV. (1 574-1610), elector palatine of the Rhine, 
only surviving son of the elector Louis VI., was born at Amberg 
on the 5th of March 1574. His father died in October 1583, 
when the young elector came under the guardianship of his 
uncle John Casimir, an ardent Calvinist, who, in spite of the 
wishes of the late elector, a Lutheran, had his nephew educated 
in his own form of faith. In January 1 592, on the death of John 
Casimir, Frederick undertook the government of the Palatinate, 
and continued the policy of his uncle, hostility to the Catholic 
Church and the. Habsburgs, and co-operation with foreign 
Protestants. He was often in communication with Henry of 
Navarre, afterwards Henry IV. of France, and like him was 
unremitting in his efforts to conclude a league among the German 
Protestants, while he sought to weaken the Habsburgs by refusing 
aid for the Turkish War. After many delays and disappoint- 
ments the Union of Evangelical Estates was actually formed in 
May 1608, under the leadership of the elector, and he took a 
prominent part in directing the operations of the union until his 
death, which occurred on the 1 9th of September 1 6 1 o. Frederick 
was very extravagant, and liked to surround himself with pomp 
and luxury. He married in 1593 Louise, daughter of William 
the Silent, prince of Orange, and was succeeded by Frederick, 
the elder of his two sons. 

See M. Ritter, Geschichte der deutschen Union (Schaffhauseu, 1867- 
1873) ; and L. Hausser, Geschichte der rheinischen Pfalz (Heidelberg, 

FREDERICK V. (1596-1632), elector palatine of the Rhine 
and king of Bohemia, son of the elector Frederick IV. by his wife, 
Louisa Juliana, daughter of William the Silent, prince of Orange, 
was born at Amberg on the 26th of August 1596. He became 
elector on his father's death in September 1610, and was under 
the guardianship of his kinsman, John II., count palatine of 
Zweibriicken (d. 1635), until he was declared of age in July 1614. 
Having received a good education, Frederick had married 
Elizabeth, daughter of the English king James I., in February 
1 613, and was the recognized head of the Evangelical Union 
founded by his father to protect the interests of the Protestants. 
In 1619 he stepped into a larger arena. Before this date the 
estates of Bohemia, Protestant in sympathy and dissatisfied with 
the rule of the Habsburgs, had been in frequent communication 
with the elector palatine, and in August 1619, a few months after 
the death of the emperor Matthias, they declared his successor, 
Ferdinand, afterwards the emperor Ferdinand II., deposed, 
and chose Frederick as their king. After some hesitation the 
elector yielded to the entreaties of Christian I., prince of Anhalt 
( 1 568-1 630), and other sanguine supporters, and was crowned 
king of Bohemia at Prague on the 4th of November 1619. By 
this time the emperor Ferdinand was able to take the aggressive, 
while Frederick, disappointed at receiving no assistance either 
from England or from the Union, had few soldiers and little 
money. Consequently on the, 8th of November, four days after 
his coronation, his forces were easily routed by the imperial army 
under Tilly at the White Hill, near Prague, and his short reign in 
Bohemia ended abruptly. Soon afterwards the Palatinate was 
overrun by the Spaniards and Bavarians, and after a futile 
attempt to dislodge them, Frederick, called in derision the 
" Winter King," sought refuge in the Netherlands. Having 
been placed under the imperial ban his electorate was given in 
1623 to Maximilian I. of Bavaria, who also received the electoral 

The remainder of Frederick's life was spent in comparative 
obscurity, although his restoration was a constant subject of 
discussion among European diplomatists. He died at Mainz on 
the 29th of November 1632, having had a large family, among 
his children being Charles Louis (1617-1680), who regained the 
Palatinate at the peace of Westphalia in 1648, and Sophia, 
who married Ernest Augustus, afterwards elector of Hanover, 
and was the mother of George I., king of Great Britain. His 
third son was Prince Rupert, the hero of the English civil war, 
and another son was Prince Maurice (1620-1652), who also 
assisted his uncle Charles I. during the civil war. Having sailed 
with Rupert to the West Indies, Maurice was lost at sea in 
September 1652. 

In addition to the numerous works which treat of the outbreak 
of the Thirty Years' War see A. Gindely, Friedrich V. von der Pfalz 
(Prague, 1884); J. Krebs, Die Politik der evangelischen Union im 
Jahre 1618 (Breslau, 1890-1901) ; M. Ritter, " Friedrich V.," in the 
Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, Band vii. (Leipzig, 1878); and 
Deutsche Lieder auf den Winterkonig, edited by R. Wolkan (Prague, 
1899)- . . *- 

FREDERICK I. (1360-1428), surnamed "the Warlike," 
elector and duke of Saxony, was the eldest son of Frederick 
" the Stern," count of Osterland, and Catherine, daughter and 
heiress of Henry VIII. , count of Coburg. He was born at Alten- 
burg on the 29th of March 1369, and was a member of the family 
of Wettin. When his father died in 1381 some trouble arose 
over the family possessions, and in the following year an arrange- 
ment was made by which Frederick and his brothers shared 
Meissen and Thuringia with their uncles Balthasar and William. 
Frederick's brother George died in 1402, and his uncle William 
in 1407. A further dispute then arose, but in 1410 a treaty was 
made at Naumburg, when Frederick and his brother William 
added the northern part of Meissen to their lands; and in 
1425 the death of William left Frederick sole ruler. In the 
German town war of 1388 he assisted Frederick V. of Hohen- 
zollern, burgrave of Nuremberg, and in 1391 did the same for the 
Teutonic Order against Ladislaus V., king of Poland and prince 
of Lithuania. He supported Rupert III., elector palatine of the 
Rhine, in his struggle with King Wenceslaus for the German 



throne, probably because Wenceslaus refused to fulfil a promise 
to give him his sister Anna in marriage. The danger to Germany 
from the Hussites induced Frederick to ally himself with the 
German and Bohemian king Sigismund; and he took a leading 
part in the war against them, during the earlier years of which 
he met with considerable success. In the prosecution of this 
enterprise Frederick spent large sums of money, for which he 
received various places in Bohemia and elsewhere in pledge 
from Sigismund, who further rewarded him in January 1423 with 
the vacant electoral duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg; and Frederick's 
formal investiture followed at Ofen on the 1st of August 1425. 
Thus spurred to renewed efforts against the Hussites, the elector 
was endeavouring to rouse the German princes to aid him in 
prosecuting this war when the Saxon army was almost annihilated 
at Aussig on the 16th of August 1426. Returning to Saxony, 
Frederick died at Altenburg on the 4th of January 1428, and was 
buried in the cathedral at Meissen. In 1402 he married Catherine 
of Brunswick, by whom he left four sons and two daughters. 
In 1409, in conjunction with his brother William, he founded 
the university of Leipzig, for the benefit of German students who 
had just left the university of Prague. Frederick's importance as 
an historical figure arises from his having obtained the electorate 
of Saxe-Wittenberg for the house of Wettin, and transformed 
the margraviate of Meissen into the territory which afterwards 
became the kingdom of Saxony. In addition to the king of 
Saxony, the sovereigns of England and of the Belgians are his 
direct descendants. 

There is a life of Frederick by G. Spalatin in the Scriptores rerum 
Germanicarum praecipue Saxonicarum, Band ii., edited by J. B. 
Mencke (Leipzig, 1728-1730). See also C. W. Bottiger and Th. 
Flathe, Geschichte des Kurstaates und Kbnigreichs Sachsen (Gotha, 
1867-1873); and J. G. Horn, Lebens- und Heldengeschichte Frie- 
drichs des Streitbaren (Leipzig, 1733). 

FREDERICK II. (1411-1464), called " the Mild," elector and 
duke of Saxony, eldest son of the elector Frederick I., was born 
on the 22nd of August 141 1. He succeeded his father as elector 
in 1428, but shared the family lands with his three brothers, 
and was at once engaged in defending Saxony against the attacks 
of the Hussites. Freed from these enemies about 1432, and 
turning his attention to increasing his possessions, he obtained 
the burgraviate of Meissen in 1439, and some part of Lower 
Lusatia after a struggle with Brandenburg about the same time. 
In 1438 it was decided that Frederick, and not his rival, Bernard 
IV., duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, was entitled to exercise the Saxon 
electoral vote at the elections for the German throne; and the 
elector then aided Albert II. to secure this dignity, performing 
i similar service for his own brother-in-law, Frederick, afterwards 
the emperor Frederick III., two years later. Family affairs, 
meanwhile, occupied Frederick's attention. One brother, 
Henry, having died in 1435, and another, Sigismund (d. X463), 
having entered the church and become bishop of Wur*zburg, 
Frederick and his brother William (d. 1482) were the heirs of their 
childless cousin, Frederick " the Peaceful," who ruled Thuringia 
and other parts of the lands of the Wettins. On his death in 
1440 the brothers divided Frederick's territory, but this arrange- 
ment was not satisfactory, and war broke out between them in 
1446. Both combatants obtained extraneous aid, but after a 
desolating struggle peace was made in January 1451, when 
William received Thuringia, and Frederick Altenburg and other 
districts. The remainder of the elector's reign was uneventful, 
and he died at Leipzig on the 7th of September 1464. By his 
wife, Margaret (d. i486), daughter of Ernest, duke of Styria, 
he left two sons and four daughters. In July 1455 occurred the 
celebrated Prinzenraub, the attempt of a knight named Kunz von 
Kaufungen (d. 1455) to abduct Frederick's two sons, Ernest 
and Albert. Having carried them off from Altenburg, Kunz was 
making his way to Bohemia when the plot was accidentally 
discovered and the princes restored. 

See W. Schafer, Der Montag vor Kiliani (1855); J. Gersdorf, 
Einige Aktenstucke zur Geschichte des sachsischen Prinzenraubes 
(1855); and T. Carlyle, Critical and Miscellaneous Essays, vol. iv. 
(London, 1899). 

FREDERICK HI. (1463-1525), called " the Wise," elector of 
Saxony, eldest son of Ernest, elector of Saxony, and Elizabeth, 

daughter of Albert, duke of Bavaria-Munich (d. 1508), was born 
at Torgau, and succeeded his father as elector in i486. Retaining 
the government of Saxony in his own hands, he shared the other 
possessions of his family with his brother John, called " the 
Stedfast " (1468-153 2). Frederick was among the princes who 
pressed the need of reform upon the German king Maximilian I. 
in 1495, and in 1500 he became president of the newly-formed 
council of regency (Reichsregiment) . He took a genuine interest 
in learning; was a friend of Georg Spalatin; and in 1502 
founded the university of Wittenberg, where he appointed Luther 
and Melanchthon to professorships. In 1493 he had gone as a 
pilgrim to Jerusalem, and had been made a knight of the Holy 
Sepulchre; but, although he remained throughout life an 
adherent of the older faith, he seems to have been drawn into 
sympathy with the reformers, probably through his connexion 
with the university of Wittenberg. In 1520 he refused to put 
into execution the papal bull which ordered Luther's writings 
to be burned and the reformer to be put under restraint or sent 
to Rome; and in 1521, after Luther had been placed under the 
imperial ban by the diet at Worms, the elector caused him to be 
conveyed to his castle at the Wartburg, and afterwards protected 
him while he attacked the enemies of the Reformation. In 1519, 
Frederick, who alone among the electors refused to be bribed 
by the rival candidates for the imperial throne, declined to be a 
candidate for this high dignity himself, and assisted to secure 
the election of Charles V. He died unmarried at Langau, near 
Annaberg, on the 5th of May 1525. 

See G. Spalatin, Das Leben und die Zeitgeschichte Friedrichs des 
Weisen, edited by C. G. Neudecker and L. Preller (Jena, 1851); 
M. M. Tutzschmann, Friedrich der Weise, Kurfurst von Sachsen 
(Grimma, 1848) ; and T. Kolde, Friedrich der Weise und die Anfdnge 
der Reformation (Erlangen, 1 881). 

FREDERICK, a city and the county-seat of Frederick county, 
Maryland,U.S.A.,on Carroll's Creek, atributary of theMonocacy, 
61 m. by rail W. by N. from Baltimore and 45 m. N.W. from 
Washington. Pop. (1890) 8193; (1900) 9296, of whom 1535 
were negroes; (1910 census) 10,411. It is served by the Balti- 
more & Ohio and the Northern Central railways, and by two 
interurban electric lines. Immediately surrounding it is the 
rich farming land of the Monocacy valley, but from a distance 
it appears to be completely shut in by picturesque hills and 
mountains; to the E., the Linga ore Hills; to the W., Catoctin 
Mountain; and to the S., Sugar Loaf Mountain. It is built 
for the most part of brick and stone. Frederick is the seat of the 
Maryland school for the deaf and dumb and of the Woman's 
College of Frederick (1893; formerly the Frederick Female 
Seminary, opened in 1843), which in 1907-1908 had 212 students, 
121 of whom were in the Conservatory of Music. Francis Scott 
Key and Roger Brooke Taney were buried here, and a beautiful 
monument erected to the memory of Key stands at the entrance 
to Mount Olivet cemetery. Frederick has a considerable 
agricultural trade and is an important manufacturing centre, 
its industries including the canning of fruits and vegetables, and 
the manufacture of flour, bricks, brushes, leather goods and 
hosiery. The total value of the factory product in 1905 was 
$1,937,921, being 34-7% more than in 1900. The municipality 
owns and operates its water-works and electric-lighting plant. 
Frederick, so named in honour of Frederick Calvert, son and 
afterward successor of Charles, Lord Baltimore, was settled 
by Germans in 1733, and was laid out as a town in 1745, but was 
not incorporated until 1817. Here in 1755 General Braddock 
prepared for his disastrous expedition against the French at 
Fort Duquesne (Pittsburg). During the Civil War the city was 
occupied on different occasions by Unionists and Confederates, 
and was made famous by Whittier's poem " Barbara Frietchie." 

FREDERICK AUGUSTUS I. (1750-1827), king of Saxony, 
son of the elector Frederick Christian, was born at Dresden on 
the 23rd of December 1750. He succeeded his father under the 
guardianship of Prince Xavier in 1763, and was declared of age 
in 1768. In the following year (January 17, 1769) he married 
Princess Maria Amelia, daughter of Duke Frederick of Zwei- 
briicken, by whom he had only one child, Princess Augusta 
(born June 21, 1782). One of his chief aims was the reduction 



of taxes and imposts and of the army. He was always extremely 
methodical and conscientious, and a good example to all his 
officials, whence his surname " the Just." On account of the 
claims of his mother on the inheritance of her brother, the elector 
of Bavaria, he sided with Frederick the Great in the short 
Bavarian succession war of 1778 against Austria. At the peace 
of Teschen, which concluded the war, he received 6 million florins, 
which he employed partly in regaining those parts of his kingdom 
which had been lost, and partly in favour of his relatives. In 
1785 he joined the league of German princes (Deutscher Fiirsten- 
bund) formed by Prussia, but without prejudice to his neutrality. 
Thus he remained neutral during the quarrel between Austria 
and Prussia in 1790. In the following year he declined the 
crown of Poland. He refused to join the league against France 
(February 7, 1792), but when war was declared his duty to the 
Empire necessitated his taking part in it. Even after the peace 
of Basel (April 5, 1795) he continued the war. But when the 
French army, during the following year, advanced into the heart 
of Germany, he was compelled by General Jourdan to retreat 
(August 13, 1796). He maintained his neutrality during the 
war between France and Austria in 1805, but in the following 
year he joined Prussia against France. After the disastrous 
battle of Jena he concluded a treaty of peace with Napoleon at 
Posen (December n, 1806), and, assuming the titie of king, 
he joined the Confederation of the Rhine. But he did not alter 
the constitution and administration of his new kingdom. After 
the peace of Tilsit (July 9, 1807) he was created by Napoleon 
grand-duke of Warsaw, but his sovereignty of Poland was little 
more than nominal. There was a kind of friendship between 
Frederick Augustus and Napoleon. In 1809 Frederick Augustus 
fought with him against Austria. On several occasions (1807, 
181 2, 1813) Napoleon was entertained at Dresden, and when, 
on his return from his disastrous Russian campaign, he passed 
through Saxony by Dresden (December 16, 181 2), Frederick 
Augustus remained true to his friend and ally. It was only during 
April 1813 that he made overtures to Austria, but he soon 
afterwards returned to the side of the French. He returned 
to Dresden on the 10th of May and was present at the terrible 
battle of August 26 and 27, in which Napoleon's army and his 
own were defeated. He fell into the hands of the Allies after their 
entry into Leipzig on the 19th of October 1813; and, although 
he regained his freedom after the congress of Vienna, he was 
compelled to give up the northern part — three-fifths — of his 
kingdom to Prussia (May 21, 1814). He entered Dresden on 
the 7th of July, and was enthusiastically welcomed by his 
people. The remainder of his life was spent in repairing the 
damages caused by the Napoleonic wars, in developing the 
agricultural, commercial and industrial resources of his kingdom, 
reforming the administration of justice, establishing hospitals 
and other charitable institutions, encouraging art and science 
and promoting education. He had a special interest in botany, 
and originated the beautiful park at Pillnitz. His reign through- 
out was characterized by justice, probity, moderation and 
prudence. He died on the 5th of May 1827. 

Bibliography. — -The earlier lives, by C. E. Weisse (181 1), A. L. 
Herrmann (1827), Politz (1830), are mere panegyrics. On the other 
side see Flathe in Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, and Bottiger- 
Flathe, History of Saxony (2nd ed., 1867 ft".), vols. ii. and iii. ; A. 
Bonnefons, Un Allie de Napoleon, Frederic Auguste, premier roi de 
Saxe . . . (Paris, 1902) ; Fritz. Friedrich, Politik Sachsens 1801- 
1803 (1898);' P. Riihlmann, Offentliche Meinung . . . 1806-18 13 
(1902). There are many pamphlets bearing on the Saxon question 
and on Frederick Augustus during the years 1814 and 1815. (J. Hn.) 

FREDERICK AUGUSTUS II. (1797-18 54), king of Saxony, 
eldest son of Prince Maximilian and of Caroline Maria Theresa 
of Parma, was born on the 18th of May 1797. The unsettled 
times in which his youth was passed necessitated his frequent 
change of residence, but care was nevertheless taken that his 
education should not be interrupted, and he also acquired, 
through his journeys in foreign states (Switzerland 1818, Monte- 
negro 1838, England and Scotland 1844) and his intercourse 
with men of eminence, a special taste for art and for natural 
science. He was himself a good landscape-painter and had a fine 

collection of engravings on copper. He was twice married — 
in 1819 (October 7) to the duchess Caroline, fourth daughter 
of the emperor Francis I. of Austria (d. May 22, 1832), and in 
1833 (April 4) to Maria, daughter of Maximilian I. of Bavaria. 
There were no children of either marriage. During the govern- 
ment of his uncles (Frederick Augustus I. and Anthony) he 
took no part in the administration of the country, though he 
was the sole heir to the crown. In 1830 a rising in Dresden led 
to his being named joint regent of the kingdom along with King 
Anthony on the 13th of September; and in this position his 
popularity and his wise and liberal reforms (for instance, in 
arranging public audiences) speedily quelled all discontent. 
On the 6th of June 1836 he succeeded his uncle. Though he 
administered the affairs of his kingdom with enlightened liberality 
Saxony did not escape the political storms which broke upon 
Germany in 1848. He elected Liberal ministers, and he was at 
first in favour of the programme of German unity put forward 
at Frankfort, but he refused to acknowledge the democratic 
constitution of the German parliament. This attitude led to 
the insurrection at Dresden in May 1849, which was suppressed 
by the help of Prussian troops. From that time onward his 
reign was tranquil and prosperous. Later Count Beust, leader 
of the Austrian and feudal party in Saxony, became his principal 
minister and guided his policy on most occasions. His death 
occurred accidentally through the upsetting of his carriage 
near Brennbuhel, between Imst and Wenns in Tirol (August 9, 
1854). Frederick Augustus devoted his leisure hours chiefly to 
the study of botany. He made botanical excursions into different 
countries, and Flora Marienbadensis, oder Pflanzen und Gebirgs- 
arten, gesammelt und beschrieben, written by him, was published 
at Prague by Kedler, 1837. 

See Bottiger-Flathe, History of Saxony, vol. iii. ; R. Freiherr von 

Friesen, Erinnerungen (2 vols., Dresden, 1881); F. F. Graf von 
Beust, Aus drei-viertel Jahrhunderten (2 vols., 1887) ; Flathe, in 
Allg. deutsche Biogr. (J. Hn.) 


Prince (1828-1885), Prussian general field marshal, son of Prince 
Charles of Prussia and grandson of King Frederick William III., 
was born in Berlin on the 20th of March 1828. He was educated 
for the army, which he entered on his tenth birthday as second 
lieutenant in the 14th Foot Guards. He became first lieutenant 
in 1844, and in 1846 entered the university of Bonn, where he 
stayed for two years, being accompanied throughout by Major 
von Roon, afterwards the famous war minister. In 1848 he 
became a company commander in his regiment, and soon after- 
wards served in the Schleswig-Hoistein War on the staff of Marshal 
von Wrangel, being present at the battle of Schleswig (April 23, 
1848). Later in 1 848 he became Rittmeister in the Garde du Corps 
cavalry regiment, and in 1849 major in the Guard Hussars. 
In this year the prince took part in the campaign against the 
Baden insurgents, and was wounded at the action of Wiesenthal 
while leading a desperate charge against entrenched infantry. 
After this experience the wild courage of his youth gave place 
to the unshakable resolution which afterwards characterized 
the prince's generalship. In 1852 he became colonel, and in 
1854 major-general and commander of a cavalry brigade. In 
this capacity he was brought closely in touch with General von 
Reyher, ■ the chief of the general staff, and with Moltke. He 
married, in the same year, Princess Marie Anne of Anhalt. In 
1857 he became commander of the 1st Guard Infantry division, 
but very shortly afterwards, on account of disputes concerned 
with the training methods then in force, he resigned the appoint- 

In 1858 he visited France, where he minutely investigated 
the state of the French army, but it was not long before he 
was recalled, for in 1859, in consequence of the Franco-Austrian 
War, Prussia mobilized her forces, and Frederick Charles was 
made a divisional commander in the II. army corps. In this 
post he was given the liberty of action which had previously been 
denied to him. About this time (i860) the prince gave a lecture 
to the officers of his command on the French army and its 
methods, the substance of which (Eine militdrische Denkschrifi 



von P. F.K., Frankfort on Main, i860) was circulated more widely 
than the author intended, and in the French translation gave 
rise to much indignation in France. In 1861 Frederick Charles 
became general of cavalry. He was then commander of the III. 
(Brandenburg) army corps. This post he held from i860 to 1870, 
except during the campaigns of 1864 and 1866, and in it he dis- 
played his real qualities as a troop leader. His self-imposed 
task was to raise the military spirit of his troops to the highest 
possible level, and ten years of his continuous and thorough 
training brought the III. corps to a pitch of real efficiency which 
the Guard corps alone, in virtue of its special recruiting powers, 
slightly surpassed. Prince Frederick Charles' work was tested 
to the full when von Alvensleben and the III. corps engaged the 
whole French army on the 16th of August 1870. In 1864 the 
prince once more fought against the Danes under his old leader 
" Papa " Wrangel. The Prussian contingent under Frederick 
Charles formed a corps of the allied army, and half of it was 
drawn from the III. corps. After the storming of the Diippel lines 
the prince succeeded Wrangel in the supreme command, with 
Lieutenant-General Freiherr von Moltke as his chief of staff. 
These two great soldiers then planned and brilliantly carried out 
the capture of the island of Alsen, after which the war came to an 

In 1866 came the Seven Weeks' War with Austria. Prince 
Frederick Charles was appointed to command the I. Army, 
which he led through the mountains into Bohemia, driving 
before him the Austrians and Saxons to the upper Elbe, where 
on the 3rd of July took place the decisive battle of Koniggratz or 
Sadowa. This was brought on by the initiative of the leader 
of the I. Army, which had to bear the brunt of the fighting until 
the advance of the II. Army turned the Austrian flank. After 
the peace he returned to the III. army corps, which he finally 
left, in July 1870, when appointed to command the II. German 
Army in the war with France. In the early days of the advance 
the prince's ruthless energy led to much friction between the 
I. and II. Armies (see Franco-German War) , while his strategical 
mistakes seriously embarrassed the great headquarters staff. 
The advance of the II. Army beyond the Saar to the Moselle 
and from that river to the Meuse displayed more energy than 
careful strategy, but herein at least the " Red Prince " (as he 
was called from the colour of his favourite hussar uniform) 
was in thorough sympathy with the king's headquarters on the 
one hand and the feelings of the troops on the other. Then came 
the discovery that the French were not in front, but to the right 
rear of the II. Army (August 16). Alvensleben with the III. 
corps held the French to their ground at Vionville while the prince 
hurried together his scattered forces. He himself directed with 
superb tactical skill the last efforts of the Germans at Vionville, 
and the victory of St Privat on the 18th was due to his leadership 
(see Metz), which shone all the more by contrast with the failures 
of the I. Army at Gravelotte. The prince was left in command of 
the forces which blockaded Bazaine in Metz, and received the 
surrender of that place and of the last remaining field army of the 
enemy. He was promoted at once to the rank of general field 
marshal, and shortly afterwards the II. Army was despatched 
to aid in crushing the newly organized army of the French 
republic on the Loire. Here again he retrieved strategical errors 
by energy and tactical skill, and his work was in the end crowned 
by the victory of Le Mans on the 12th of January 187 1. Of 
all the subordinate leaders on the German side none enjoyed a 
greater and a better deserved reputation than the Red Prince. 

He now became inspector- general of the 3rd "army inspection," 
and a little later inspector of cavalry, and in the latter post he was 
largely instrumental in bringing the German cavalry to the degree 
of perfection in manoeuvre and general training which it gradually 
attained in the years after the war. He never ceased to improve 
his own soldierly qualities by further study and by the conduct of 
manoeuvres on a large scale. His sternness of character kept 
him aloof from the court and from his own family, and he spent 
his leisure months chiefly on his various country estates. In 
1872 and in 1882 he travelled in the Mediterranean and the Near 
East. He died on the 15th of June 1885 at Klein-Glienicke 

near Berlin, and was buried at the adjacent church of Nikolskoe. 
His third daughter, Princess Louise Margareta, was married, 
in March 1879, to the duke of Connaught. 

FREDERICK HENRY (1584-1647), prince of Orange, the 
youngest child of William the Silent, was born at Delft about 
six months before his father's assassination on the 29th of January 
1 584. His mother, Louise de Coligny , was daughter of the famous 
Huguenot leader, Admiral de Coligny, and was the fourth wife 
of William the Silent. The boy was trained to arms by his elder 
brother, Maurice of Nassau, one of the first generals of his age. 
On the death of Maurice in 1625, Frederick Henry succeeded 
him in his paternal dignities and estates, and also in the stadt- 
holderates of the five provinces of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, 
Overysel and Gelderland, and in the important posts of captain 
and admiral-general of the Union. Frederick Henry proved 
himself scarcely inferior to his brother as a general, and a far 
more capable statesman and politician. During twenty-two 
years he remained at the head of affairs in the United Provinces, 
and in his time the power of the stadtholderate reached its highest 
point. The " Period of Frederick Henry," as it is usually styled 
by Dutch writers, is generally accounted the golden age of the 
republic. It was marked by great military and naval triumphs, 
by world-wide maritime and commercial expansion, and by a 
wonderful outburst of activity in the domains of art and literature. 
The chief military exploits of Frederick Henry were the sieges 
and captures of Hertogenbosch in 1629, of Maastricht in 1632, 
of Breda in 1637, of Sas van Ghent in 1644, and of Hulst in 1645. 
During the greater part of his administration the alliance with 
France against Spain had been the pivot of Frederick Henry's 
foreign policy, but in his last years he sacrificed the French 
alliance for the sake of concluding a separate peace with Spain, 
by which the United Provinces obtained from that power all the 
advantages for which they had for eighty years been contending. 
Frederick Henry died on the 14th of March 1647, and was buried 
with great pomp beside his father and brother at Delft. The 
treaty of Miinster, ending the long struggle between the Dutch 
and the Spaniards, was not actually signed until the 30th of 
January 1648, the illness and death of the stadtholder having 
caused a delay in the negotiations. Frederick Henry was married 
in 1625 to Amalia von Solms, and left one son, William II. of 
Orange, and four daughters. 

Frederick Henry left an account of his campaigns in his Memoires 
de Frederic Henri (Amsterdam, 1743). See Cambridge Mod. Hist. 
vol. iv. chap. 24, and the bibliography on p. 931. 

FREDERICK LOUIS (1707-1751), prince of Wales, eldest son 
of George II., was born at Hanover on the 20th of January 1707. 
After his grandfather, George I., became king of Great Britain 
and Ireland in 17 14, Frederick was known as duke of Gloucester 1 
and made a knight of the Garter, having previously been be- 
trothed to tVilhelmina Sophia Dorothea (1709-1758), daughter 
of Frederick William I., king of Prussia, and sister of Frederick 
the Great. Although he was anxious to marry this lady, the 
match was rendered impossible by the dislike of George II. and 
Frederick William for each other. Soon after his father became 
king in 1727 Frederick took up his residence in England and in 
1729 was created prince of Wales; but the relations between 
George II. and his son were very unfriendly, and there existed 
between, them the jealousy which Stubbs calls the " incurable 
bane of royalty." The faults were not all on one side. The 
prince's character was not attractive, and the king refused to 
make him an adequate allowance. In 1735 Frederick wrote, 
or inspired the writing of, the Hisloire du prince Titi, a book 
containing offensive caricatures of both king and queen; and 
losing no opportunity of irritating his father, " he made," says 
Lecky, " his court the special centre of opposition to the govern- 
ment, and he exerted all his influence for the ruin of Walpole." 
After a marriage between the prince and Lady Diana Spencer, 
afterwards the wife of John, 4th duke of Bedford, had been 
frustrated by Walpole, Frederick was married in April 1736 to 

1 Frederick was never actually created duke of Gloucester, and 
when he was raised to the peerage in 1 736 it was as duke of Edinburgh 
only. See G. E. C(okayne), Complete Peerage, sub " Gloucester." 



Augusta (1719-1772), daughter of Frederick II., duke of Saxe- 
Gotha, a union which was welcomed by his parents, but which 
led to further trouble between father and son. George proposed 
to allow the prince £50,000 a year; but this sum was regarded 
as insufficient by the latter, whose appeal to parliament was 
unsuccessful. After the birth of his first child, Augusta, in 1 73 7, 
Frederick was ordered by the king to quit St James' Palace, and 
the foreign ambassadors were requested to refrain from visiting 
him . The relations between the two were now worse than before. 
In 1745 George II. refused to allow his sonto command theBritish 
army against the Jacobites. On the 20th of March 1751 the 
prince died in London, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. 
He left five sons and two daughters. The sons were George 
(afterwards King George III.), Edward Augustus, duke of York 
and Albany (1739-1767}, William Henry, duke of Gloucester 
and Edinburgh (1 743-1803), Henry Frederick, duke of Cumber- 
land (1745-1790), and Frederick William (1750-1765); the 
daughters were Augusta (1737-1813), wife of Charles William 
Ferdinand, dukeof Brunswick, and Caroline Matilda (17 51—1775), 
wife of Christian VII., king of Denmark. 

See Lord Hervey of Ickworth, Memoirs of the Reign of George II., 
edited by J. W. Croker (London, 1884); Horace Walpole, Memoirs 
of the Reign of George II. (London, 1847); and Sir N. W. Wraxall, 
Memoirs, edited by H. B. Wheatley, vol. i. (London, 1884). 

FREDERICK WILLIAM I. (1688-1740), king of Prussia, son 
of Frederick I. by his second marriage was born on the 15th 
of August 1688. He spent a considerable time in early youth at 
the court of his grandfather, the elector Ernest Augustus of 
Hanover. On his return to Berlin he was placed under General 
von Dohna and Count Finkenstein, who trained him to the 
energetic and regular habits which ever afterwards characterized 
him. He was soon imbued with a passion for military life, and 
this was deepened by acquaintance with the duke of Marlborough 
(1709), Prince Eugene, whom he visited during the siege of 
Tournai, and Prince Leopold of Anhalt (the " Old Dessauer "). 
In nearly every respect he was the opposite of his father, having 
frugal, simple tastes, a passionate temper and a determined will. 
Throughout his life he was always the protectorof thechurchand 
of religion. But he detested religious quarrels and was very 
tolerant towards his Catholic subjects, except the Jesuits. 
His life was simple and puritanical, beingfounded on the teaching 
of the Bible. He was, however, fond of hunting and somewhat 
given to drinking. He intensely disliked the French, and highly 
disapproved of the imitation of their manners by his father and 
his court. When he came to the throne (February 25, 1713) his 
first act was to dismiss from the palace every unnecessary official 
and to regulate the royal household on principles of the strictest 
parsimony. The greater part of the beautiful furniture was 
sold. His importance for Prussia is twofold: in internal politics 
he laid down principles which continued to be followed long after 
his death. This was a province peculiarly suited to his genius; 
he was one of the greatest administrators who have everwornthe 
Prussian crown. His foreign policy was less successful, though 
under his rule the kingdom acquired some extension of territory. 
' Thus at the peace of Utrecht (April 11, 17 13), after the War 
of the Spanish Succession, he acquired the greater part of the 
duchy of Gelderland. By the treaty of Schwedt, concluded with 
Russia on the 6th of October, he was assured of an important 
influence in the solution of the Baltic question, which during 
the long absence of Charles XII. had become burning; and 
Swedish Pomerania,as far as the Peene,was occupied by Prussia. 
But Charles XII. on his return turned against the king, though 
without success, for the Pomeranian campaign of 171 5 ended in 
favour of Prussia (fall of Stralsund, December 22). This enabled 
Frederick William I. to maintain a more independent attitude 
towards the tsar; he refused, for example, to provide him with 
troops for a campaign (in Schonen) against the Swedes. When 
on the 28th of May i7i8,in view of the disturbances in Mecklen- 
burg, he signed at Havelberg the alliance with Russia, he confined 
himself to taking up a defensive attitude, and, on the other hand, 
on the 14th of August 1719 he also entered into relations with 
his former enemies, England and Hanover. And so, by the 
treaty of Stockholm (February 1, 1720), Frederick William 

succeeded in obtaining the consent of Sweden to the cession of 
that part of Pomerania which he had occupied (Usedom, Wollin, 
Stettin, Hither Pomerania, east of the Peene) in return for a 
payment of 2,000,000 thalers. 

While Frederick William I. succeeded in carrying his wishes 
into effect in this direction, he was unable to realize another 
project which he had much at heart, namely, the Prussian succes- 
sion to the Lower Rhine duchies of Jiilich and Berg. The treaty 
concluded in 1725 at Vienna between the emperor and Spain 
brought the whole of this question up again, for both sides had 
pledged themselves to support the Palatinate-Sulzbach succession 
(in the event of the Palatinate-Neuberg line becoming extinct). 
Frederick William turned for help to the western powers, England 
and France, and secured it by the treaty of alliance signed at 
Herrenhausen on the 3rd of September 1725 (Leagueof Hanover). 
But since the western powers soon sought to use the military 
strength of Prussia for their own ends, Frederick again turned 
towards the east, strengthened above all his relations with Russia, 
which had continued to be good, and finally, by the treaty of 
Wiisterhausen (October 12,1726; ratified at Berlin, December 23, 
1 728), even allied himself with his former adversary, the court of 
Vienna; though this treaty only imperfectly safeguarded Prussian 
interests, inasmuch as Frederick William consented to renounce 
his claims to Jiilich. But as in the following years the European 
situation became more and more favourable to the house of 
Habsburg, the latter began to try to withdraw part of the con- 
cessions which it had made to Frederick William. As early as 
1728 Dusseldorf, the capital, was excluded from the guarantee of 
Berg. Nevertheless, in the War of the Polish Succession against 
France (1734-1735), Frederick William remained faithful to the 
emperor's cause, and sent an auxiliary force of 10,000 men. The 
peace of Vienna, which terminated the war, led to a reconciliation 
between France and Austria, and so to a further estrangement 
between Frederick William and the emperor. Moreover, in 1738 
the western powers, together with the emperor, insisted in identi- 
cal notes on the recognition of the emperor's right to decide the 
question of the succession in the Lower Rhine duchies. A breach 
with the emperor was now inevitable, and this explains why 
in a last treaty (April 5, 1739) Frederick William obtained from 
France a guarantee of a part, at least, of Berg (excluding 

But Frederick William's failures in foreign policy were more 
than compensated for by his splendid services in the internal 
administra tion of Prussia. He saw the necessity of rigid economy 
not only in his private life but in the whole administration of the 
state. During his reign Prussia obtained for the first time a 
centralized and uniform financial administration. It was the king 
himself who composed and wrote in the year 1722 the famous 
instruction for the general directory (Generaldirektorium) of 
war, finance and domains. When he died the income of the state 
was about seven million thalers (£1,050,000). The consequence 
was that he paid off the debts incurred by his father, and left to 
his successor a well filled treasury. In the administration of 
the domains he made three innovations: (1) the private estates 
of the king were turned into domains of the crown (August 13, 
I 7 1 3)> ( 2 ) the freeing of the serfs on the royal domains (March 
22, 1719)5.(3) the conversion of the hereditary lease into a* 
short-term lease on the basis of productiveness. His industrial 
policy was inspired by the mercantile spirit. On this account he 
forbade the importation of foreign manufactures and the export 
of raw materials from home, a policy which had a very good 
effect on the growth of Prussian industries. 

The work of internal colonization he carried on with especial 
zeal. Most notable of all was his retablissement of East Prussia,to 
which he devoted six million thalers (c. £900,000). His policy in 
respect of the towns was motived largely by fiscal considerations, 
but at the same time he tried also to improve their municipal 
administration; for example, in the matter of buildings, of the 
letting of domain lands and of the collection of the excisein towns. 
Frederick William hadmanyopponentsamongthenobles because 
he pressed on the abolition of the old feudal rights, introduced 
in East Prussia and Lithuania £ general land tax (the General- 

6 4 


hufenschoss) , and finally in 1739 attacked in a special edict the 
Legen, i.e. the expropriation of the peasant proprietors. He 
did nothing for the higher learning, and even banished the philo- 
sopher Christian Wolff at forty-eight hours' notice " on pain of 
the halter," for teaching, as he believed, fatalist doctrines. 
Afterwards he modified his judgment in favour of Wolff, and even, 
in 1739, recommended the study of his works. He established 
many village schools, which he often visited in person; and after 
the year 1717 (October 23) all Prussian parents were obliged to 
send their children to school {Schulzwang) . He was the especial 
friend of the Franckische Stiftungen at Halle on the Saale. 
Under him the people flourished; and although it stood in awe 
of his vehement spirit it respected him for his firmness, his 
honesty of purpose and his love of justice. He was devoted 
also to his army, the number of which he raised from 38,000 
to 83,500, so that under him Prussia became the third military 
power in the world, coming next after Russia and France. There 
was not a more thoroughly drilled or better appointed force. 
The Potsdam guard, made up of giants collected from all parts 
of Europe, sometimes kidnapped, was a sort of toy with which 
he amused himself. The reviewing of his troops was his chief 
pleasure. But he was also fond of meeting his friends in the 
evening in what he called his Tobacco-College, where amid clouds 
of tobacco smoke he not only discussed affairs of state but heard 
the newest " guard-room jokes." He died on the 31st of May 
1 740, leaving behind him his widow, Sophia Dorothea of Hanover, 
whom he had married on the 26th of November 1 706. His son 
was Frederick the Great, who was the opposite of Frederick 
William. This opposition became so strong in 1730 that the 
crown prince fled from the court, and was later arrested and 
brought before a court-martial. A reconciliation was brought 
about, at first gradually. In later years the relations between 
father and son came to be of the best (see Frederick II., king 
of Prussia). 

Bibliography. — D. Fassmann, Leben und Thaten Friedrich 
Wilhelms (2 vols., Hamburg and Breslau, 1735, 1741); F. Forster, 
Friedrich Wilhelm I. (3 vols., Potsdam, 1834 and 1835) ; C. v. 
Noorden, Historische Vortrdge (Leipzig, 1884) ; O. Krauske, " Vom 
Hofe Friedrich Wilhelms I.," Hohenzollernjahrbuch, v. (1902); 
R. Koser, Friedrich der Grosse als Kronprinz (2nd ed., Stuttgart, 
1901) ; W. Oncken, " Sir Charles Hotham und Friedrich Wilhelm I. 
im Jahre 1730," Forschungen zur branderiburgischen Geschichte, 
vol. vii. et seq. ; J. G. Droysen in the Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 
vii. (1878), and in Geschichte der preussischen Politik, section iv., 
vols, ii.-iv. (2nd ed., 1868 et seq.); L. v. Ranke, Zwblf Bilcher 
preussischer Geschichte (1874 et seq.); Stenzel, Geschichte des preus- 
sischen Staates, iii. (1841) ; F. Holke, " Strafrechtspflege unter 
Friedrich Wilhelm I.," Beitrdge zur branderiburgischen Rechts- 
geschichte, iii. (1894); V. Loewe, " Allodifikation der Leben unter 
Friedrich Wilhelm I.;" Forschungen zur brandenburgischen Geschichte, 
xi.; G. Schmoller, " Epochen der preuss. Finanzpolitik," Umrisse 
und Unter suchungen (Leipzig, 1898), " Innere Verwaltung unter 
Friedrich Wilhelm I.," Preuss. Jahrbiicher, xxvi., " Stadtewesen 
unter Friedrich Wilhelm I.," Zeitschrift fur preussische Geschichte, x. 
et seq.; B. Reuter, " K6nig Friedrich Wilhelm I. und das General- 
Direktorium," ibid, xii.; V. Loewe, " Zur Grundungsgeschichte des 
General-Direktoriums," Forschungen, &c, xiii. ; R. Stadelmann, 
Preussens Konige in ihrer Tdtigkeit fur die Landeskultur , vol. i. 
" Friedrich Wilhelm I." (1878); M. Beheim-Schwarzbach, Hohen- 
zollern'sche Kolonizationen (Leipzig, 1874); W. Naude, "Die 
merkantilistische Wirtschaftspolitik Friedrich Wilhelms I.," His- 
torische Zeitschrift, xc. ; M. Lehmann, " Werbung, &c, im Heere 
Friedrich Wilhelms I.," ibid, lxvii. ; Isaacson, " Erbpachtsystem in 
der preussischen Domanenverwaltung," Zeitschrift fur preuss. Gesch. 
xi. Cf. also Hohenzollernjahrbuch, viti. (1905), for particulars of his 
education and death; letters to Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Dessau 
in the Acta Borussica (1905). English readers will find a picturesque 
account of him in Thomas Carlyle's Frederick the Great. (J. Hn.) 

FREDERICK WILLIAM II. (1744-1797), king of Prussia, 
son of Augustus William, second son of King Frederick William 
I. and of Louise Amalie of Brunswick, sister of the wife of 
Frederick the Great, was born at Berlin on the 2 5th of September 
1744, and became heir to the throne on his father's death in 1757. 
The boy was of an easy-going and pleasure-loving disposition, 
averse from sustained effort of any kind, and sensual by nature. 
His marriage with Elisabeth Christine, daughter of Duke Charles 
of Brunswick, contracted in 1765, was dissolved in 1769, and he 
soon afterwards married Frederika Louisa, daughter of the land- 

grave Louis IX. of Hesse-Darmstadt. Although he had a 
numerous family by his wife, he was completely under the in- 
fluence of his mistress, Wilhelmine Enke, afterwards created 
Countess Lichtenau, a woman of strong intellect and much 
ambition. He was a man of singularly handsome presence, not 
without mental qualities of a high order; he was devoted to the 
arts — Beethoven and Mozart enjoyed his patronage and his 
private orchestra had a European reputation. But an artistic 
temperament was hardly that required of a king of Prussia on 
the eve of the Revolution; and Frederick the Great, who had 
employed him in various services — notably in an abortive con- 
fidential mission to the court of Russia in 1 780 — openly expressed 
his misgivings as to the character of the prince and his sur- 

The misgivings were justified by the event. Frederick 
William's accession to the throne (August 17, 1786) was, indeed, 
followed by a series of measures for lightening the burdens of the 
people, reforming the oppressive French system of tax-collecting 
introduced by Frederick, and encouraging trade by the diminu- 
tion of customs dues and the making of roads and canals. This 
gave the new king much popularity with the mass of the people; 
while the educated classes were pleased by his removal of 
Frederick's ban on the German language by the admission of 
German writers to the Prussian Academy, and by the active 
encouragement given to schools and universities. But these 
reforms were vitiated in their source. In 1 781 Frederick William, 
then prince of Prussia, inclined, like many sensual natures, to 
mysticism, had joined the Rosicrucians, and had fallen under the 
influence of Johann Christof Wollne 1 " (1 73 2-1 800), and by him 
the royal policy was inspired. Wollner, whom Frederick the 
Great had described as a " treacherous and intriguing priest," 
had started life as a poor tutor in the family of General von 
Itzenplitz, a noble of the mark of Brandenburg, had, after the 
general's death and to the scandal of king and nobility, married 
the general's daughter, and with his mother-in-law's assistance 
settled down on a small estate. By his practical experiments and 
by his writings he gained a considerable reputation as an econo- 
mist; but his ambition was not content with this, and he sought 
to extend his influence by joining first the Freemasons and after- 
wards (1779) the Rosicrucians. Wollner, with his impressive 
personality and easy if superficial eloquence, was just the man 
to lead a movement of this kind. Under his influence the order 
spread rapidly, and he soon found himself the supreme director 
(Oberhauptdirektor) of some 26 " circles," which included in their 
membership princes, officers and high officials. As a Rosicrucian 
Wollner dabbled in alchemy and other mystic arts, but he also 
affected to be zealous for Christian orthodoxy, imperilled by 
Frederick II. 's patronage of " enlightenment," and a few months 
before Frederick's death wrote to his friend the Rosicrucian 
Johann Rudolph von Bischoffswerder (1741-1803) that his 
highest ambition was to be placed at the head of the religious 
department of the state " as an unworthy instrument in the hand 
of Ormesus " (the prince of Prussia's Rosicrucian name) " for 
the purpose of saving millions of souls from perdition and bringing 
back the whole country to the faith of Jesus Christ." 

Such was the man whom Frederick William II., immediately 
after his accession, called to his counsels. On the 26th of August 
1786 he was appointed privy councillor for finance (Geheimer 
Oberfinanzrath) , and on the 2nd of October was ennobled. 
Though not in name, in fact he was prime minister; in all in- 
ternal affairs it was he who decided; and the fiscal and economic 
reforms of the new reign were the application of his theories. 
Bischoffswerder, too, still a simple major, was called into the 
king's counsels; by 1789 he was already an adjutant-general. 
These were the two men who enmeshed the king in a web of 
Rosicrucian mystery and intrigue, which hampered whatever 
healthy development of his policy might have been possible, 
and led ultimately to disaster. The opposition to Wollner was, 
indeed, at the outset strong enough to prevent his being entrusted 
with the department of religion; but this too in time was over- 
come, and on the 3rd of July 1788 he was appointed active 
privy councillor of state and of justice and head of the spiritual 



department for Lutheran and Catholic affairs. War was at 
once declared on what — to use a later term — we may call 
the '■ modernists." The king, so long as Wollner was content 
to condone his immorality (which Bischoffswerder, to do him 
justice, condemned), was eager to help the orthodox crusade. 
On the 9th of July was issued the famous religious edict, which 
forbade Evangelical ministers to teach anything not contained 
in the letter of their official books, proclaimed the necessity of 
protecting the Christian religion against the " enlighteners " 
{Aufklarer) , and placed educational establishments under the 
supervision of the orthodox clergy. On the 18th of December 
a new censorship law was issued, to secure the orthodoxy of all 
published books; and finally, in 1791, a sort of Protestant 
Inquisition was established at Berlin (I mmediat- Examinations- 
commission) to watch over all ecclesiastical and scholastic 
appointments. In his zeal for orthodoxy, indeed, Frederick 
William outstripped his minister; he even blamed Wollner's 
" idleness and vanity " for the inevitable failure of the attempt 
to regulate opinion from above, and in 1794 deprived him of one 
of his secular offices in order that he might have more time 
" to devote himself to the things of God "; in edict after edict 
the king continued to the end of his reign to make regulations 
" in order to maintain in his states a true and active Christianity, 
as the path to genuine fear of God." 

The effects of this policy of blind obscurantism far outweighed 
any good that resulted from the king's well-meant efforts at 
economic and financial reform; and_even this reform was but 
spasmodic and partial, and awoke ultimately more discontent 
than it allayed. But far more fateful for Prussia was the king's 
attitude towards the army and foreign policy. The army was 
the very foundation of the Prussian state, a truth which both 
Frederick William I. and the great Frederick had fully realized; 
the army had been their first care, and its efficiency had been 
maintained by their constant personal supervision. Frederick 
William, who had no taste for military matters, put his authority 
as " War-Lord " into commission under a supreme college of 
war (Oberkricgs-Collegium) under the duke of Brunswick and 
General von Mollendorf. It was the beginning of the process 
that ended in 1806 at Jena. 

In the circumstances Frederick William's intervention in 
European affairs was not likely to prove of benefit to Prussia. 
The Dutch campaign of 1787, entered on for purely family 
reasons, was indeed successful; but Prussia received not even 
the cosi of her intervention. An attempt to intervene in the war 
of Russia and Austria against Turkey failed of its object; Prussia 
did not succeed in obtaining any concessions of territory from 
the alarms of the Allies, and the dismissal of Hertzberg in 
1 79 1 marked the final abandonment of the anti- Austrian tradi- 
tion of Frederick the Great. For, meanwhile, the French Revolu- 
tion had entered upon alarming phases, and in August 1791 
Frederick William, at the meeting at Pillnitz, arranged with the 
emperor Leopold to join in supporting the cause of Louis XVI. 
But neither the king's character, nor the confusion of the Prussian 
finances due to his extravagance, gave promise of any effective 
action. A formal alliance was indeed signed on the 7th of 
February 1792, and Frederick William took part personally in 
the campaigns of 1792 and 1793. He was hampered, however, 
by want of funds, and his counsels were distracted by the affairs 
of Poland, which promised a richer booty than was likely to be 
gained by the anti-revolutionary crusade into France. A subsidy 
treaty with the sea powers (April 19, 1794) filled his coffers; but 
the insurrection in Poland that followed the partition of 1793, 
and the threat of the isolated intervention of Russia, hurried 
him into the separate treaty of Basel with the French Republic 
(April 5, 1795), which was regarded by the great monarchies as 
a betrayal, and left Prussia morally isolated in Europe on the 
eve of the titanic struggle between the monarchical principle 
and the new political creed of the Revolution. Prussia had paid 
a heavy price for the territories acquired at the expense of Poland 
in 1793 and 1795, and when, on the 16th of November 1797, 
Frederick William died, he left the state in bankruptcy and 
confusion, the army decayed and the monarchy discredited. 
xi. 3 

Frederick William II. was twice married: (1) in 1765 to 
Elizabeth of Brunswick (d. 1841), by whom he had a daughter, 
Frederika, afterwards duchess of York, and from whom he was 
divorced in 1769; (2) in 1769 to Frederika Louisa of Hesse- 
Darmstadt, by whom he had four sons, Frederick William III., 
Louis (d. 1796), Henry and William, and two daughters, Wilhel- 
mina, wife of William of Orange, afterwards William I., king of 
the Netherlands, and Augusta, wife of William II., elector of 
Hesse. Besides his relations with his mattresse en litre, the 
countess Lichtenau, the king — who was a frank polygamist — 
contracted two " marriages of the left hand " with Fraulein von 
Voss and the countess Donhoff. 

See article by von Hartmann in Allgent. deutsche Biog. (Leipzig, 
1878); Stadelmann, Preussens Konige in ihrer Tdtigkeit fur die 
Landeskultur,vo\. iii. " Friedrich Wilhelm II." (Leipzig, 1885) ; Paulig, 
Friedrich Wilhelm II. , sein Privatleben u. seine Regierung (Frankf urt- 
an-der-Oder, 1896). 

FREDERICK WILLIAM III. (1770-1840), king of Prussia, 
eldest son of King Frederick William II., was born at Potsdam 
on the 3rd of August 1770. His father, then prince of Prussia, 
was out of favour with Frederick the Great and entirely under the 
influence of his mistress; and the boy, handed over to tutors 
appointed by the king, lived a solitary and repressed life which 
tended to increase the innate weakness of his character. But 
though his natural defects of intellect and will-power were not 
improved by the pedantic tutoring to which he was submitted, 
he grew up pious, honest and well-meaning; and had fate cast 
him in any but the most stormy times of his country's history 
he might well have left the reputation of a model king. As a 
soldier he received the usual training of a Prussian prince, 
obtained his lieutenancy in 1784, became a colonel commanding 
in 1790, and took part in the campaigns of 1792-94. In 1793 
he married Louise, daughter of Prince Charles of Mecklenburg- 
Strelitz, whom he had met and fallen in love with at Frankfort 
(see Louise, queen of Prussia). He succeeded to the throne on 
the 16th of November 1797 and at once gave earnest of his good 
intentions by cutting down the expenses of the royal establish- 
ment, dismissing his father's ministers, and reforming the most 
oppressive abuses of the late reign. Unfortunately, however, 
he had all the Hohenzollern tenacity of personal power without 
the Hohenzollern genius for using it. Too distrustful to delegate 
his responsibility to his ministers, he was too infirm of will to 
strike out and follow a consistent course for himself. 

The results of this infirmity of purpose are written large on the 
history of Prussia from the treaty of Luneville in 1801 to the 
downfall that followed the campaign of Jena in 1806. By the 
treaty of Tilsit (July 9th, 1807) Frederick William had to 
surrender half his dominions, and what remained to him was 
exhausted by French exactions and liable at any moment to 
be crushed out of existence by some new whim of Napoleon. 
In the dark years that followed it was the indomitable courage 
of Queen Louise that helped the weak king not to despair of the 
state. She seconded the reforming efforts of Stein and the work 
of Scharnhorst and Gneisenau in reorganizing the army, by which 
the resurrection of Prussia became a possibility. When Stein 
was dismissed at the instance of Napoleon, Hardenberg succeeded 
him as chancellor (June 18 10). In the following month Queen 
Louise died, and the king was left alone to deal with circum- 
stances of ever-increasing difficulty. He was forced to join 
Napoleon in the war against Russia; and even when the 
disastrous campaign of 181 2 had for the time broken the French 
power, it was not his own resolution, but the loyal disloyalty 
of General York in concluding with Russia the .convention of 
Tauroggen that forced him into line with the patriotic fervour 
of his people. 

Once committed to the Russian alliance, however, he became 
the faithful henchman of the emperor Alexander, whose fascinat- 
ing personality exercised over him to the last a singular power, 
and began that influence of Russia at the court of Berlin which 
was to last till Frederick William IV. 's supposed Liberalism was 
to shatter the cordiality of the entente. That during and after the 
settlement of 1815 Frederick William played a very secondary 
part in European affairs is explicable as well by his character as' 



by the absorbing character of the internal problems of Prussia. 
He was one of the original co-signatories of the Holy Alliance, 
though, in common with most, he signed it with reluctance; 
and in the counsels of the Grand Alliance he allowed himself to 
be practically subordinated to Alexander and later to Metternich. 
In a ruler of his character it is not surprising that the Revolution 
and its developments had produced an unconquerable suspicion 
of constitutional principles and methods, which the Liberal 
agitations in Germany tended to increase. At the various 
congresses, from Aix-la-Chapelle (1818) to Verona (1822), there- 
fore, he showed himself heartily in sympathy with the repressive 
policy formulated in the Troppau Protocol. The promise of a 
constitution, which in the excitement of the War of Liberation 
he had made to his people, remained unfulfilled partly owing to 
this mental attitude, partly, however, to the all but insuperable 
difficulties in the way of its execution. But though reluctant 
to play the part of a constitutional king, Frederick William 
maintained to the full the traditional character of " first servant 
of the state." Though he chastised Liberal professors and 
turbulent students, it was in the spirit of a benevolent Landes- 
vater; and he laboured assiduously at the enormous task of 
administrative reconstruction necessitated by the problem of 
welding the heterogeneous elements of the new Prussian kingdom 
into a united whole. He was sincerely religious; but his well- 
meant efforts to unite the Lutheran and Reformed Churches, 
in celebration of the tercentenary of the Reformation (1817), 
revealed the limits of his paternal power; eleven years passed 
in vain attempts to devise common formulae; a stubborn 
Lutheran minority had to be coerced by military force, the con- 
fiscation of their churches and the imprisonment or exile of their 
pastors; not till 1834 was outward union secured on the basis of 
common worship but separate symbols, the opponents of the 
measure being forbidden to form communities of their own. 
With the Roman Church, too, the king came into conflict on 
the vexed question of " mixed marriages," a conflict in which 
the Vatican gained an easy victory (see Bunsen, C.C.J., Baron 
von) . 

The revolutions of 1830 strengthened Frederick William in his 
reactionary tendencies; the question of the constitution was 
indefinitely shelved; and in 183 1 Prussian troops concentrated 
on the frontier helped the task of the Russians in reducing the 
military rising in Poland. Yet, in spite of all, Frederick William 
was beloved by his subjects, who valued him for the simplicity 
of his manners, the goodness of his heart and the memories of 
the dark days after 1806. He died on the 7th of June 1840. 
In 1824 he had contracted a morganatic marriage with the 
countess Auguste von Harrach, whom he created Princess von 
Liegnitz. He wrote Luther in Bezug auf die Kirchenagenda 
von 1822 und 1823 (Berlin, 1827), Reminiszenzen aus der 
Kampagne 17Q2 in Frankreich, and Journal meiner Brigade in 
der Kampagne am Rhein 1703. 

The correspondence (Briefwechsel) of King Frederick William III. 
and Queen Louise with the emperor Alexander I. has been published 
(Leipzig, 1900) and also that between the king and queen (ib. 1903), 
both edited by P. Bailleu. See W. Hahn, Friedrich Wilhelm III. und 
Luise (3rd ed., Leipzig, 1877); M. W. Duncker, Aus der Zeit Frie- 
drichs des Grossen und Friedrich Wilhelms III. (Leipzig, 1876); 
Bishop R. F. 'Eylert, Charakterziige aus dem Leben des Kbnigs ton 
Preussen Friedrich Wilhelm III. (3 vols., Magdeburg, 1843-1846). 

FREDERICK WILLIAM IV. (1795-1861), king of Prussia, 
eldest son of Frederick William III., was born on the 15th of 
October 1795. From his first tutor, Johann Delbriick, he imbibed 
a love of culture and art, and possibly also the dash of Liberalism 
which formed an element of his complex habit of mind. But after 
a time Delbriick, suspected of inspiring his charge with a dislike 
of the Prussian military caste and even of belonging to a political 
secret society, was dismissed, his place being taken by the pastor 
and historian Friedrich Ancillon, while a military governor was 
also appointed. By Ancillon he was grounded in religion, in 
history and political science, his natural taste for the antique 
and the picturesque making it easy for his tutor to impress upon 
H-'m his own hatred of the Revolution and its principles. This 
hatred was confirmed by the sufferings of his country and family 

in the terrible years after 1806, and his first experience of active 
soldiering was in the campaigns that ended in the occupation of 
Paris by the Allies in 1814. In action his reckless bravery had 
earned him rebuke, and in Paris he was remarked for the exact 
Derformance of his military duties, though he found time to whet 
his appetite for art in the matchless collections gathered by 
Napoleon as the spoil of all Europe. On his return to Berlin 
he studied art under the sculptor Christian Daniel Rauch and 
the painter and architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel (1781-1841), 
proving himself in the end a good draughtsman, a born architect 
and an excellent landscape gardener. At the same time he was 
being tutored in law by Savigny and in finance by a series of 
distinguished masters. In 1 823 he married the princess Elizabeth 
of Bavaria, who adopted the Lutheran creed. The union, 
though childless, was very happy. A long tour in Italy in 1828 
was the beginning of his intimacy with Bunsen and did much to 
develop his knowledge of art and love of antiquity. 

On his accession to the throne in 1840 much was expected 
of a prince so variously gifted and of so amiable a temper, and 
his first acts did not belie popular hopes. He reversed the 
unfortunate ecclesiastical policy of his father, allowing a wide 
liberty of dissent, and releasing the imprisoned archbishop of 
Cologne; he modified the strictness of the press censorship; 
above all he undertook, in the presence of the deputations of the 
provincial diets assembled to greet him on his accession, to carry 
out the long-deferred project of creating a central constitution, 
which he admitted to be required alike by the royal promises, 
the needs of the country and the temper of the times. The 
story of the evolution of the Prussian parliament belongs to the 
history of Prussia. Here it must suffice to notice Frederick 
William's personal share in the question, which was determined 
by his general attitude of mind. He was an' idealist; but his 
idealism was of a type the exact reverse of that which the 
Revolution in arms had sought to impose upon Europe. The 
idea of the sovereignty of the people was to him utterly abhorrent, 
and even any delegation of sovereign power on his own part would 
have seemed a betrayal of a God-given trust. " I will never," 
he declared, " allow to come between Almighty God and this 
country f plotted parchment, to rule us with paragraphs, and to 
replace the ancient, sacred bond of loyalty." His vision of the 
ideal state was that of a patriarchial monarchy, surrounded and 
advised by the traditional estates of the realm — nobles, peasants, 
burghers — and cemented by the bonds of evangelical religion; 
but in which there should be no question of the sovereign power 
being vested in any other hands than those of the king by divine 
right. In Prussia, with its traditional loyalty and its old-world 
caste divisions, he believed that such a conception could be 
realized, and he took up an attitude half-way between those who 
would have rejected the proposal for a central diet altogether as a 
dangerous " thin end of the wedge," and those who would have 
approximated it more to the modern conception of a parliament. 
With a charter, or a representative system based on population, 
he would have nothing to do. The united diet which was opened 
on the 3rd of February 1847 was no more than a congregation 
of the diets instituted by Frederick William III. in the eight 
provinces of Prussia. Unrepresentative though it was — for the 
industrial working-classes had no share in it — it at once gave 
voice to the demand for a constitutional system. 

This demand gained overwhelmingly in force with the revolu- 
tionary outbreaks of r848. To Frederick William these came 
as a complete surprise, and, rudely awakened from his medieval 
dreamings, he even allowed himself to be carried away for a while 
by the popular tide. The loyalty of the Prussian army remained 
inviolate; but the king was too tender-hearted to use military 
force against his " beloved Berliners," and when the victory of 
the populace was thus assured his impressionable temper yielded 
to the general enthusiasm. He paraded the streets of Berlin 
wrapped in a scarf of the German black and gold, symbol of his 
intention to be the leader of the united Germany; and he even 
wrote to the indignant tsar in praise of " the glorious German 
revolution." The change of sentiment was, however, apparent 
rather than real. The shadow of venerable institutions, past or 



passing, still darkened his counsels. The united Germany which 
he was prepared to champion was not the democratic state which 
the theorists of the Frankfort national parliament were evolving 
on paper with interminable debate, but the old Holy Roman 
Empire, the heritage of the house of Habsburg, of which he was 
prepared to constitute himself the guardian so long as its lawful 
possessors should not have mastered the forces of disorder by 
which they were held captive. Finally, when Austria had been 
excluded from the new empire, he replied to the parliamentary 
deputation that came to offer him the imperial crown that he 
might have accepted it had it been freely offered to him by the 
German princes, but that he would never stoop " to pick up a 
crown out of the gutter." 

Whatever may be thought of the manner of this refusal, or 
of its immediate motives, it was in itself wise, for the German 
empire would have lost immeasurably had it been the cause 
rather than the result of the inevitable struggle with Austria, 
and Bismarck was probably right when he said that, to weld 
the heterogeneous elements of Germany into a united whole, what 
was needed was, not speeches and resolutions, but a policy of 
" blood and iron." In any case Frederick William, uneasy 
enough as a constitutional king, would have been impossible as 
a constitutional emperor. As it was, his refusal to play this 
part gave the deathblow to the parliament and to all hope of 
the immediate creation of a united Germany. For Frederick 
William the position of leader of Germany now meant the employ- 
ment of the military force of Prussia to crush the scattered 
elements of revolution that survived the collapse of the national 
movement. His establishment of the northern confederacy was 
a reversion to the traditional policy of Prussia in opposition 
to Austria, which, after the emperor Nicholas had crushed the 
insurrection in Hungary, was once more free to assert her claims 
to dominance in Germany. But Prussia was not ripe for a 
struggle with Austria, even had Frederick William found it in his 
conscience to turn his arms against his ancient ally, and the result 
was the humiliating convention of Olmiitz (November 29th, 
1850), by which Prussia agreed to surrender her separatist 
plans and to restore the old constitution of the confederation. 
Yet Frederick William had so far profited by the lessons of 1848 
that he consented to establish (1850) a national parliament, 
though with a restricted franchise and limited powers. The 
House of Lords (Herrenhaus) justified the king's insistence in 
calling it into being by its support of Bismarck against the more 
popular House during the next reign. 

In religious matters Frederick William was also largely swayed 
by bis love for the ancient and picturesque. In concert with his 
friend Bunsen he laboured to bring about a rapprochement 
between the Lutheran and Anglican churches, the first-fruits of 
which was the establishment of the Jerusalem bishopric under 
the joint patronage of Great Britain and Prussia; but the only 
result of his efforts was to precipitate the secession of J. H. 
Newman and his followers to the Church of Rome. In general 
it may be said that Frederick William, in spite of his talents and 
his wide knowledge, lived in a dream-land of hisown, out of touch 
with actuality. The style of his letters reveals a mind enthusiastic 
and ill-balanced. In the summer of 1857 he had a stroke of 
paralysis, and a second in October. From this time, with the 
exception of brief intervals, his mind was completely clouded, 
and the duties of government were undertaken by his brother 
William (afterwards emperor), who on the 7th of October 1858 
was formally recognized as regent. Frederick William died on 
the 2nd of January 1861. 

Selections from the correspondence (Briefwechsel) of Frederick 
William IV. and Bunsen were edited by Ranke (Leipzig, 1873); 
his proclamations, speeches, &c, from the 6th of March 1848 to the 
31st of May 1851 have been published (Berlin, 1851); also his 
correspondence with Bettina von Arnim, Bettina von Arnim und 
Friedrich Wilhelm IV., ungedruckte Briefe und Aktenstiicke, ed. L. 
Geiger (Frankfort-on-Main, 1902). See L. von Ranke, Friedrich 
Wilhelm IV., Konig von Preussen (works 51, 52 also in Allgem. 
deutsche Biog. vol. vii.), especially for the king's education and the 
inner history of the debates leading up to the united diet of 1847; 
H. von PetersdorfT, Konig Friedrich Wilhelm IV. (Stuttgart, 1900); 
F. Rachfahl, Deutschland, Konig Friedrich Wilhelm IV. und die 

Berliner Marzrevolution (Halle, 1901) ; H. von Poschinger (ed.), 
Unter Friedrich Wilhelm IV. Denkwiirdigkeiten des Mimsters Otto 
Frhr. von Manteuffel, 1848-1858 (3 vols., Berlin, 1900-1901); and 
Preussens auswdrtige Politik, 1850-1858 (3 vols., ib., 1902), docu- 
ments selected from those left by Manteuffel; E. Friedberg, Die 
Grundlagen der preussischen Kirchenpolitik unter Friedrich Wilhelm 
IV. (Leipzig, 1882). 

FREDERICK WILLIAM (i6 2 o-r688), elector of Brandenburg, 
usually called the " Great Elector," was born in Berlin on the 
16th of February 1620. His father was the elector George 
William, and his mother was Elizabeth Charlotte, daughter of 
Frederick IV., elector palatine of the Rhine. Owing to the dis- 
orders which were prevalent in Brandenburg he passed part of 
his youth in the Netherlands, studying at the university of 
Leiden and learning something of war and statecraft under 
Frederick Henry, prince of Orange. During his boyhood a 
marriage had been suggested between him and Christina, after- 
wards queen of Sweden; but although the idea was revived 
during the peace negotiations between Sweden and Brandenburg, 
it came to nothing, and in 1646 he married Louise Henriette 
(d. 1667), daughter of Frederick Henry of Orange, a lady whose 
counsel was very helpful to him and who seconded his efforts for 
the welfare of his country. 

Having become ruler of B randenburg and Prussia by his father's 
death in December 1640, Frederick William set to work at once 
to repair the extensive damage wrought during the Thirty Years' 
War, still in progress. After some difficulty he secured his 
investiture as duke of Prussia from Wladislaus, king of Poland, 
in October 1641, but was not equally successful in crushing the 
independent tendencies of the estates of Cleves. It was in 
Brandenburg, however, that he showed his supreme skill as a 
diplomatist and administrator. HisVdisorderly troops were 
replaced by an efficient and disciplined force; his patience and 
perseverance freed his dominions from the Swedish soldiers; 
and the restoration of law and order was followed by a revival 
of trade and an increase of material prosperity. After a tedious 
struggle he succeeded in centralizing the administration, and 
controlling and increasing the revenue, while no department of 
public life escaped his sedulous care (see Brandenburg). The 
area of his dominions was largely increased at the peace of 
Westphalia in 1648, and this treaty and the treaty of Oliva in 
1660 alike added to his power and prestige. By a clever but 
unscrupulous use of his intermediate position between Sweden 
and Poland he procured his recognition as independent duke of 
Prussia from both powers, and eventually succeeded in crushing 
the stubborn and lengthened opposition which was offered to his 
authority by the estates of the duchy (see Prussia). After two 
checks he made his position respected in Cleves, and in 1666 his 
title to Cleves, Jiilich and Ravensberg was definitely recognized. 
His efforts, however, to annex the western part of the duchy 
of Pomerania, which he had conquered from the Swedes, failed 
owing to the insistence of Louis XIV. at the treaty of St Germain- 
en-Laye in 1679, and he was unable to obtain the Silesian duchies 
of Liegnitz, Brieg and Wohlau from the emperor Leopold I. 
after they had been left without a ruler in 1675. 

Frederick William played an important part in European 
politics. Although found once or twice on the side of France, 
he was generally loyal to the interests of the empire and the 
Habsburgs, probably because his political acumen scented danger 
to Brandenburg from the aggressive policy of Louis XIV. 
He was a Protestant in religion, but he supported Protestant 
interests abroad on political rather than on religious grounds, 
and sought, but without much success, to strengthen Branden- 
burg by allaying the fierce hostility between Lutherans and 
Calvinists. His success in founding and organizing the army 
of Brandenburg-Prussia was amply demonstrated by the great 
victory which he gained over the Swedes at Fehrbellin in June 
1675, and by the eagerness with which foreign powers sought his 
support. He was also the founder of the Prussian navy. The 
elector assisted trade in every possible way. He made the canal 
which still bears his name between the Oder and the Spree; 
established a trading company; and founded colonies on the west 
coast of Africa. He encouraged Flemings to settle in Brandenburg, 



and both before and after the revocation of the edict of 
Nantes in 1685 welcomed large numbers of Huguenots, who 
added greatly to the welfare of the country. Education was not 
neglected; and if in this direction some of his plans were abortive, 
it was from lack of means and opportunity rather than effort 
and inclination. It is difficult to overestimate the servicesof the 
great elector to Brandenburg and Prussia. They can only be 
properly appreciated by those who compare the condition of his 
country in 1640 with its condition in 1688. Both actually and 
relatively its importance had increased enormously; poverty 
had given place to comparative wealth, and anarchy to a 
system of government which afterwards made Prussia the most 
centralized state in Europe. He had scant sympathy with local 
privileges, and in fighting them his conduct was doubtless 
despotic. His aim was to make himself an absolute ruler, as he 
regarded this as the best guarantee for the internal and external 
welfare of the state. 

The great elector died at Potsdam from dropsy on the oth of 
May 1688, and was succeeded by his eldest surviving son, 
Frederick. His personal appearance was imposing, and although 
he was absolutely without scruples when working for the interests 
of Brandenburg, he did not lack a sense of justice and generosity. 
At all events he deserves the eulogy passed upon him by Frederick 
the Great, " Messieurs; celui-ci a fait de grandes ckoses." His 
second wife, whom he married in 1668, was Dorothea (d. 1689), 
daughter of Philip, duke of Holstein-Gliicksburg, and widow 
of Christian Louis, duke of Brunswick-Liineburg; she bore 
him four sons and three daughters. His concluding years were 
troubled by differences between his wife and her step-son, 
Frederick; and influenced by Dorothea he bequeathed portions 
of Brandenburg to her four sons, a bequest which was annulled 
under his successor. 

See S. de Pufendorf, De rebus gestis Friderici Wilhelmi Magni 
(Leipzig and Berlin, 1733); L. von Orlich, Friedrich Wilhelm der 
grosse Kurjiirst (Berlin, 1836); K. H. S. Rodenbeck, Zur Geschichte 
Friedrich Wilhelms des grossen Kurfiirsten (Berlin, 1851); B. 
Erdmannsdorffer, Der grosse Kurjiirst (Leipzig, 1879); J. G. 
Droysen, Geschichte der preussischen Politik (Berlin, 1 855-1 886); 
M. Philippson, Der grosse Kurjiirst (Berlin, 1897-1903); E. Heyck, 
Der grosse Kurjiirst (Bielefeld, 1902); Spahn, Der grosse Kurjiirst 
(Mainz, 1902) ; H. Landwehr, Die Kirchenpolitik des grossen Kur- 
jiirsten (Berlin, 1894); H. Prutz, Aus des grossen Kurjiirsten letzten 
Jahren (Berlin, 1897). Also Urkunden und Aktenstiicke zur Geschichte 
des Kurjiirsten Friedrich Wilhelm von Brandenburg (Berlin, 1864- 
1902) ; T. Carlyle, History of Frederick the Great, vol. i. (London, 
1858) ; and A. Waddington, Le Grand Electeur et Louis XIV (Paris, 

1876) French actor, the son of an architect, was born at Havre 
on the 28th of July 1800. He spent two years at the Con- 
servatoire, and made his first appearance at a variety performance 
in one of the basement restaurants at the Palais Royal. At 
the Ambigu on the 1 2th of July 1823 he played the part of Robert 
Macaire in L'Auberge des Adrets. The melodrama was played 
seriously on the first night and was received with little favour, 
but it was changed on the second night to burlesque, and thanks 
to him had a great success. All Paris came to see it, and from 
that day he was famous. He created a number of parts that 
added to his popularity, especially Cardillac, Cagliostro and 
Cartouche. His success in the last led to an engagement at the 
Porte St Martin, where in 1827 he produced Trente arts, ou la 
vie d'un joueur, in which his vivid acting made a profound 
impression. Afterwards at the Odeon and other theatres he 
passed from one success to another, until he put the final touch 
to his reputation as an artist by creating the part of Ruy Bias 
in Victor Hugo's play. On his return to the Porte St Martin he 
created the title-role in Balzac's Vaulrin, which was forbidden 
a second presentation, on account, it is said, of the resemblance 
of the actor's wig to the well-known toupet worn by Louis 
Philippe. His last appearance was at this theatre in 1873 as the 
old Jew in Marie Tudor, and he died at Paris on the 26th of 
January 1876. 

FREDERICKSBURG, a city of Spottsylvania county, Virginia, 
U.S.A., on the Rappahannock river, at the head of tide-water 

navigation, about 60 m. N. of Richmond and about 55 m. S-S-W. 
of Washington. Pop. (1890) 4528; (1900) 5068 (1621 negroes); 
(1010) 5874. It is served by the Potomac, Fredericksburg & 
Piedmont, and the Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac 
railways, and by several coasting steamship lines. The city is 
built on a series of terraces between the river and hills of con? 
siderable height. The river is here spanned by iron bridges, 
and just above the city is a dam 900 ft. long and 18 ft. high. 
By means of this dam and a canal good water-power is furnished, 
and the city's manufactures include flour, leather, shoes, woollens, 
silks, wagons, agricultural implements and excelsior (fine wood- 
shavings for packing or stuffing). The water- works, gas and 
electric-lighting plants are owned and operated by the munici- 
pality. At Fredericksburg are Fredericksburg College (founded 
in 1893; co-educational), which includes the Kenmore school 
for girls and the Saunders memorial school for boys (both 
preparatory) ; a Confederate and a National cemetery (the 
latter on Marye's Heights), a monument (erected in 1906) to 
General Hugh Mercer (c. 1720-1777), whose home for several 
years was here and who fell in the battle of Princeton; and a 
monument to the memory of Washington's mother, who died here 
in 1789 and whose home is still standing. Other buildings of 
interest are the old Rising Sun Hotel, a popular resort during 
Washington's time, and " Kenmore," the home of Colonel 
Fielding Lewis, who married a sister of Washington. The city 
was named in honour of Frederick, father of George III., and 
was incorporated in 1727, long after its first settlement; in 1871 
it was re-chartered by act of the General Assembly of Virginia. 
The battle of Fredericksburg in the American Civil War was 
fought on the 13th of December 1862 between the Union forces 
(Army of the Potomac) under Major-General A. E. Burnside 
and the Confederates (Army of Northern Virginia) under General 
R. E. Lee. In the middle of November, Burnside, newly ap- 
pointed to command the Army of the Potomac, had manoeuvred 
from the neighbourhood of Warrenton with a view to beginning 
an offensive move trom Fredericksburg and, as a preliminary, 
to seizing a foothold beyond the Rappahannock at or near that 
place. On arriving near Falmouth, however, he found that the 
means of crossing that he had asked for had not been forwarded 
from Washington, and he sat down to wait for them, while, 
on the other side, the Confederate army gradually assembled 
south of the Rappahannock in a strong position with the left 
on the river above Fredericksburg and the right near Hamilton's 
Crossing on the Richmond railway. On the 10th of December 
Burnside, having by now received his pontoons, prepared to 
cross the river and to attack the Confederate entrenched position 
on the heights beyond the town. The respective forces were 
Union 122,000, Confederate 79,000. Major-General E. V. 
Sumner, commanding the Federal right wing (II. and IX. 
corps), was to cross at Fredericksburg, Major-General W. B. 
Franklin with the left (I. and VI. corps) some miles below, while 
the centre (III. and V. corps) under Major-General Joseph 
Hooker was to connect the two attacks and to reinforce either 
at need. The Union artillery took position along the heights of 
the north bank to cover the crossing, and no opposition was 
encountered opposite Franklin's command, which formed up on 
the other side during the nth and 12th. Opposite Sumner, 
however, the Confederate riflemen, hidden in the gardens and 
houses of Fredericksburg, caused much trouble and considerable 
losses to the Union pioneers, and a forlorn hope of volunteers 
from the infantry had to be rowed across under fire before the 
enemy's skirmishers could be dislodged. Sumner's two corps 
crossed on the 1 2th. The battle took place next morning. 

Controversy has raged round Burnside's plan of action and 
in particular round his orders to Franklin, as to which it can only 
be said that whatever chance of success there was in so formidable 
an undertaking as attacking the well-posted enemy was thrown 
away through misunderstandings, and that nothing but misunder- 
standings could be expected from the vague and bewildering 
orders issued by the general in command. The actual battle can 
be described in a few words. Jackson held the right of Lee's 
line, Longstreet the left, both entrenched. Franklin; tied by 



his instructions, attacked with one division only, which a little 
later he supported by two more (I. corps, Major-General J. F. 
Reynolds) out of eight or nine available. His left flank was 
harassed by the Confederate horse artillery under the young and 
brilliant Captain John Pelham, and after breaking the first line 
of Stonewall Jackson's corps the assailants were in the end 
driven back with heavy losses. On the other flank, where part 
of Longstreet's corps held the low ridge opposite Fredericksburg 
called Marye's Heights, Burnside ordered in the II. corps under 
Major-General D. N. Couch about n a.m., and thenceforward 
division after division, on a front of little more than 800 yds., 
was sent forward to assault with the bayonet. The " Stone Wall " 
along the foot of Marye's was lined with every rifle of Longstreet 's 
corps that could find room to fire, and above them the Confederate 
guns fired heavily on the assailants, whose artillery, on the height 
beyond the river, was too far off to assist them. Not a man of 
the Federals reached the wall, though the bravest were killed 
a few paces from it, and Sumner's and most of Hooker's brigades 
were broken one after the other as often as they tried to assault. 
At night the wrecks of the right wing were withdrawn. Burnside 
proposed next day to lead the IX. corps, which he had formerly 
commanded, in one mass to the assault of the Stone Wall, but his 
subordinates dissuaded him, and on the night of the 15th the 
Army of the Potomac withdrew to its camps about Falmouth. 
The losses of the Federals were 12,650 men, those of the Con- 
federates 4200, little more than a third of which fell on Long- 
street's corps. 

See F. W. Palfrey, Antietam and Fredericksburg (New York, 1881) ; 
G. W. Redway, Fredericksburg (London, 1906) ; and G. F. R. 
Henderson, Fredericksburg (London, 1889). 

FREDERICTON, a city and port of entry of New Brunswick, 
Canada, capital of the province, situated on the St John river, 
84 m. from its mouth, and on the Canadian Pacific railway. 
It stands on a plain bounded on one side by the river, which is 
here f m. broad, and on the other by a range of hills which almost 
encircle the town. It is regularly built with long and straight 
streets, and contains the parliament buildings, government 
house, the Anglican cathedral, the provincial university and 
several other educational establishments. Fredericton is the 
chief commercial centre in the interior of the province, and has 
also a large trade in lumber. Its industries include canneries, 
tanneries and wooden ware factories. The river is navigable 
for large steamers up to the city, and above it by vessels of lighter 
draught. Two bridges, passenger and railway, unite the city 
with the towns of St Marye's and Gibson on the east side of the 
river, at its junction with the Nashwaak. The city was founded 
in 1785 by Sir Guy Carleton,and made the capital of the province, 
in spite of the jealousy of St John, on account of its superior 
strategical position. Pop. (1001) 71 17. 

FREOONIA, a village of Chautauqua county, New York, 
U.S.A., about 45 m. S.W. of Buffalo, and 3 m. from Lake Erie. 
Pop. (1900) 4127; (1905, state census) 5148; (1910 census) 5285. 
Fredonia is served by the Dunkirk, Allegheny Valley & Pittsburg 
railway, which connects at Dunkirk, 3 m. to the N., with the Erie, 
the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, the New York, Chicago & 
St Louis, and the Pennsylvania railways; and by electric 
railway to Erie, Buffalo and Dunkirk. It is the seat of a State 
Normal School. The Darwin R. Barker public library contained 
9700 volumes in 1908. Fredonia is situated in the grape-growing 
region of western New York, is an important shipping point for, 
grapes, and has large grape-vine and general nurseries. The 
making of wine and of unfermented grape-juice are important 
industries of the village. Among other manufactures are canned 
goods, coal dealers' supplies, and patent medicines. The first 
settlement here was made in 1804, and the place was called 
Canandaway until 181 7, when the present name was adopted. 
The village was incorporated in 1829. Fredonia was one of the 
first places in the United States, if not the first, to make use of 
natural gas for public purposes. Within the village limits, near 
a creek, whose waters showed the presence of gas, a well was sunk 
in 1821, and the supply of gas thus tapped was sufficient to light 
the streets of the village. Another well was sunk within the 

villagelimitsini858. About 1905 natural gas was again obtained 
by deep drilling near Fredonia and came into general use for 
heat, light and power. In the Fredonia Baptist church on the 
14th of December 1873 a Woman's Temperance Union was 
organized, and from this is sometimes dated the beginning of the 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union movement. 

FREDRIKSHALD (Frederikshald, Feiedrichshall), a 
seaport and garrison town of Norway, in Smaalenene ami 
(county), 85 m. by rail S. by E. of Christiania. Pop. (1900) 
1 1 ,948. It is picturesquely situated on both banks of the Tistedal 
river at its outflow to the Ide fjord, surrounded by several 
rocky eminences. The chief of these is occupied by the famous 
fortress Fredriksten, protected on three sides by precipices, 
founded by Frederick III. (1661), and mainly showing, in its 
present form, the works of Frederick V. (1766) and Christian 
VII. (1808). Between it and the smaller Gyldenlove fort a 
monument marks the spot where Charles XII. was shot in the 
trenches while besieging the town (17 18). The siege, which was 
then raised, is further commemorated by a monument to the 
brave defence of the brothers Peter and Hans Kolbjornsen. 
Fredrikshald is close to the Swedish frontier, and had previously 
(1660) withstood invasion, after which its name was changed 
from Halden to the present form in 1665 in honour of Frederick 
III. The town was almost totally destroyed by fire in 1759 
and 1826. The castle surrendered to the Swedish crown prince 
Bernadotte in 1814, and its capture was speedily followed by the 
conquest of- the kingdom and its union with Sweden. Fredriks- 
ha^fl is one of the principal ports of the kingdom for the export 
of timber. Marble of very fine quality and grain is extensively 
quarried and exported for architectural ornamentation and for 
furniture-making. Wood-pulp is also exported. The industries 
embrace granite quarries, wood-pulp factories, and factories for 
sugar, tobacco, curtains, travelling-bags, boots, &c. There 
are railway communications with Gothenburg and all parts of 
Sweden and regular coastal and steamer services. 

FREDRIKSTAD (Frederikstad), a seaport and manufactur- 
ing town of Norway in Smaalenene amt (county), 58 m. S. by E. 
of Christiania by the Christiania-Gothenburg railway. Pop. 
(1900) 14,553. It hes at the mouth and on the eastern shore of 
Christiania fjord, occupying both banks of the great river 
Glommen, which, descending from the richly-wooded district of 
Osterdal, floats down vast quantities of timber. The new town 
on the right bank is therefore a centre of the timber export trade, 
this place being the principal port in Norway for the export of 
pit-props, planed boards, and other varieties of timber. There 
is also a great industry in the making of red bricks, owing to the 
expansion of Christiania, Gothenburg and other towns. Granite 
is quarried and exported. Besides the large number of saw and 
planing mills, there are shipbuilding yards, engine and boiler 
works, cotton and woollen mills, and factories for acetic acid and 
naphtha. The harbour, which can be entered by vessels drawing 
14 ft., is kept open in winter by an ice-breaker. In the vicinity 
is the island Hanko, the most fashionable Norwegian seaside 
resort. The old town on the left bank was founded by Frederick 
II. in 1567. It was for a long time strongly fortified, and in 
1716 Charles XII. of Sweden madea vain attempt to capture it. 

FREE BAPTISTS, formerly called (but no longer officially) 
Freewiix Baptists, an American denomination holding anti- 
paedobaptist and anti-Calvinistic doctrines, and practically 
identical in creed with the General Baptists of Great Britain. 
Many of the early Baptist churches in Rhode Island and through- 
out the South were believers in " general redemption " (hence 
called " general " Baptists) ; and there was a largely attended 
conference of this Arminian branch of the church at Newport in 
1729. But the denomination known as " Free-willers " had its 
rise in 1779-1780, when anti-Calvinists in Loudon, Barrington 
and Canterbury, New Hampshire, seceded and were organized 
by Benjamin Randall (1749-1808), a native of New Hampshire. 
Randall was an itinerant missionary, who had been preaching 
for two years before his ordination in 1780; in the same year 
he was censured for " heterodox " teaching. The work of the 
church suffered a relapse after his death, and a movement to join 



the Freewill Baptists v/ith the " Christians," who were led by 
Elias Smith (1760-1846) and had been bitterly opposed by 
Randall, was nearly successful. Between 1820 and 1830 the 
denomination made considerable progress, especially in New 
England and the Middle West. The Freewill Baptists were 
joined in 1841 by many " open-communion Baptists " — those 
in the Carolinas who did not join the larger body distinguishing 
themselves by the name of Original Freewill Baptists — and soon 
afterwards by some of the General Baptists of NorthCarolina and 
some of the Six Principle Baptists of Rhode Island (who had 
added the " laying on of hands " to the Five Principles hitherto 
held); and the abbreviation of the denominational name to 
" Free Baptists " suggests their liberal policy — indeed open 
communion is the main if not the only hindrance to union with 
the " regular " Baptist Church. 

Colleges founded by the denomination, all co-educational, are: 
Hillsdale College, opened at Spring Harbor as Michigan Central 
College in 1844, and established at Hillsdale, Michigan, in 1855; 
Bates College, Lewiston, Maine, 1863, r *ow non-sectarian; Rio 
Grande College, Rio Grande, Ohio, 1^76; and Parker College, 
Winnebago City, Minnesota, openea in 1888. At the close of 
1909 there were 1294 ministers, 1303 churches, and 73,536 
members of the denomination in the United States. The Morn- 
ing Star of Boston, established in 1826, is the most prominent 
journal published by the church. In British North America, 
according to a Canadian census bulletin of 1902, there were, in 
1901, 24,229 Free Baptists, of whom 15,502 were inhabitants of 
New Brunswick, 8355 of Nova Scotia, 246 of Ontario, and 87 
of Quebec. The United Societies of Free Baptist Young People, 
an international organization founded in 1888, had in 1907 about 
15,000 members. At the close of 1907 the " Original Freewill 
Baptists " had 120 ministers, 167 churches, and 12,000 members, 
practically all in the Carolinas. 

See I. D. Stewart, History of the Free Will Baptists (Dover, N. H., 
1862) for 1780-1830, and his edition of the Minutes of the General 
Conference of the Free Will Baptist Connection (Boston, 1887) ; James 
B. Taylor, The Centennial Record of the Free Will Baptists (Dover, 
1881); John Buzzell, MemSir of Elder Benjamin Randall (Parson- 
field, Maine, 1827); and P. Richardson, " Randall and the Free 
Will Baptists," in The Christian Review, vol. xxiii. (Baltimore, 1858). 

FREEBENCH, in English law, the interest which a widow has 
in the copyhold lands of her husband, corresponding to dower 
in the case of freeholds. It depends upon the custom of the 
manor, but as a general rule the widow takes a third for her life 
of the lands of which her husband dies seised, but it may be an 
estate greater or less than a third. If the husband surrenders 
his copyhold and the surrenderee is admitted, or if he contracts 
for a sale, it will defeat the widow's freebench. As freebench is 
regarded as a continuation of the husband'., estate, the widow 
does not (except by special custom) require to be admitted. 

FREE CHURCH FEDERATION, a voluntary association of 
British Nonconformist churches for co-operation in religious, 
social and civil work. It was the outcome of a unifying tendency 
displayed during the latter part of the 19th century. About 
1890 the proposal that there should be a Nonconformist Church 
Congress analogous to the Anglican Church Congress was seriously 
considered, and the first was held in Manchester on the 7th of 
November 1892. In the following year it was resolved that the 
basis of representation should be neither personal (as in the 
Anglican Church Congress) nor denominational, but territorial. 
England and Wales have since been completely covered with a 
network of local councils, each of which elects its due proportion 
of representatives to the national gathering. This territorial 
arrangement eliminated all sectarian distinctions, and also the 
possibility of committing the different churches as such to any 
particular policy. The representatives of the local councils 
attend not as denominationalists but as Evangelical Free 
Churchmen. The name of the organization was changed from 
Congress to National Council as soon as the assembly ceased to 
be a fortuitous concourse of atoms, and consisted of duly 
appointed representatives from the local councils of every part 
of England. The local councils consist of representatives of the 
Congregational and Baptist Churches, the Methodist Churches, 

the Presbyterian Church of Engla nd , the Free Episcopal Churches, 
the Society of Friends, and such other Evangelical Churches as 
the National Council may at any time admit. The constitution 
states the following as the objects of the National Council: (a) 
To facilitate fraternal intercourse and co-operation among the 
Evangelical Free Churches; (b) to assist in the organization of 
local councils; (c) to encourage devotional fellowship and mutual 
counsel concerning the spiritual life and religious activities of the 
Churches; (d) to advocate the New Testament doctrine of the 
Church, and to defend the rights of the associated Churches; 
(e) to promote the application of the law of Christ in every 
relation of human life. Although the objects of the Free Church 
councils are thus in their nature and spirit religious rather than 
political, there are occasions on which action is taken on great 
national affairs. Thus a thorough-going opposition was offered 
to the Education Act of 1902 , and whole-hearted support accorded 
to candidates at the general election of 1906 who pledged them- 
selves to altering that measure. 

A striking feature of the movement is the adoption of the 
parochial system for the purpose of local work. Each of the 
associated churches is requested to look after a parish, not of 
course with any attempt to exclude other churches, but as having 
a special responsibility for those in that area who are not already 
connected with some existing church. Throughout the United 
Kingdom local councils are formed into federations, some fifty 
in number, which are intermediate between them and the 
national council. The local councils do what is possible to prevent 
overlapping and excessive competition between the churches. 
They also combine the forces of the local churches for evangelistic 
and general devotional work, open-air services, efforts on behalf 
of Sunday observance, and the prevention of gambling. Services 
are arranged in connexion with workhouses, hospitals and other 
public institutions. Social work of a varied character forms a 
large part of the operations of the local councils, and the Free 
Church Girls' Guild has a function similar to that of the Anglican 
Girls' Friendly Society. The national council engages in mission 
work on a large scale, and a considerable number of periodicals, 
hymn-books for special occasions, and works of different kinds 
explaining the history and ideals of the Evangelical Free 
Churches have been published. The churches represented 
in the National Council have 9966 ministers, 55,828 local 
preachers, 407,991 Sunday-school teachers, 3,416,377 Sunday 
scholars, 2,178,221 communicants, and sitting accommodation 
for 8,555,460. 

A remarkable manifestation of this unprecedented reunion 
was the fact that a committee of the associated churches prepared 
and published a catechism expressing the positive and funda- 
mental agreement of all the Evangelical Free Churches on the 
essential doctrines of Christianity (see The Contemporary Review, 
January 1 899) . The catechism represents substantially the creed 
of not less than 80,000,000 Protestants. It has been widely 
circulated throughout Great Britain, the British Colonies and 
the United States of America, and has also been translated into 
Welsh, French and Italian. 

The movement has spread to all parts of Australia, New 
Zealand, South Africa, Jamaica, the United States of America and 
India. It is perhaps necessary to add that it differs essentially 
from the Evangelical Alliance, inasmuch as its unit is not an 
individual, private Christian, but a definitely organized and 
yisible Church. The essential doctrine of the movement is a 
particular doctrine of churchmanship which, as explained in 
the catechism, regards the Lord Jesus Christ as the sole and 
Divine Head of every branch of the Holy Catholic Church 
throughout the world. For this reason those who do not accept 
the deity of Christ are necessarily excluded from the national 
council and its local constituent councils. 

FREE CHURCH OF ENGLAND, a Protestant episcopal church 
" essentially one with the established church of England, but 
free to go into any parish, to use a revised edition of the Book 
of Common Prayer, to associate the laity with the clergy in the 
government and work of the church, and to hold communion with 
Christians of other denominations." It was founded in. 1844 


7 1 

in opposition to the Tractarian movement, and embodies the 
distinctively evangelical elements of the Reformation. It pre- 
serves and maintains to the letter all that is Protestant and 
evangelical in the liturgy and services of the Anglican church, 
while its free constitution and revised formularies meet the needs 
of members of that communion who resent sacerdotal and 
ritualistic tendencies. There are two dioceses (northern and 
southern) each with a bishop, about 30 churches and ministers, 
and about 1300 members. 

FREE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. In one sense the Free 
Church of Scotland dated its existence from the Disruption of 
1843, in another it claimed to be the rightful representative of 
the National Church of Scotland (see Scotland, Church or) 
as it was reformed in 1560. 1 In the ecclesiastical history of 
Scotland the Free Churchman sees three great reforming periods. 
In his view these deserve to be called reforming on many 
accounts, but most especially because in them the independence 
of the church, her inherent scriptural right to exercise a spiritual 
jurisdiction in which she is responsible to her Divine Head alone, 
was both earnestly asserted and practically maintained. The 
first reformation extended from 1560, when the church freely 
held her first General Assembly, and of her own authority acted 
on the First Book of Discipline, to 1592, when her Presbyterian 
order was finally and fully ratified by the parliament. The second 
period began in 1638, when, after 20 years of suspended anima- 
tion, the Assembly once more shook off Episcopacy, and termin- 
ated in 1649, when the parliament of Scotland confirmed the 
church in her liberties in a larger and ampler sense than before. 
The third period began in 1834, when the Assembly made use 
of what the church believed to be her rights in passing the Veto 
and Chapel Acts. It culminated in the Disruption of 1843. 

The fact that the Church, as ied first by John Knox and after- 
wards by Andrew Melville, claimed an inherent right to exercise 
a spiritual jurisdiction is notorious. More apt to be overlooked 
is the comparative freedom with which that right was actually 
used by the church irrespective of state recognition. That recog- 
nition was not given until after the queen's resignation in 1567^ 
but, for several years before it came, the church had been holding 
her Assemblies and settling all questions of discipline, worship, 
and administration as they arose, in accordance with the first 
book of polity or discipline which had been drawn up in 1560. 
Further, in 1581 she, of her own motion, adopted a second book 
of a similar character, in which she expressly claimed an inde- 
pendent and exclusive jurisdiction or power in all matters 
ecclesiastical, " which flows directly from God and the Mediator 
Jesus Christ, and is spiritual, not having a temporal head on earth, 
but only Christ, the only king and governor of his church "; 
and this claim, though directly negatived in 1584 by the " Black 
Acts," which included an Act of Supremacy over estates spiritual 
and temporal, continued to be asserted by the Assemblies, 
until at last it also was practically allowed in the act of 1592. 3 
This legislation of 1592, however, did not long remain in force. 
An act of parliament in 1606, which " reponed, restored and 
reintegrated " the estate of bishops to their ancient dignities, 
prerogatives and privileges, was followed by several acts of 
various subservient assemblies, which, culminating in that of 
161 8, practically amounted to a complete surrender of jurisdiction 
by the church itself. For twenty years no Assemblies whatever 
were held. This interval must necessarily be regarded from the 
Presbyterian point of view as having been one of very deep 
depression. But a second reformation, characterized by great 

1 " It is her being free, not her being established, that constitutes 
the real historical and hereditary identity of the Reformed National 
Church of Scotland." See Act and Declaration, &c, of Free Assembly, 


2 In the act Anent the true and holy Kirk, and of those that are 
declared not to be of the same. This act was supplemented by that of 
1579, Anent the Jurisdiction of the Kirk. 

3 The Second Book of Discipline was not formally recognized in 
that act; but all former acts against " the jurisdiction and dis- 
cipline of the true Kirk as the same is used and exercised within the 
realm" were abolished; and all " liberties, privileges, immunities 
and freedoms whatsoever " previously granted were ratified and 

energy and vigour, began in 1638. The proceedings of the 
Assembly of that year, afterwards tardily and reluctantly 
acquiesced in by the state, finally issued in the acts of parliament 
of 1649, by which the Westminster standards were ratified, 
lay-patronage was abolished, and the coronation oath itself 
framed in accordance with the principles of Presbyterian church 
government. Another period of intense reaction soon set in. 
No Assemblies were permitted by Cromwell after 1653; and, 
soon after the Restoration, Presbytery was temporarily over- 
thrown by a series of rescissory acts. Nor was the Revolution 
Settlement of 1690 so entirely favourable to the freedom of the 
church as the legislation of 1649 had been. Prelacy. was abolished, 
and various obnoxious statutes were repealed, but the acts 
rescissory were not cancelled; presbyterianism was re-estab- 
lished, but the statutory recognition of the Confession of Faith 
took no notice of certain qualifications under which that docu- 
ment had originally been approved by the Assembly of 1647 ; 4 
the old rights of patrons were again discontinued, but the large 
powers which had been conferred on congregations by the act of 
1649 were not wholly restored. Nevertheless the great principle 
of a distinct ecclesiastical jurisdiction, embodied in the Con- 
fession of Faith, was accepted without reservation, and a Presby- 
terian polity effectively confirmed both then and at the ratifica- 
tion of the treaty of Union. This settlement, however, did not 
long subsist unimpaired. In 1712 the act of Queen Anne, restor- 
ing patronage to its ancient footing, was passed in spite of the 
earnest remonstrances of the Scottish people. For many years 
afterwards (until 1784) the Assembly continued to instruct each 
succeeding commission to make application to the king and the 
parliament for redress of the grievance. But meanwhile a new 
phase of Scottish ecclesiastical politics commonly known as 
Moderatism had been inaugurated, during the prevalence of 
which the church became even more indifferent than the lay 
patrons themselves to the rights of her congregations with regard 
to the " calling " of ministers. From the Free Church point of 
view, the period from which the secessions under Ebenezer 
Erskine and Thomas Gillespie are dated was also characterized 
by numerous other abuses on the Church's part which amounted 
to a practical surrender of the most important and distinctive 
principles of her ancient Presbyterian polity. 6 Towards the 
beginning of the present century there were many circumstances, 
both within and without the church, which conspired to bring 
about an evangelical and popular reaction against this reign of 
" Moderatism." The result was a protracted struggle, which is 
commonly referred to as the Ten Years' Conflict, and which has 
been aptly described as the last battle in the long war which for 
nearly 300 years had been waged within the church itself, between 
the friends and the foes of the doctrine of an exclusive ecclesi- 
astical jurisdiction. That final struggle may be said to have 
begun with the passing in 1834 of the " Veto " Act, by which it 
was declared to be a fundamental law of the church that no pastor 
should be intruded on a congregation contrary to the will of the 
people, 6 and by which it was provided that the simple dissent 
of a majority of heads of families in a parish should be enough to 
warrant a presbytery in rejecting a presentee. The question of 
the legality of this measure soon came to be tried in the civil 
courts; and it was ultimately answered in a sense unfavourable 
to the church by the decision (1838) of the court of session in 
the Auchterarder case, to the effect that a presbytery had no right 
to reject a presentee simply because the parishioners protested 
against his settlement, but was bound to disregard the veto (see 
Chalmers, Thomas). This decision elicited from the Assembly 

4 The most important of these had reference to the full right of a 
constituted church to the enjoyment of an absolutely unrestricted 
freedom in convening Assemblies. This very point on one occasion 
at least threatened to be the cause of serious misunderstandings 
between William and the people of Scotland. The difficulties were 
happily smoothed, however, by the wisdom and tact of William 

6 See Act and Declaration of Free Assembly, 185 1. 

6 This principle had been asserted even by an Assembly so late as 
that of 1736, and had been invariably presupposed in the " call," 
which had never ceased to be regarded as an indispensable pre- 
requisite for the settlement of a minister. 



of that year a new declaration of the doctrine of the spiritual 
independence of the church. The " exclusive jurisdiction of 
the civil courts in regard to the civil rights and emoluments 
secured by law to the church and the ministers thereof " was 
acknowledged without qualification; and continued implicit 
obedience to their decisions with reference to these rights and 
emoluments was pledged. At the same time it was insisted on 
" that, as is declared in the Confession of Faith of this National 
Established Church, ' the Lord Jesus Christ, as King and Head 
of the church, hath therein appointed a government in the hand 
of church officers distinct from the civil magistrate '; and that 
in all matters- touching the doctrine, discipline and government 
of the church her judicatories possess an exclusive jurisdiction, 
founded on the Word of God, which power ecclesiastical " (in 
the words of the Second Book of Discipline) " flows immediately 
from God and the Mediator the Lord Jesus Christ, and is spiritual, 
not having a temporal head on earth, but only Christ, the only 
spiritual King and Governor of His Kirk." And it was resolved 
to assert, and at all hazards defend, this spiritual jurisdiction, 
and firmly to enforce obedience to the same upon the office- 
bearers and members of the church. The decision of the court 
of session having been confirmed by the House of Lords early in 
1830, it was decided in the Assembly of that year that the 
church, while acquiescing in the loss of the temporalities at 
Auchterarder, should reaffirm the principle of non-intrusion as 
an integral part of the constitution of the Reformed Church 
of Scotland, and that a committee should be appointed to confer 
with the government with a view to the prevention, if possible, 
of any further collision between the civil and ecclesiastical 
authorities. While the conference with the government had no 
better result than an unsuccessful attempt at compromise by 
means of Lord Aberdeen's Bill, which embodied the principle 
of a dissent with reasons, still graver complications were arising 
out of the Marnoch and other cases. 1 In the circumstances it 
was resolved by the Assembly of 1842 to transmit to the queen, 
by the hands of the lord high commissioner, a " claim, declara- 
tion, and protest," complaining of the encroachments of the court 
of session, 2 and also an address praying for the abolition of 
patronage. The home secretary's answer (received in January 
1843) gave no hope of redress. Meanwhile the position of the 

1 According to the Free Church " Protest " of 1843 it was in these 
cases decidea(i) that the courts of the church were liable to be com- 
pelled to intrude ministers on reclaiming congregations; (2) that the 
civil courts had power to interfere with and interdict the preaching of 
the gospel and administration of ordinances as authorized and en- 
joined by the church ; (3) that the civil courts had power to suspend 
spiritual censures pronounced by the courts of the church, and to 
interdict their execution as to spiritual effects, functions and privi- 
leges ; (4) that deposed ministers, and probationers deprived of their 
licence, could be restored by the mandate of the civil courts to the 
spiritual office and status of which the church courts had deprived 
them; (5) that the right of membership in ecclesiastical courts 
could be determined by the civil courts; (6) that the civil courts 
had power to supersede the majority of a church court of the Estab- 
lishment in regard to the exercise of its spiritual functions as a church 
court, and to authorize the minority to exercise the said functions 
in opposition to the court itself and to the superior judicatories of 
the church; (7) that processes of ecclesiastical discipline could be 
arrested by the civil courts; and (8) that without the sanction of the 
civil courts no increased provision could be made for the spiritual care 
of a parish, although such provision left all civil rights and patri- 
monial interests untouched. 

2 The narrative and argument of this elaborate and able document 
cannot be reproduced here. In substance it is a claim " as of right " 
on behalf of the church and of the nation and people of Scotland that 
the church shall freely possess and enjoy her liberties, government, 
discipline, rights and privileges according to law, and that she shah 
be protected therein from the foresaid unconstitutional and illegal 
encroachments of the said court of session, and her people securedin 
their Christian and constitutional rights and liberties. This claim is 
followed by the " declaration " that the Assembly cannot intrude 
ministers on reclaiming congregations, or carry on the government 
of Christ's church subject to the coercion of the court of session ; and 
by the " protest " that all acts of the parliament of Great Britain 
passed without the consent of the Scottish church and nation, in 
alteration or derogation of the government, discipline, rights and 
privileges of the church, as also all sentences of courts in contra- 
ventionof said government, discipline, rights and privileges, "are and 
shall be in themselves void and null, and of no legal force or effect." 

evangelical party had been further hampered by the decision of 
the court of session declaring the ministers of chapels of ease to 
be unqualified to sit in any church court. A final appeal to 
parliament by petition was made in March 1843, when, by a 
majority of 135 (211 against 76), the House of Commons declined 
to attempt any redress of the grievances of the Scottish Church. 3 
At the first session of the following General Assembly (18th May 
1843) the reply of the non-intrusion party was made in a protest, 
signed by upwards of 200 commissioners, to the effect that since, 
in their opinion, the recent decisions of the civil courts, and the 
still more recent sanction of these decisions by the legislature, 
had made it impossible at that time to hold a free Assembly of 
the church as by law established, they therefore "protest that it 
shall be lawful for us, and such other commissioners as may 
concur with us, to withdraw to a separate place of meeting, for the 
purpose of taking steps for ourselves and all who adhere to us — 
maintaining with us the Confession of Faith and standards of 
the Church of Scotland as heretofore understood — for separating 
in an orderly way from the Establishment, and thereupon 
adopting such measures as may be competent to us, in humble 
dependence on God's grace and the aid of His Holy Spirit, for 
the advancement of His glory, the extension of the gospel of our 
Lord and Saviour, and the administration of the affairs of Christ's 
house according to His holy word. " The reading of this document 
was followed by the withdrawal of the entire non-intrusion party 
to another place of meeting, where the first Assembly of the Free 
Church was constituted, with Dr Thomas Chalmers as moderator. 
This Assembly sat from the 18th to the 30th of May, and trans- 
acted a large amount of important business. On Tuesday the 
23rd, 396 4 ministers and professors publicly adhibited their 
names to the Act of Separation and deed of demission by which 
they renounced all claim to the benefices they had held in con- 
nexion with the Establishment, declaring them to be vacant, and 
consenting to their being dealt with as such. By this impressive 
proceeding the signatories voluntarily surrendered an annual 
income amounting to fully £100,000. 

The first care of the voluntarily disestablished church was to 
provide incomes for her clergy and places of worship for her 
people. As early as 1841 indeed the leading principle of a 
" sustentation fund " for the support of the ministry had been 
announced by Dr Robert Smith Candlish; and at " Convocation," 
a private unofficial meeting of the members of the evangelical 
or non-intrusion party held in November 1842, Dr Chalmers 
was prepared with a carefully matured scheme according to which 
" each congregation should do its part in sustaining the whole, 
and the whole should sustain each congregation." Between 
November 1842 and May 1843, 647 associations had been 
formed; and at the first Assembly it was announced that up- 
wards of £17,000 had already been contributed. At the close of 
the first financial year (1843-1844) it was reported that the fund 
had exceeded £61,000. It was participated in by 583 ministers; 
and 470 drew the full equal dividend of £105. Each successive 
year showed a steady increase in the gross amount of the fund; 
but owing to an almost equally rapid increase of the number of 
new ministerial charges participating in its benefits, the stipend 
payable to each minister did riot for many years reach the sum 
of £130 which had been aimed at as a minimum. Thus in 1844- 
1845 the fund had risen to £76,180, but the ministers had also 
increased to 627, and the equal dividend therefore was only £122. 
During the first ten years the annual income averaged £84,057; 
during the next decade £108,643; an d during the third £130,246. 
The minimum of £150 was reached at last in 1868; and subse- 
quently the balance remaining after that minimum had been 
provided was treated as a surplus fund, and distributed among 
those ministers whose congregations have contributed at 
certain specified rates per member. In 1878 the total amount 
received for this fund wa"s upwards of £177,000; in this 1075 
ministers participated. The full equal dividend of £157 was 
paid to 766 ministers; and additional grants of £36 and £18 

3 The Scottish members voted with the minority in the proportion 
of 25 to 12. 

4 The number ultimately rose to 474. 



were paid out of the surplus fund to 632 and 129 ministers 

To provide for the erection of the buildings which, it was 
foreseen, would be necessary, a general building fund, in which 
all should share alike, was also organized, and local building 
funds were as far as possible established in each parish, with the 
result that at the first Assembly a sum of £104,776 was reported 
as already available. By May 1844 a further sum of £123,060 
had been collected, and 470 churches were reported as completed 
or nearly so. In the following year £131,737 was raised and 
60 additional churches were built. At the end of four years 
considerably more than 700 churches had been provided. 

During the winter session 1 843-1 844 the divinity students 
who had joined the Free Church continued their studies under 
Dr Chalmers and Dr David Welsh (1793-1845); and at the 
Assembly of 1844 arrangements were made for the erection of 
suitable collegiate buildings. The New College, Edinburgh, 
was built in 1847 at a cost of £46,506; and divinity halls were 
subsequently set up also in Glasgow and Aberdeen. In 1878 
there were 13 professors of theology, with an aggregate of 230 
students, — the numbers at Edinburgh, Glasgow and Aberdeen 
respectively being 129, 69 and 32. 

A somewhat unforeseen result of the Disruption was the 
necessity for a duplicate system of elementary schools. At 
the 1843 Assembly it was for the first time announced by Dr 
Welsh that '" schools to a certain extent must be opened to afford 
a suitable sphere of occupation for parochial and still more for 
private teachers of schools, who are threatened with deprivation 
of their present office on account of their opinions upon the church 
question." The suggestion was taken up with very great energy, 
with the result that in May 1845, 280 schools had been set up, 
while in May 1847 this number had risen to 513, with an attend- 
ance of upwards of 44,000 scholars. In 1869 it was stated in an 
authoritative document laid before members of parliament 
that at that time there were connected with and supported by 
the Free Church 598 schools (including two normal schools), 
with 633 teachers and 64,115 scholars. The school buildings 
had been erected at a cost of £220,000, of which the committee 
of privy council had contributed £35,000, while the remainder 
had been raised by voluntary effort. Annual payments made I 
to teachers, &c, as at 1869, amounted to £16,000. In accordance 1 
with certain provisions of the Education Act of 1872 most of the 
schools of the Free Church were voluntarily transferred, without 
compensation, to the local school boards. The normal schools 
are now transferred to the state. 

It has been seen already that during the period of the Ten 
Years' Conflict the non-intrusion party strenuously denied 
that in any one respect it was departing from acknowledged 
principles of the National Church. It continued to do so after the 
Disruption. In 1846, however, it was found to have become 
necessary, " in consequence of the late change in the outward 
condition of the church," to amend the " questions and formula " 
to be used at the licensing of probationers and the ordination 
of office-bearers. These were amended accordingly; and at the 
same time it was declared that, " while the church firmly main- 
tains the same scriptural principles as to the duties of nations 
and their rulers in reference to true religion and the Church of 
Christ for which she has hitherto contended, she disclaims in- 
tolerant or persecuting principles, and does not regard her 
Confession of Fai th , or any portion thereof when fairly interpreted, 
as favouring intolerance or persecution, or consider that her 
office-bearers by subscribing it profess any principles inconsistent 
with liberty of conscience and the right of private judgment." 
The main difference between the " formula " of the Free Church 
and that of the Established Church (as at the year 1900) was 
that the former referred to the Confession of Faith simply as 
" approven by General Assemblies of this Church," while the 
latter described it as " approven by the General Assemblies of this 
National Church, and ratified by law in the year 1690, and fre- 
quently confirmed by divers Acts of Parliament since that time." 
The former inserted an additional clause, — " I also approve of 
the general principles respecting the jurisdiction of the church, 

and her subjection to Christ as her only Head, which are con- 
tained in the Claim of Right and in the Protest referred to in the 
questions already put to me "; and also added the words which 
are here distinguished by italics, — " And I promise that through 
the grace of God I shall firmly and constantly adhere to the same, 
and to the utmost of my power shall in my station assert, 
maintain, and defend the said doctrine, worship, discipline 
and government of this church by kirk-sessions, presbyteries, 
provincial synods, and general assemblies, together with the 
liberty and exclusive jurisdiction thereof; and that I shall, in my 
practice, conform myself to the said worship and submit to the 
said discipline [and] government, and exclusive jurisdiction, and 
not endeavour directly or indirectly the prejudice or subversion 
of the same." In the year 185 1 an act and declaration anent the 
publication of the subordinate standards and other authoritative 
documents of the Free Church of Scotland was passed, in which 
the historical fact is recalled that the Church of Scotland had 
formally consented to adopt the Confession of Faith, catechisms, 
directory of public worship, and form of church government agreed 
upon by the Westminster Assembly ; and it is declared that 
" these several formularies, as ratified, with certain explanations, 
by divers Acts of Assembly in the years 1645, 1646, and particu- 
larly in r647, this church continues till this day to acknowledge 
as her subordinate standards of doctrine, worship and govern- 
ment." l 

In 1858 circumstances arose which, in the opinion of many, 
seemed fitted to demonstrate to the Free Church that her freedom 
was an illusion, and that all her sacrifices had been made in vain. 
John Macmillan, minister of Cardross, accused of immorality, 
had been tried and found guilty by the Free Presbytery of 
Dumbarton. Appeal having been taken to the synod, an attempt 
was there made to revive one particular charge, of which he had 
been finally acquitted by the presbytery; and this attempt was 
successful in the General Assembly. That ultimate court of 
review did not confine itself to the points appealed, but went 
into the merits of the whole case as it had originally come before 
the presbytery. The result was a sentence of suspension. 
Macmillan, believing that the Assembly had acted with some 
irregularity, applied to the court of session for an interdict 
against the execution of that sentence; and for this act he was 
summoned to the bar of the Assembly to say whether or not 
it was the case that he had thus appealed. Having answered 
in the affirmative, he was deposed on the spot. Forthwith 
he raised a new action (his previous application for an interdict 
had been refused) concluding for reduction of the spiritual 
sentence of deposition and for substantial damages. The 
defences lodged by the Free Church were to the effect that the 
civil courts had no right to review and reduce spiritual sentences, 
or to decide whether the General Assembly of the' Free Church 
had acted irregularly or not. Judgments adverse to the defenders 
were delivered on these points; and appeals were taken to the 
House of Lords. But before the case could be heard there, 
the lord president took an opportunity in the court of session 
to point out to the pursuer that, inasmuch as the particular 
General Assembly against which the action was brought had 
ceased to exist, it could not therefore be made in any circum- 
stances to pay damages, and that the action of reduction of the 
spiritual sentence, being only auxiliary to the claim of damages, 
ought therefore to be dismissed. He further pointed out that 
Macmillan might obtain redress in another way, should he be 
able to prove malice against individuals. Very soon after this 
deliverance of the lord president, the case as it had stood against 
the Free Church was withdrawn, and Macmillan gave notice of 
an action of a wholly different kind. But this last was not per- 
severed in. The appeals which had been taken to the House of 
Lords were, in these circumstances, also departed from by 
the Free Church. The case did not advance sufficiently to show 

1 By this formal recognition of the qualifications to the Confession 
of Faith made in 1647 the scruples of the majority of the Associate 
Synod of Original Seceders were removed, and 27 ministers, alone 
with a considerable number of their people, joined the Free Church 
in the following year. 



how far the courts of law would be prepared to go in the direction 
of recognizing voluntary tribunals and a kind of secondary 
exclusive jurisdiction founded on contract. 1 But, whether 
recognized or not, the church for her part continued to believe 
that she had an inherent spiritual jurisdiction, and remained 
unmoved in her determination to act in accordance with that 
resolution " notwithstanding of whatsoever trouble or persecu- 
tion may arise." 2 

In 1863 a motion was made and unanimously carried in the 
Free Church Assembly for the appointment of a committee to 
confer with a corresponding committee of the United Presby- 
terian Synod, and with the representatives of such other dis- 
established churches as might be willing to meet and deliberate 
with a view to an incorporating union. Formal negotiations 
between the representatives of these two churches were begun 
shortly afterwards, which resulted in a report laid before the 
following Assembly. From this document it appeared that the 
committees of the two churches were not at one on the question 
as to the relation of the civil magistrate to the church. While on 
the part of the Free Church it was maintained that he " may 
lawfully acknowledge, as being in accordance with the Word of 
God, the creed and jurisdiction of the church," and that " it is 
his duty, when necessary and expedient, to employ the national 
resources in aid of the church, provided always that in doing so, 
while reserving to himself full control over the temporalities 
which are his own gift, he abstain from all authoritative inter- 
ference in the internal government of the church," it was declared 
by the committee of the United Presbyterian Church that, 
'• inasmuch as the civil magistrate has no authority in spiritual 
things, and as the employment of force in such matters is opposed 
to the spirit and precepts of Christianity, it is not within his 
province to legislate as to what is true in religion, to prescribe 
a creed or form of worship to his subjects, or to endow the church 
from national resources. ' ' In other words, while the Free Church 
maintained that in certain circumstances it was lawful and even 
incumbent on the magistrate to endow the church and on the 
church to accept his endowment, the United Presbyterians main- 
tained that in no case was this lawful either for the one party or for 
the other. Thus in a very short time it had been made perfectly 
evident that a union between the two bodies, if accomplished 
at all, could only be brought about on the understanding that 
the question as to the lawfulness of state endowments should 
be an open one. The Free Church Assembly, by increasing 
majorities, manifested a readiness for union, even although 
unanimity had not been attained on that theoretical point. 
But there was a minority which did not sympathize in this 
readiness, and after ten years of fruitless effort it was in 1873 
found to be expedient that the idea of union with the United 
Presbyterians should for the time be abandoned. Other negotia- 
tions, however, which had been entered upon with the Reformed 
Presbyterian Church at a somewhat later date proved more 
successful; and a majority of the ministers of that church with 
their congregations were united with the Free Church in 1876. 

(J. S. Bl.) 
In the last quarter of the 19th century the Free Church con- 
tinued to be the most active, theologically, of the Scottish 
Churches. The College chairs were almost uniformly filled by 
advanced critics or theologians, inspired more or less by Professor 
A. B. Davidson. Dr A. B. Bruce, author of The Training of the 
Twelve, &c, was appointed to the chair of apologetics and New 
Testament exegesis in the Glasgow College in 1875; Henry 
Drummond (author of Natural Law in the Spiritual World, &c.) 
was made lecturer in natural science in the same college in 1877 
and became professor in 1884; and Dr George Adam Smith 
(author of The Twelve Prophets, &c.) was called to the Hebrew 
chair in 1892. Attempts were made between 1890 and 1895 to 
bring all these professors except Davidson (similar attacks 
were also made on Dr Marcus Dods, afterwards principal of the 

1 See Taylor Innes, Law of Creeds in Scotland, p. 258 seq. 

8 The language of Dr Buchanan, for example, in i860 was {mutatis 
mutandis) the same as that which he had employed in 1838 in moving 
the Independence resolution already referred to. 

New College, Edinburgh) to the bar of the Assembly for unsound 
teaching or writing; but in every case these were abortive, 
the Assembly never taking any step beyond warning the accused 
that their primary duty was to teach and defend the church's 
faith as embodied in the confession. In 1892 the Free Church, 
following the example 6f the United Presbyterian Church and 
the Church of Scotland (1889), passed a Declaratory Act relaxing 
the stringency of subscription to the confession, with the result 
that a small number of ministers and congregations, mostly in the 
Highlands, severed their connexion with the church and formed 
the Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland, on strictly and 
straitly orthodox lines. In 1907 this body had twenty congrega- 
tions and twelve ministers. 

The Free Church always regarded herself as a National Church, 
and during this period she sought actively to be true to that 
character by providing church ordinances for the increasing 
population of Scotland and applying herself to the new problems 
of non-church-going, and of the changing habits of the people. 
Her Assembly's committee on religion and morals worked 
toward the same ends as the similar organization of the Estab- 
lished Church, and in her, as in the other churches, the standard 
of parochial and congregational activity was raised and new 
methods of operation devised. She passed legislation on the 
difficult problem of ridding the church of inefficient ministers. 
The use of instrumental music was sanctioned in Free Churches 
during this period. An association was formed in 1891 to pro- 
mote the ends of edification, order and reverence in the public 
services of the church, and published in 1898 A New Directory 
for Public Worship which does not provide set forms of prayer, 
but directions as to the matter of prayer in the various services. 
The Free Church took a large share in the study of hymnology 
and church music, which led to the production of The Church 
Hymnary. From 1885101895 much of the energy of all the Presby- 
terian churches was absorbed by the disestablishment agitation. 
In the former year the Free Church, having almost entirely 
shed the establishment principle on which it was founded, began 
to rival the United Presbyterian Church in its resolutions calling 
for the disestablishment of the Church of Scotland. In spite of 
the offers of the Establishment Assembly to confer with the 
dissenting churches about union, the assaults upon its status 
waxed in vigour, till in 1893 the Free Church hailed the result of 
the general election as a verdict of the constituencies in favour 
of disestablishment, and insisted upon the government of the day 
taking up Sir Charles Cameron's bill. 

During the last four or five years of the century the Free and 
United Presbyterian churches, which after the failure of their 
union negotiations in 1873 had been connected together by a 
Mutual Eligibility Act enabling a congregation of one church 
to call a minister from the other, devoted their energy to the 
arrangement of an incorporating union. The Synod of the 
United Presbyterian Church resolved in 1896 to " take steps 
towards union," and in the following year the Free Assembly 
responded by appointing a committee to confer with a committee 
of the other church. The joint committee discovered a "remark- 
able and happy agreement " between the doctrinal standards, 
rules and methods of the two bodies, and with very little con- 
cessions, on either side a common constitution and common 
"questions and formula" for the admission of ministers and 
office-bearers were arranged. A minority, always growing 
smaller, of the Free Church Assembly, protested against the pro- 
posed union, and threatened if it were carried through to test 
its legality in the courts. To meet this opposition, the suggestion 
is understood to have been made that an act of parliament 
should be applied for to legalize the union ; but this was not done, 
and the union was carried through on the understanding that 
the question of the lawfulness of church establishments should 
be an open one. 

The supreme courts of the churches met for the last time in 
their respective places of meeting on the 30th of October 1900, 
and on the following day the joint meeting took place at 
which the union was completed, and the United Free Church 
of Scotland (q.v.) entered on its career. The protesting and 



dissenting minority at once claimed to be the Free Church. They 
met outside the Free Assembly Hall on the 31st of October, and, 
failing to gain admission to it, withdrew to another hall, where 
they elected Mr Colin Bannatyne their moderator and held the 
remaining sittings of the Assembly. It was reported that between 
16,000 and 1 7,000 names had been received of persons adhering to 
the anti-unionist principle. At the Assembly of 1901 it was 
stated that the Free Church had twenty-five ministers and at 
least sixty-three congregations. The character of the church is 
indicated by the fact that its office-bearers were the faithful 
survivors of the decreasing minority of the Old Free Church, 
which had protested against the disestablishment resolutions, 
against the relaxation of subscription, against toleration of the 
teaching of the Glasgow professors, and against the use in worship 
of organs or of human hymns. Her congregations were mostly 
in the Gaelic-speaking districts of Scotland. She was confronted 
with a very arduous undertaking; her congregations grew in 
number, but were far from each other and there were not nearly 
enough ministers. The Highlands were filled, by the Union, 
with exasperation and dispeace which could not soon subside. 
The church met with no sympathy or assistance at the hands 
of the United Free Church, and her work was conducted at first 
under considerable hardships, nor was her position one to appeal 
to the general popular sentiment of Scotland. But the little 
church continued her course with indomitable courage and 
without any compromise of principle. The Declaratory Act of 
1892 was repealed after a consultation of presbyteries, and the old 
principles as to worship were declared. A professor was obliged 
to withdraw a book he had written, in which the results of 
criticism, with regard to the Synoptic Gospels, had been accepted 
and applied. The desire of the Church of Scotland to obtain 
relaxation of her formula was declared to make union with her 
impossible. Along with this unbending attitude, signs of material 
growth were not wanting. The revenue of the church increased; 
the grant from the sustentation fund was in 1901 only £75, but 
from 1903 onwards it was £167. 

The decision of the House of Lords in 1904 did not bring the 
trials of the Free Church to an end. In the absence of any 
arrangement with the United Free Church, she could only gain 
possession of the property declared to belong to her by an 
application in each particular case to the Court of Session, and a 
series of law-suits began which were trying to all parties. In 
the year 1905 the Free Church Assembly met in the historic 
Free Church Assembly Hall, but it did not meet there again. 
Having been left by the awards of the commission without any 
station in the foreign mission field, the Free Church resolved to 
start a foreign mission of her own. The urgent task confronting 
the church was that of supplying ordinances to her congregations. 
The latter numbered 200 in 1907, and the church had as yet only 
74 ordained ministers, so that many of the manses allocated to 
her by the commissioners were not yet occupied, and catechists 
and elders were called to conduct services where possible. The 
gallant stand this little church had made for principles which 
were no longer represented by any Presbyterian church outside 
the establishment attracted to her much interest and many 
hopes that she might be successful in her endeavours to do some- 
thing for the religious life of Scotland. 
See Scotland, Church of, for bibliography and statistics. (A.M. *) 
FREEDMEN'S BUREAU (officially the Bureau of Freedmen, 
Refugees and Abandoned Lands), a bureau created in the 
United States war department by an act of Congress, 3rd of March 
1865, to last one year, but continued until 1872 by later acts 
passed over the president's veto. Its establishment was due 
partly to the fear entertained by the North that the Southerners 
if left to deal with the blacks would attempt to re-establish 
some form of slavery, partly to the necessity for extending relief 
to needy negroes and whites in the lately conquered South, 
and partly to the need of creating some commission or bureau 
to take charge of lands confiscated in the South. During the 
Civil War a million negroes fell into the hands of the Federals 
and had to be cared for. Able-bodied blacks were enlisted in the 
army, and the women, children and old men were settled in large 

camps on confiscated Southern property, where they were cared 
for alternately by the war department and by the treasury 
department until the organization of the Freedmen's Bureau. 
At the head of the bureau was a commissioner, General O. O. 
Howard, and under him in each Southern state was an assistant 
commissioner with a corps of local superintendents, agents 
and inspectors. The officials had the broadest possible authority 
in all matters that concerned the blacks. The work of the bureau 
may be classified as follows: (1) distributing rations and medical 
supplies among the blacks; (2) establishing schools for them and 
aiding benevolent societies to establish schools and churches; 
(3) regulating labour and contracts; (4) taking charge of con- 
fiscated lands; and (5) administering justice in cases in which 
blacks were concerned. For several years the ex-slaves were 
under the almost absolute control of the bureau. Whether this 
control had a good or bad effect is still disputed, the Southern 
whites and many Northerners holding that the results of the 
bureau's work were distinctly bad, while others hold that much 
good resulted from its work. There is now no doubt, however, 
that while most of the higher officials of the bureau were good 
men, the subordinate agents were generally without character 
or judgment and that their interference between the races caused 
permanent discord. Much necessary relief work was done, 
but demoralization was also caused by it, and later the institution 
was used by its officials as a means of securing negro votes. 
In educating the blacks the bureau made some progress, but the 
instruction imparted by the missionary teachers resulted in 
giving the ex-slaves notions of liberty and racial equality that led 
to much trouble, finally resulting in the hostility of the whites to 
negro education. The secession of the blacks from the white 
churches was aided and encouraged by the bureau. The whole 
field of labour and contracts was covered by minute regulations, 
which, good in theory, were absurd in practice, and which failed 
altogether, but not until labour had been disorganized for several 
years. The administration of justice by the bureau agents 
amounted simply to a ceaseless persecution of the whites who had 
dealings with the blacks, and bloody conflicts sometimes resulted. 
The law creating the bureau provided for the division of the 
confiscated property among the negroes, and though carried 
out only in parts of South Carolina, Florida and Georgia, it caused 
the negroes to believe that they were to be cared for at the 
expense of their former masters. This belief made them subject 
to swindling schemes perpetrated by certain bureau agents and 
others who promised to secure lands for them. When negro 
suffrage was imposed by Congress upon the Southern States, the 
bureau aided the Union League (q.v.) in organizing the blacks into 
a political party opposed to the whites. A large majority of the 
bureau officials secured office through their control of the blacks. 
The failure of the bureau system and its discontinuance in the 
midst of reconstruction without harm to the blacks, and the 
intense hostility of the Southern whites to the institution caused 
by the irritating conduct of bureau officials, are indications that 
the institution was not well conceived nor wisely administered. 

See P. S. Pierce, The Freedmen's Bureau (Iowa City, 1904) ; 
Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction (Washington, 1866.) ; 
W. L. Fleming (ed.), Documents relating to Reconstruction (Cleveland, 
O., 1906) ; W. L. Fleming, Civil War and Reconstruction in Alabama 
(New York, 1905) ; and James W. Garner, Reconstruction in Missis- 
sippi (New York, 1901). • (W. L. F.) 

FREEHOLD, a town and the county-seat of Monmouth county, 
New Jersey, U.S.A., in the township of Freehold, about 25 m. 
E. by N. of Trenton. Pop. (1890) 2932; (1900) 2934, of whom 
215 were foreign-born and 126 were negroes; (1905) 3064; (1910) 
3233. Freehold is served by the Pennsylvania and the Central 
of New Jersey railways. It is the trade centre of one of the most 
productive agricultural districts of the state and has various 
manufactures, including carriages, carpets and rugs, files, shirts, 
underwear, and canned beans and peas. The town is the seat 
of two boarding schools for boys: the Freehold Military School 
and the New Jersey Military Academy (chartered, 1900; 
founded in 1844 as the Freehold Institute). One of the resi- 
dences in the town dates from 1755. A settlement was made 
in the township about 1650, and the township was incorporated 

7 6 


in 1 693 . In 1 7 1 s the town was founded and was made the county- 
seat; it was long commonly known (from the county) as Mon- 
mouth Court-House, but afterwards took (from the township) 
the name Freehold, and in 1869 it was incorporated as the Town 
of Freehold. An important battle of the War of Independence, 
known as the battle of Monmouth, was fought near the court- 
house on the 28th of June 1778. A short distance N.W. of the 
court-house is a park in which there is a monument, unveiled 
on the 13th of November 1884 in commemoration of the battle; 
the base is of Quincy granite and the shaft is of Concord granite. 
Surmounting the shaft is a statue representing " Liberty 
Triumphant" (the height to the top of which is about 100 ft.). 
The monument is adorned with five bronze reliefs, designed and 
modelled by James E. Kelly (b. 1855); one of these reliefs 
represents " Molly Pitcher " (d. 1832), a national heroine, who, 
when her husband (John C. Hays), an artillerist, was rendered 
insensible during the battle, served the gun in his place and 
prevented its capture by the British. 1 Joel Parker (1816- 
1888), governor of New Jersey in 1863-1866 and 1872-1875, was 
long a resident of Freehold, and the erection of the monument 
was largely due to his efforts. A bronze tablet on a boulder 
in front of the present court-house, commemorating the old court- 
house, used asa hospital in the battle of Monmouth, was unveiled 
in 1907. Freehold was the birthplace and home of Dr Thomas 
Henderson (1 743-1824), a Whig or Patriot leader in New Jersey, 
an officer in the War of Independence, and a member of the 
Continental Congress in 17 79-1 780 and of the national House of 
Representatives in 1795-1797. 

The name Freehold was first used of a Presbyterian church 
established about 1692 by Scottish exiles who came to East 
Jersey in 1682-1685 and built what was called the " Old 
Scots' Church " near the present railway station of Wickatunk 
in Marlboro' township, Monmouth county. In this church, in 
December 1706, John Boyd (d. 1709) was ordained — the first 
recorded Presbyterian ordination in America. The church was 
the first regularly constituted Presbyterian church. No trace 
of the building now remains in the burying-ground where 
Boyd was interred, and where the Presbyterian Synod of New 
Jersey in 1900 raised a granite monument to his memory; his 
tombstone is preserved by the Presbyterian Historical Society in 
Philadelphia. John Tennent (1706-1732) became pastor of the 
Freehold church in 1730, when a new church was built by the 
Old Scots congregation on White Hill in the present township of 
Manalapan (then a part of Freehold township) , near the railway 
station and village called Tennent; his brother William (1705- 
1 777)i whose trance, in which he thought he saw the glories of 
heaven, was a matter of much discussion in his time, was pastor 
ini733-i777- In 1751-1753 thepresent" Old Tennent Church," 
then called the Freehold Church, was erected on (or near) the 
same site as the building of 1730; in it Whitefield preached and 
in the older building David Brainerd and his Indian converts met. 
In 1859 this church (whose corporate name is " The First Presby- 
terian Church of the County of Monmouth ") adopted the name 
of Tennent, partly to distinguish it from the Presbyterian church 
organized at Monmouth Court-House (now Freehold) in 1838. 

See Frank R. Symmes, History of the Old Tennent Church (2nd 
ed., Cranbury, New Jersey, 1904). 

FREEHOLD, in the English law of real property, an estate in 
land, not being less than an estate for life. An estate for a term 
of years, no matter how long, was considered inferior in dignity 
to an estate for life, and unworthy of a freeman (see Estate). 
" Some time before the reign of Henry II., but apparently not 
so early as Domesday, the expression liberum tenementum was 
introduced to designate land held by a freeman by a free tenure. 
Thus freehold tenure is the sum of the rights and duties which 
constitute the relation of a free tenant to his lord." 2 In this 

1 Her maiden name was Mary Ludwig. " Molly Pitcher " was 
a nickname given to her by the soldiers in reference to her carrying 
water to soldiers overcome by heat in the battle of Monmouth. She 
married Hays in 1769; Hays died soon after the war, and later she 
married one George McCauley. She lived for more than forty 
years at Carlisle, Penn., where a monument was erected to her 
memory in 1876. 

* Digby's History of the Law of Real Property. 

sense freehold is distinguished from copyhold, which is a tenure 
having its origin in the relation of lord and villein (see Copyhold). 
Freehold is also distinguished from leasehold, which is an estate 
for a fixed number of years only. By analogy the interest of a 
person who holds an office for life is sometimes said to be a freehold 
interest. The term customary freeholds is applied to a kind of 
copyhold tenure in the north of England, viz. tenure by copy 
of court-roll, but not, as in other cases, expressed to be at the 
will of the lord. 

FREELAND, a borough of Luzerne county, Pennsylvania, 
U.S.A., about 20 m. S. of Wilkes-Barre, in the E. part of the state. 
Pop. (1890) 1730; (1900) 5254 (1339 foreign-born, many being 
Slavs); (191 o) 6197. Freeland is served by the Lehigh 
Valley railway and by electric railway to Upper Lehigh (r m. 
distant, served by the Central Railroad of New Jersey) and 
to other neighbouring places. The borough is built on Broad 
Mountain, nearly 2000 ft. above sea-level, and the chief industry 
is the mining of coal at the numerous surrounding collieries. 
Freeland is the seat of the Mining and Mechanical Institute 
of the Anthracite Region, chartered in 1894, modelled after the 
German Sleigerschnlen, with elementary and secondary depart- 
ments and a night school for workmen. The borough has 
foundries and machine shops of considerable importance, 
and manufactures silk, overalls, beer and hames. Freeland 
was first settled about 1842, was laid out in 1870, and was 
incorporated in 1876. 

FREEMAN, EDWARD AUGUSTUS (1823-1892), English 
historian, was born at Harborne, Staffordshire, on the 2nd of 
August 1823. He lost both his parents in infancy, was brought 
up by a grandmother, and was educated at private schools and 
by a private tutor. He was a studious and precocious boy, more 
interested in religious matters, history and foreign politics than 
in boyish things. He obtained a scholarship at Trinity College, 
Oxford, and a second class in the degree examination, and was 
elected fellow of his college (1845). While at Oxford he was much 
influenced by the High Church movement, and thought seriously 
of taking orders, but abandoned the idea. He married a daughter 
of his former tutor, the Rev. R. Gutch, in 1847, and entered 
on a life of study. Ecclesiastical architecture attracted him 
strongly. He visited many churches and began a practice, 
which he pursued throughout his life, of making drawings of 
buildings on the spot and afterwards tracing them over in ink. 
His first book, save for his share in a volume of English verse, 
was a History of Architecture (1849). Though he had not then 
seen any buildings outside England, it contains a good sketch 
of the development of the art. It is full of youthful enthusiasm 
and is written in florid language. After some changes of residence 
he bought a hSuse called Somerleaze, near Wells, Somerset, and 
settled there in i860. 

Freeman's life was one of strenuous literary work. He wrote 
many books, and countless articles for reviews, newspapers and 
other publications, and was a constant contributor to the 
Saturday Review until 1878, when he ceased to write for it for 
political reasons. His Saturday Review articles corrected many 
errors and raised the level of historical knowledge among the 
educated classes, but as a reviewer he was apt to forget that a 
book may have blemishes and yet be praiseworthy. For some 
years he was an active county magistrate. He was deeply 
interested in politics, was a follower of Mr Gladstone, and 
approved the Home Rule Bill of 1886, but objected to the later 
proposal to retain the Irish members at Westminster. To be 
returned to Parliament was one of his few ambitions, and in 1868 
he unsuccessfully contested Mid-Somerset. Foreign rather than 
domestic politics had the first place with him. Historical and 
religious sentiment combined with his destestation of all that was 
tyrannical to inspire him with hatred of the Turk and sympathy 
with the smaller and subject nationalities of eastern Europe. 
He took a prominent part in the agitation which followed 
"the Bulgarian atrocities"; his speeches were intemperate, 
and he was accused of uttering the words " Perish India!" 
at a public meeting in 1876. This, however, was a misrepre- 
sentation of his words. He was made a knight commander 



of the order of the Saviour by the king of Greece, and also 
received an order from the prince of Montenegro. 

Freeman advanced the study of history in England in two 
special directions, by insistence on the unity of history, and by 
teaching the importance and right use of original authorities. 
History is not, he urges, to be divided " by a middle wall of 
partition " into ancient and modern, nor broken into fragments 
as though the history of each nation stood apart. It is more 
than a collection of narratives; it is a science, " the science of 
man in his political character." The historical student, then, 
cannot afford to be indifferent to any part of the record of man's 
political being; but as his abilities for study are limited, he will, 
while reckoning all history to be within his range, have his own 
special range within which he will master every detail {Rede 
Lecture). Freeman's range included Greek, Roman and the 
earlier part of English history, together with some portions of 
foreign medieval history, and he had a scholarly though general 
knowledge of the rest of the history of the European world. 
He regarded the abiding life of Rome as " the central truth of 
European history," the bond of its unity, and he undertook his 
History of Sicily (1891-1894) partly because it illustrated this 
unity. Further, he urges that all historical study is valueless 
which does not take in a knowledge of original authorities, and 
he teaches both by example and precept what authorities should 
be thus described, and how they are to be weighed and used. 
He did not use manuscript authorities, and for most of his work 
he had no need to do so. The authorities which he needed were 
already in print, and his books would not have been better if 
he had disinterred a few more facts from unprinted sources. 

His reputation as a historian will chiefly rest on his History of 
the Norman Conquest (1867-1876), his longest completed book. 
In common with his works generally, it is distinguished by 
exhaustiveness of treatment and research, critical ability, 
a remarkable degree of accuracy, and a certain insight into the 
past which he gained from his practical experience of men and 
institutions. He is almost exclusively a political historian. 
His saying that " history is past politics and politics are present 
history " is significant of this limitation cf his work, which left 
on one side subjects of the deepest interest in a nation's life. 
In dealing with constitutional matters he sometimes attaches 
too much weight to words and formal aspects. This gives certain 
of his arguments an air of pedantry, and seems to lead him to 
find evidences of continuity in institutions which in reality and 
spirit were different from what they once had been. As a rule 
his estimates of character are remarkably able. It is true that 
he is sometimes swayed by prejudice, but this is the common lot 
of great historians; they cannot altogether avoid sharing in 
the feelings of the past, for they live in it, and Freeman did so to 
an extraordinary degree. Yet if he judges too favourably the 
leaders of the national party in England on the eve of the 
Norman Conquest, that is a small matter to set against the insight 
which he exhibits in writing of Aratus, Sulla, Nicias, William 
the Conqueror, Thomas of Canterbury, Frederick the Second 
and many more. In width of view, thoroughness of investiga- 
tion and honesty of purpose he is unsurpassed by any historian. 
He never conceals nor wilfully misrepresents anything, and he 
reckoned no labour too great which might help him to draw a 
truthful picture of the past. When a place had any important 
connexion with his work he invariably visited it. He travelled 
much, always to gain knowledge, and generally to complete his 
historical equipment. His collected articles and essays on places 
of historical interest are perhaps the most pleasing of his writings, 
but they deal exclusively with historical associations and 
architectural features. The quantity of work which he turned 
out is enormous, for the fifteen large volumes which contain his 
Norman Conquest, his unfinished History of Sicily, his William 
Rufus (1882), and his Essays (1872-1879), and the crowd of his 
smaller books, are matched in amount by his uncollected con- 
tributions to periodicals. In respect of matter his historical 
work is uniformly excellent. In respect of form and style the 
case is different. Though his sentences themselves are not wordy, 
he is extremely diffuse in treatment, habitually repeating an idea 

in successive sentences of much the same import. While this 
habit was doubtless aggravated by the amount of his journalistic 
work, it seems originally to have sprung from what may be called 
a professorial spirit, which occasionally appears in the tone of 
his remarks. He was anxious to make sure that his readers would 
understand his exact meaning, and to guard them against all 
possible misconceptions. His lengthy explanations are the more 
grievous because he insists on the same points in several of his 
books. His prolixity was increased by his unwillingness, when 
writing without prescribed limits, to leave out any detail, 
however unimportant. His passion for details not only swelled 
his volumes to a portentous size, but was fatal to artistic con- 
struction. The length of his books has hindered their usefulness. 
They were written for the public at large, but few save professed 
students, who can admire and value his exhaustiveness, will read 
the many hundreds of pages which he devotes to a short period 
of history. In some of his smaller books, however, he shows 
great powers of condensation and arrangement, and writes 
tersely enough. His style is correct, lucid and virile, but gener- 
ally nothing more, and his endeavour to use as far as possible 
only words of Teutonic origin limited his vocabulary and makes 
his sentences somewhat monotonous. While Froude often 
strayed away from his authorities, Freeman kept his authorities 
always before his eyes, and his narrative is here and there little 
more than a translation of their words. Accordingly, while it has 
nothing of Froude 's carelessness and inaccuracy, it has nothing 
of his charm of style. Yet now and again he rises to the level 
of some heroic event, and parts of his chapter on the " Campaign 
of Hastings " and of his record of the wars of Syracuse and 
Athens, his reflections on the visit of Basil the Second to the 
church of the Virgin on the Acropolis, and some other passages 
in his books, are fine pieces of eloquent writing. 

The high quality of Freeman's work was acknowledged by 
all competent judges. He wasmadeD.C.L. of Oxfordand LL.D. 
of Cambridge honoris causa, and when he visited the United 
States on a lecturing tour was warmly received at various places, 
of learning. He served on the royal commission on ecclesiastical 
courts appointed in 188 1. In 1884 he was appointed regius 
professor of modern history at Oxford. His lectures were thinly 
attended, for he did not care to adapt them to the requirements 
of the university examinations, and he was not perhaps well 
fitted to teach young men. But he exercised a wholesome in- 
fluence over the more earnest students of history among the 
resident graduates. From 1886 he was forced by ill-health to 
spend much of his time abroad, and he died of smallpox at 
Alicante on the 16th of March 1892, while on a tour in Spain. 
Freeman had a strongly marked personality. Though impatient 
in temper and occasionally rude, he was tender-hearted and 
generous. His rudeness to strangers was partly caused by shy- 
ness and partly by a childlike inability to conceal his feelings. 
Eminently truthful, he could not understand that some verbal 
insincerities are necessary to social life. He had a peculiar 
faculty for friendship, and his friends always found him sym- 
pathetic and affectionate. In their society he would talk well 
and showed a keen sense of humour. He considered it his duty 
to expose careless and ignorant writers, and certainly enjoyed 
doing so. He worked hard and methodically, often had several 
pieces of work in hand, and kept a daily record of the time which 
he devoted to each of them. His tastes were curiously limited. 
No art interested him except architecture, which he studied 
throughout his life; and he cared little for literature which was 
not either historical or political. In later life he ceased to hold 
the theological opinions of his youth, but remained a devout 

See W. R. W. Stephens, Life and Letters ofE. A, Freeman (London, 
1895); Frederic Harrison, Tennyson, Ruskm, Mill and other Literary 
Estimates (London, 1899); James Bryce, " E. A. Freeman," Eng. 
Hist. Rev., July 1892. (W. Hu.) 

FREEMAN, primarily one who is free, as opposed to a slave or 
serf (see Feudalism; Slavery). The term is more specifically 
applied to one who possesses the freedom of a city, borough or 
company. Before the passing of the Municipal Corporations 



Act 1835, each English borough admitted freemen according to 
its own peculiar custom and by-laws. The rights and privileges 
of a freeman, though varying in different boroughs, generally 
included the right to vote at a parliamentary election of the 
borough, and exemption from all tolls and dues. The act of 
1835 respected existing usages, and every person who was then 
an admitted freeman remained one, retaining at the same time 
all his former rights and privileges. The admission of freemen 
is now regulated by the Municipal Corporations Act 1882. By 
section 201 of that act the term " freeman " includes any person 
of the class whose rights and interests were reserved by the 
act of 1835 under the name either of freemen or of burgesses. 
By section 202 no person can be admitted a freeman by gift or 
by purchase; that is, only birth, servitude or marriage are 
qualifications. The Honorary Freedom of Boroughs Act 1885, 
however, makes an exception, as by that act the council of every 
borough may from time to time admit persons of distinction 
to be honorary freemen of the borough. The town clerk of 
every borough keeps a list, which is called " the freeman's roll," 
and when any person claims to be admitted a freeman in respect 
of birth, servitude or marriage, the mayor examines the claim, 
and if it is established the claimant's name is enrolled by the 
town clerk. 

A person may become a freeman or freewoman of one of the 
London livery companies by (1) apprenticeship or servitude; 
(2) patrimony; (3) redemption; (4) gift. This last is purely 
honorary. The most usual form of acquiring freedom was by 
serving apprenticeship to a freeman, free both of a company and 
of the city of London. By an act of common council of 1836 
apprenticeship was permitted to freemen of the city who had not 
taken up the freedom of a company. By an act of common 
council of 1889 the term of service was reduced from seven years 
to four years. Freedom by patrimony is always granted to 
children of a person who has been duly admitted to the freedom. 
Freedom by redemption or purchase requires the payment of 
certain entrance fees, which vary with the standing of the com- 
pany. In the Grocers' Company freedom by redemption does 
not exist, and in such companies as still have a trade, e.g. the 
Apothecaries and Stationers, it is limited to members of the trade. 

See W. C. Hazlitt, The Livery Companies of the City of London 

FREEMASONRY. According to an old " Charge " delivered 
to initiates, Freemasonry is declared to be an " ancient and 
honourable institution: ancient no doubt it is, as having sub- 
sisted from time immemorial; and honourable it must be acknow- 
ledged to be, as by a natural tendency it conduces to make those 
so who are obedient to its precepts ... to so high an eminence 
has its credit been advanced that in every age Monarchs them- 
selves have been promoters of the art, have not thought it 
derogatory from their dignity to exchange the sceptre for the 
trowel, have patronised our mysteries and joined in our 
Assemblies." For many years the craft has been conducted 
without respect to clime, colour, caste or creed. 

History. — The precise origin of the society has yet to be ascer- 
tained, but is not likely to be, as the early records are lost; 
there is, however, ample evidence remaining to justify the claim 
for its antiquity and its honourable character. Much has been 
written as to its eventful past, based upon actual records, but 
still more which has served only to amuse or repel inquirers, and 
led not a few to believe that the fraternity has no trustworthy 
history. An unfavourable opinion of the historians of the craft 
generally may fairly have been held during the 18th and early 
in the 19th centuries, but happily since the middle of the latter 
century quite a different principle has animated those brethren 
who have sought to make the facts of masonic history known 
to the brotherhood, as well as worth the study of students in 
general. The idea that it would require an investigator to be 
a member of the " mystic tie " in order to qualify as a reader of 
masonic history has been exploded. The evidences collected 
concerning the institution during the last five hundred years, 
or more, may now be examined and tested in the most severe 
manner by literary and critical experts (whether opposed or 

favourable to the body), who cannot fail to accept the claims 
made as to its great antiquity and continuity, as the lineal 
descendant of those craftsmen who raised the cathedrals and other 
great English buildings during the middle ages. 

It is only needful to refer to the old works on freemasonry, and 
to compare them with the accepted histories of the present time, 
to be assured that such strictures as above are more than justified. 
The premier work on the subject was published in London in 1723, 
the Rev. James Anderson being the author of the historical portion, 
introductory to the first " Book of Constitutions " of the original 
Grand Lodge of England. Dr Anderson gravely states that " Grand 
Master Moses often marshalled the Israelites into a regular and 
general lodge, whilst in the wilderness. . . . King Solomon was 
Grand Master of the lodge at Jerusalem. 1 . . . Nebuchadnezzar became 
the Grand Master Mason," &c, devoting many more pages to similar 
absurdities, but dismisses the important modern innovation (1716- 
171 7) of a Grand Lodge with a few lines noteworthy for their brief 
and indefinite character. 

In 1738 a second edition was issued, dedicated to the prince of 
Wales (" a Master Mason and master of a lodge "), and was the work 
of the same brother (as respects the historical part), the additions 
being mainly on the same lines as the former volume, only, if pos- 
sible, still more ridiculous and extravagant; e.g. Cyrus constituted 
Jerubbabel " provincial grand master in Judah "; Charles Martel 
was " the Right Worshipful Grand Master of France, and Edward I. 
being deeply engaged in wars left the craft to the care of several 
successive grand masters " (duly enumerated). Such loose state- 
ments may now pass unheeded, but unfortunately they do not 
exhaust the objections to Dr Anderson's method of writing history. 
The excerpt concerning St Alban (apparently made from Coles's 
Ancient Constitutions, 1728-1729) has the unwarranted additional 
title of Grand Master conferred on that saint, and the extract con- 
cerning King /Ethelstan and Prince Edwin from the " Old MS. 
Charges " (given in the first edition) contains still more unauthorized 
modern terms, with the year added of 926; thus misleading most 
seriously those who accept the volume as trustworthy, because written 
by the accredited historian of the Grand Lodge, Junior Grand 
Warden in 1723. These examples hardly increase our confidence 
in the author's accuracy when Dr Anderson comes to treat of the 
origin of the premier Grand Lodge; but he 1? our only informant 
as to that important event, and if his version of the occurrence is 
declined, we are absolutely without any information. 

In considering the early history of Freemasonry, from a 
purely matter-of-fact standpoint, it will be well to settle as a 
necessary preliminary what the term did and does now include 
or mean, and how far back the inquiry should be conducted, 
as well as on what lines. If the view of the subject herein taken 
be correct, it will be useless to load the investigation by devoting 
considerable space to a consideration of the laws and customs 
of still older societies which may have been utilized and imitated 
by the fraternity, but which in no sense can be accepted as the 
actual forbears of the present society of Free and Accepted 
Masons. They were predecessors, or possibly prototypes, but 
not near relatives or progenitors of the Freemasons. 2 

The Mother Grand Lodge of the world is that of England, 
which was inaugurated in the metropolis on St John Baptist's 
day 1717 by four or more old lodges, three of which still flourish. 
There were other lodges also in London and the country at the 
time, but whether they were invited to the meeting is not now 
known. Probably not, as existing records of the period preserve 
a sphinx-like silence thereon. Likewise there were many scores 
of lodges at work in Scotland, and undoubtedly in Ireland the 
craft was widely patronized. Whatever the ceremonies may have 
been which were then known as Freemasonry in Great Britain and 
Ireland, they were practically alike, and the venerable Old Charges 
or MS. constitutions, dating back several centuries, were rightly 
held by them as the title-deeds of their masonic inheritance. 

It was a bold thing to do, thus to start a governing body for 
the fraternity quite different in many respects to all preceding 
organizations, and to brand as irregular all lodges which declined 

1 If history be no ancient Fable 
Free Masons came from Tower of Babel. 
(" The Freemasons; an Hudibrastic poem," London, 1723.) 
2 The Early History and Antiquities of Freemasonry and Medieval 
Builders, by Mr G. F. Fort (U.S.A.), and the Cathedral Builders: The 
Magestri Comacini, by " Leader Scott " (the late Mrs Baxter), take 
rather a different view on this point and ably present their argu- 
ments. The Rev. C. Kingsley in Roman and Teuton writes of 
the Comacini, " Perhaps the original germ of the great society of 



to accept such authority; but the very originality and audacity 
of its promoters appears to have led to its success, and it was not 
long before most of the lodges of the pre-Grand-Lodge era joined 
and accepted " constitution " by warrant of the Grand Master. 
Not only so, but Ireland quickly followed the lead, so early as 
1725 there being a Grand Lodge for that country which must have 
been formed even still earlier, and probably by lodges started 
before any were authorized in the Englisn counties. In Scotland 
the change was not made until 1736, many lodges even then 
holding aloof from such an organization. Indeed, out of some 
hundred lodges known to have been active then, only thirty-three 
responded and agreed to fall into line, though several joined later; 
some, however, kept separate down to the end of the 19th century, 
while others never united. Many of these lodges have records 
of the 17th century though not then newly formed; one in 
particular, the oldest (the Lodge of Edinburgh, No. 1), possesses 
minutes so far back as the year 1599. 

It is important to bear in mind that all the regular lodges 
throughout the world, and likewise all the Grand Lodges, directly 
or indirectly, have sprung from one or other of the three governing 
bodies named; Ireland and Scotland following the example 
set by their masonic mother of England in having Grand Lodges 
of their own. It is not proved how the latter two became ac- 
quainted with Freemasonry as a secret society, guided more or 
less by the operative MS. Constitutions or Charges common to 
the three bodies, not met with elsewhere; but the credit of a 
Grand Lodge being established to control the lodges belongs to 

It may be a startling declaration, but it is well authenticated, 
that there is no other Freemasonry, as the term is now understood, 
chan what which has been so derived. In other words, the lodges 
and Grand Lodges in both hemispheres trace their origin and 
authority back to England for working what are known as the 
Three Degrees, controlled by regular Grand Lodges. That being 
so, a history of modern Freemasonry, the direct offspring of the 
British parents aforesaid, should first of all establish the descent 
of the three Grand Lodges from the Freemasonry of earlier days ; 
such continuity, of five centuries or more, being a sine qua non 
of antiquity and regularity. 

It will be found that from the early part of the 18th century 
back to the 16th century existing records testify to the assemblies 
of lodges, mainly operative, but partly speculative, in Great 
Britain, whose guiding stars and common heritage were the Old 
Charges, and that when their actual minutes and transactions 
cease to be traced by reason of their loss, these same MS. Con- 
stitutions furnish testimony of the still older working of such 
combinations of freemasons or masons, without the assistance, 
countenance or authority of any other masonic body; conse- 
quently such documents still preserved, of the 14th and later 
centuries (numbering about seventy, mostly in form of rolls), 
with the existing lodge minutes referred to of the 16th century, 
down to the establishment of the premier Grand Lodge in 1717, 
prove the continuity of the society. Indeed so universally has 
this claim been admitted, that in popular usage the term Free- 
mason is only now applied to those who belong to this particular 
fraternity, that of mason being applicable to one who follows 
that trade, or honourable calling, as a builder. 

There is no evidence that during this long period any other 
organization of any kind, religious, philosophical, mystical or 
otherwise, materially or even slightly influenced the customs 
of the fraternity, though they may have done so; but so far 
as is known the lodges were of much the same character through- 
out, and consisted really of operatives (who enjoyed practically 
a monopoly for some time of the trade as masons or freemasons), 
and, in part, of " speculatives," i.e. noblemen, gentlemen and 
men of other trades, who were admitted as honorary members. 

Assuming then that the freemasons of the present day are the 
sole inheritors of the system arranged at the so-called " Revival 
of 1717," which was a development from an operative body to 
one partly speculative, and that, so far back as the MS. Records 
extend and furnish any light, they must have worked in Lodges 
in secret throughout the period noted, a history of Freemasonry 

should be mainly devoted to giving particulars, as far as possible, 
of the lodges, their traditions, customs and laws, based upon 
actual documents which can be tested and verified by members 
and non-members alike. 

It has been the rule to treat, more or less fully, of the influence 
exerted on the fraternity by the Ancient Mysteries, the Essenes, 
Roman Colleges, Culdees, Hermeticisnv Fehm-Gerichte et hoc 
genus omne, especially the Steinmetzen, the Craft Gilds and the 
Companionage of France, &c. ; but in view of the separate and 
independent character of the freemasons, it appears to be quite 
unnecessary, and the time so employed would be better devoted 
to a more thorough search after additional evidences of the 
activity of the craft, especially during the crucial period overlap- 
ping the second decade of the 18th century, so as to discover in- 
formation as to the transmitted secrets of the medieval masons, 
which, after all, may simply have been what Gaspard Monge 
felicitously entitles " Descriptive Geometry, or the Art and 
Science of Masonic Symbolism." 

The rules and regulations of the masons were embodied in 
what are known as the Old Charges; the senior known copy 
being the Regius MS. (British Museum Bibl. Reg. 17 A, i.), 
which, however, is not so exclusively devoted to masonry as the 
later copies. David Casley, in his catalogue of the MSS. in the 
King's Library (1734), unfortunately styled the little gem 
A Poem of Moral Duties; and owing to this misdescription its 
true character was not recognized until the year 1839, and then 
by a non-mason (Mr Halliwell-Phillipps), who had it reproduced 
in 1840 and brought out an improved edition in 1844. Its date 
has been approximately fixed at 1390 by Casley and other 

The curious legend of the craft, therein made known, deals 
first of all with the number of unemployed in early days and 
the necessity of finding work, " that they myght gete here lyvynge 
therby." Euclid was consulted, and recommended the " onest 
craft of good masonry," and the genesis of the society is found 
" yn Egypte lande." By a rapid transition, but " mony erys 
afterwarde," we are told that the " Craft com ynto England yn 
tyme of good kynge Adelstonus GEthelstan) day," who called 
an assembly of the masons, when fifteen articles and as many more 
points were agreed to for the government of the craft, each being 
duly described. Each brother was instructed that — 

" He must love wel God, and holy Churche algate 
And hys mayster also, that he ys wythe." 

" The thrydde poynt must be severle. 
With the prentes knowe hyt wele, 
Hys mayster cownsel he kepe and close, 
And hys f elows by hys goode purpose ; 
The prevetyse of the chamber telle he no mon, 
Ny yn the logge whatsever they done, 
Whatsever thou heryst, or syste hem do, 
Telle hyt no mon, whersever thou go." 

The rules generally, besides referring to trade regulations, are 
as a whole suggestive of the Ten Commandments in an extended 
form, winding up with the legend of the Ars quatuor coronatorum, 
as an incentive to a faithful discharge of the numerous obligations. 
A second part introduces a more lengthy account of the origin 
of masonry, in which Noah's flood and the Tower of Babylon 
are mentioned as well as the great skill of Euclid, who — 
" Through hye grace of Crist yn heven, 
He commensed yn the syens seven " ; 

The " seven sciences " are duly named and explained. The 
compiler apparently was a priest, line 629 reading " And, when 
ye gospel me rede schal," thus also accounting for the many 
religious injunctions in the MS.; the last hundred lines are 
evidently based upon Urbanitatis (Cott. MS. Caligula An, fol. 88) 
and Instructions for a Parish Priest (Cott. MS. Claudius A n, 
fol. 27), instructions such as lads and even men would need who 
were ignorant of the customs of polite society, correct deportment 
at church and in the presence of their social superiors. 

The recital of the legend of the Quatuor Coronaii has been held 
by Herr Findel in his History of Freemasonry (Allgemeine Ge- 
schichte der Freimaurerei, 1862; English editions, 1866-1869) 
to prove that British Freemasonry was derived from Germany, 



but without any justification, the legend being met with in 
England centuries prior to the date of the Regius MS., and long 
prior to its incorporation in masonic legends on the Continent. 

The next MS., in order, is known as the " Cooke " (Ad. MS. 
23,198, British Museum), because Matthew Cooke published a 
fair reproduction of the document in 1861; and it is deemed by 
competent paleographers to date from the first part of the 15th 
century. There are two versions of the Old Charges in this little 
book, purchased for the British Museum in 1859. The compiler 
was probably a mason and familiar with several copies of these 
MS. Constitutions, two of which he utilizes and comments upon ; 
he quotes from a MS. copy of the Policronicon the manner in 
which a written account of the sciences was preserved in the two 
historic stones at the time of the Flood, and generally makes 
known the traditions of the society as well as the laws which 
were to govern the members. 

Its introduction into England through Egypt is noted (where 
the Children of Israel " lernyd ye craft of Masonry "), also the 
" lande of behest " (Jerusalem) and the Temple of Solomon (who 
" confirmed ye chargys yt David his Fadir " had made). Then 
masonry in France is interestingly described; and St Alban and 
" iEthelstane with his yongest sone " (the Edwin of the later 
MSS.) became the chosen mediums subsequently, as with the 
other Charges, portions of the Old Testament are often cited in 
order to convey a correct idea to the neophyte, who is to hear the 
document read, as to these sciences which are declared to be free 
in themselves (Jre in hem selfe). Of all crafts followed by man 
in this world " Masonry hathe the moste notabilite," as con- 
firmed by " Elders that were bi for us of masons [who] had these 
chargys wryten," and " as is write and taught in ye boke of our 

Until quite recently no representative or survival of this 
particular version had been traced, but in 1890 one was dis- 
covered of 1687 (since known as the William Watson MS.). 
Of some seventy copies of these old scrolls which have been 
unearthed, by far the greater proportion have been made public 
since i860. They have all much in common, though often 
curious differences are to be detected; are of English origin, 
no matter where used ; and when complete, as they mostly are, 
whether of the 16th or subsequent centuries, are noteworthy 
for an invocation or prayer which begins the recital: — 
" The mighte of the ffather of heaven 
And the wysedome of the glorious Sonne 
through the grace and the goodnes of the holly 
ghoste yt been three p'sons and one God 
be with us at or beginning and give us grace 
so to gou'ne us here in or lyving that wee maye 
come to his blisse that nevr shall have ending. — Amen." 
(Grand Lodge MS. No. 1, a.d. 1583.) 

They are chiefly of the 17th century and nearly all located 
in England; particulars may be found in Hughan's Old Charges 
of the British Freemasons (1872, 1895 and supplement 1906). 1 
The chief scrolls, with some others, have been reproduced in 
facsimile in six volumes of the Quatuor Coronatorum Anligrapha; 
and the collection in Yorkshire has been published separately, 
either in the West Yorkshire Reprints or the Ancient York 
Masonic Rolls. Several have been transcribed and issued in 
other works. 

These scrolls give considerable information as to the tradi- 
tions and customs of the craft, together with the regulations 
for its government, and were required to be read to appren- 
tices long after the peculiar rules ceased to be acted upon, 
each lodge apparently having one or more copies kept for 
the purpose. The old Lodge of Aberdeen ordered in 1670 that 
the Charge was to be " read at ye entering of everie entered 
prenteise "; another at Alnwick in 1701 provided — 

" Noe Mason shall take any apprentice [but he must] 
Enter him and give him his Charge, within one whole 
year after " ; 

1 The service rendered by Dr W. Begemann (Germany) in his 
" Attempt to Classify the Old Charges of the British Masons " 
(vol. 1 Trans, of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge, London) has been very 
great, and the researches of the Rev. A. F. A. Woodford and G. W. 
Speth have also been of the utmost consequence. 

and still another at Swallwell (now No. 48 Gateshead) demanded 
that " the Apprentices shall have their Charge given at the time 
of Registering, or within thirty days after"; the minutes in- 
serting such entries accordingly even so late as 1754, nearly 
twenty years after the lodge had cast in its lot with the Grand 
Lodge of England. 

Their Christian character is further emphasized by the " First 
Charge that you shall be true men to God and the holy Church "; 
the York MS. No. 6 beseeches the brethren " at every meeting 
and assembly they pray heartily for all Christians "; the Melrose 
MS. No. 2 (1674) mentions " Merchants and all other Christian 
men," and the Aberdeen MS. (1670) terms the invocation 
" A Prayer before the Meeting." Until the Grand Lodge era, 
Freemasonry was thus wholly Christian. The York MS. No. 4 
of 1693 contains a singular error in the admonitory lines:: — 
" The [n] one of the elders takeing the Booke and that 
hee or shee that is to be made mason, shall lay their 
hands thereon and the charge shall be given." 

This particular reading was cited by Hughan in 1871, but was 
considered doubtful; Findel, 2 however, confirmed it, on his 
visit to York under the guidance of the celebrated masonic 
student the late Rev. A. F. A. Woodford. The mistake was due 
possibly to the transcriber, who had an older roll before him, 
confusing " they," sometimes written " the," with " she," 
or reading that portion, which is often in Latin, as Me vel ilia, 
instead of Me vel Mi. 

In some of the Codices, about the middle of the 17th century 
and later, New Articles are inserted, such as would be suitable 
for an organization similar to the Masons' Company of London, 
which had one, at least, of the Old Charges in its possession ac- 
cording to inventories of 1665 and 1676; and likewise in 1722, 
termed The Book of the Constitutions of the Accepted Masons. 
Save its mention (" Book wrote on parchment ") by Sir Francis 
Palgrave in the Edinb.urgh Review (April 1839) as being in 
existence " not long since," this valuable document has been 
lost sight of for many years. 

That there were signs and other secrets preserved and used 
by the brethren throughout this mainly operative period may 
be gathered from discreet references in these old MSS. The 
Institutions in parchment (22nd of November 1696) of the 
Dumfries Kilwinning Lodge (No. 53, Scotland) contain a copy 
of the oath taken " when any man should be made ": — 

" These Charges which we now reherse to you and all others ye 
secrets and misterys belonging to free masons you shall 
faithfully and truly keep, together with ye Counsell of ye 
assembly or lodge, or any other lodge, or brother, or fellow." 

" Then after ye oath taken and the book kissed " {i.e. the Bible) 
the " precepts" are read, the first being: — 

" You shall be true men to God and his holy Church, and that 
you do not countenance or maintaine any eror, faction, 
schism or herisey, in ye church to ye best of your under- 
standing." (History of No. S3, by James Smith.) 

The Grand Lodge MS. No. 2 provides that " You shall keepe 
secret ye obscure and intricate pts. of ye science, not disclosinge 
them to any but such as study and use ye same." 

The Harleian MS. No. 2054 (Brit. Mus.) is still more explicit, 
termed The free Masons Orders and Constitutions, and. is in the 
handwriting of Randle Holme (author of the Acodemie of 
Armory, 1688), who was a member of a lodge in Cheshire. Follow- 
ing the MS. Constitutions, in the same handwriting, about 1650* 
is a scrap of paper with the obligation : — 

" There is sevrall words and signes of a free Mason to be revailed 
to yu wch as yu will answr. before God at the Great and 
terrible day of judgmt. yu keep secret and not to revaile the 
same to any in the heares of any p'son, but to the Mrs and 
fellows of the Society of Free Masons, so helpe me God, &c." 
(W. H. Rylands, Mas. Mag., 1882.) 

2 Findel claims that his Treatise on the society was the cause 
which " first impelled England to the study of masonic history 
and ushered in the intellectual movement which resulted in the 
writings of Bros. Hughan, Lyon, Gould and others." Great credit 
was due to the late German author for his important work, but 
before its advent the Rev. A. F. A. Woodford, D. Murray Lyon 
and others in Great Britain were diligent masonic students on similar 



It is not yet settled who were the actual designers or architects | 
of the grand old English cathedrals. Credit has been claimed 
for church dignitaries, to the exclusion more or less of the master 
masons, to whom presumably of right the distinction belonged. 
In early days the title " architect " is not met with, unless the 
term " Ingenator " had that meaning, which is doubtful. As to 
this interesting question, and as to the subject of building 
generally, an historical account of Master and Free Masons 
(Discourses upon Architecture in England, by the Rev. James 
Dallaway, 1833), and Notes on the Superintendents of English 
Buildings in the Middle Ages (by Wyatt Papworth, 1887), should 
be consulted. Both writers were non-masons. The former 
observes: " The honour due to the original founders of these 
edifices is almost invariably transferred to the ecclesiastics 
under whose patronage they rose, rather than to the skill and 
design of the master mason, or professional architect, because the 
only historians were monks. . . . They were probably not so 
well versed in geometrical science as the master masons, for 
mathematics formed a part of monastic learning in a very limited 
degree." In the Journal of Proceedings R.I.B.A. vol. iv. (1887), 
a skilful critic (W.H. White) declares that Papworth, in that valu- 
able collection of facts, has contrived to annihilate all the profes- 
sional idols of the century, setting up in their place nothing 
except the master mason. The brotherhood of Bridge-builders, 1 
that travelled far and wide to build bridges, and the travelling 
bodies of Freemasons, 2 he believes never existed; nor was 
William of Wykeham the designer of the colleges attributed to 
him. It seems well-nigh impossible to disprove the statements 
made by Papworth, because they are all so well grounded on 
attested facts; and the attempt to connect the Abbey of Cluny, 
or men trained at Cluny, with the original or preliminary designs 
of the great buildings erected during the middle ages, at least 
during the 12th and 13th centuries, is also a failure. The whole 
question is ably and fully treated in the History of Freemasonry 
by Robert Freke Gould (1886-1887), particularly in chapter vi. 
on " Medieval Operative Masonry," and in his Concise History 


The lodge is often met with, either as the tabulatum domicialem 
(1200, at St Aiban's Abbey) or actually so named in the Fabric 
Rolls of York Minster (1370), ye loge being situated close to the 
fane in course of erection; it was used as a place in which the 
stones were prepared in private for the structure, as well as 
occupied at meal-time, &c. Each mason was required to " swere 
upon ye boke yt he sail trewly ande bysyli at his power hold and 
kepe holy all ye poyntes of yis forsayde ordinance " {Ordinacio 
Cementanorum) . 

As to the term /ree-mason, from the 14th century, it is held 
by some authorities that it described simply those men who 
worked " freestone," but there is abundant evidence to prove 
that, whatever may have been intended at first, /fee-mason soon 
had a much wider signification, the prefix free being also employed 
by carpenters (1666), sewers (15th century, tailorsat Exeter) and 
others, presumably to indicate they were free to follow their 
trades in certain localities. On this point Mr Gould well observes : 
" The class of persons from whom the Freemasons of Warrington 
(1646), Staffordshire (1686), Chester, York, London and their 
congeners in the 17th century derived the descriptive title, 
which became the inheritance of the Grand Lodge of England, 
were free men, and masons of Gilds or Companies " (History, 
vol. ii. p. 160). Dr Brentano may also be cited: " Wherever 
the Craft Guilds were legally acknowledged, we find foremost, 
that the right to exercise their craft, and sell their manufactures, 
depended upon the freedom of their city " (Development of 
Guilds, &c, p. 65). In like manner, the privilege of working 
as a mason was not conferred before candidates had been " made 
free." The regular free-masons would not work with men, even 
if they bad a knowledge of their trade, " if uniree," but styled 

1 It is not considered necessary to refer at length to the. Fratres 
Ponlis, or other imaginary bodies of freemasons, as such questions 
may well be left to the curious and interested student. 

* " No distinct trace of the general employment of large migratory 
bands of masons, going from place to place as a guild, or company, 
or brotherhood " (Prof. T. Hayter-Lewis, Brit. Arch. Assoc., 1889). 

them " Cowans," a course justified by the king's " Maister of 
Work," William Schaw, whose Statutis and Ordinanceis (28th 
December 1598) required that " Na maister or fellow of craft 
ressaue any cowanis to wirk in his societie or companye, nor send 
nane of his servants to wirk wt. cowanis, under the pane of 
twentie pounds." Gradually, however, the rule was relaxed, in 
time such monopoly practically ceased, and the word " cowan " 
is only known in connexion with speculative Freemasonry. 
Sir Walter Scott, as a member of Lodge St David (No. 36), was 
familiar with the word and used it in Rob Roy. In 1707 a cowan 
was described in the minutes of Mother Lodge Kilwinning, 
as a mason " without the word," thus one who was not a free 
mason (History of the Lodge of Edinburgh No. 1, by D. Murray 
Lyon, 1 goo). 

In the New English Dictionary (Oxford, vol. iv., 1897) under 
" Freemason " it is noted that three views have been pro- 
pounded: — (1) " The suggestion that free-mason stands for 
free-stone-mason would appear unworthy of attention, but 
for the curious fact that the earliest known instances of any 
similar appellation are mestre mason de franche peer (Act 2 5 Edw. 
III., 1330), and sculptores lapidum liberorum, alleged to occur 
in a document of 121 7; the coincidence, however, seems to be 
merely accidental. (2) The view most generally held is that 
freemasons were those who were free of the masons' guild. 
Against this explanation many forcible objections have been 
brought by Mr G. W. Speth, who suggests (3) that the itinerant 
masons were called free because they claimed exemption from 
the control of the local guilds of the towns in which they 
temporarily settled. (4) Perhaps the best hypothesis is that the 
term refers to the medieval practice of emancipating skilled 
artisans, in order that they might be able to travel and render 
their services wherever any great building was in process of 
construction." The late secretary of the Quatuor Coronati 
Lodge (No. 2076, London) has thus had his view sanctioned by 
" the highest tribunal in the Republic of Letters so far as 
Philology is concerned " (Dr W. J. Chetwode Crawley in Ars 
Quatuor Coronatorum, 1898). Still it cannot be denied that 
members of lodges in the 16th and following centuries exercised 
the privilege of making free masons and denied the freedom 
of working to cowans (also called ««-freemen) who had not been 
so made free; " the Masownys of the luge " being the only ones 
recognized as /reemasons. As to the prefix being derived from 
the word frere, a sufficient answer is the fact that frequent 
reference is made to " Brother /reemasons," so that no ground for 
that supposition exists (cf. articles by Mr Gould in the Freemason 
for September 1898 on " Free and Freemasonry "). 

There are numerous indications of masonic activity in the 
British lodges of the 17th century, especially in Scotland; 
the existing records, however, of the southern part of the United 
Kingdom, though few, are of importance, some only having been 
made known in recent years. These concern the Masons' 
Company of London, whose valuable minutes and other docu- 
ments are ably described and commented upon by Edward 
Conder, jr., in his Hole Crafte and Fellowship of Masons (1894), 
the author then being the Master of that ancient company. It 
was incorporated in 1677 by Charles II., who graciously met the 
wishes of the members, but as a company the information " that 
is to be found in the Corporation Records at Guildhall proves very 
clearly that in 1376 the Masons' Company existed and was 
represented in the court of common council." The title then 
favoured was " Masons," the entry of the term " Freemasons " 
being crossed out. Herbert erroneously overlooked the correc- 
tion, and stated in his History of the Twelve Great Livery Com- 
panies (vol. i.) that the Freemasons returned two, and the Masons 
four members, but subsequently amalgamated; whereas the 
revised entry was for the " Masons " only. The Company 
obtained a grant of arms in 1472 (12th year Hen. VIII.), oneof the 
first of the kind, being thus described : — ■" A feld of Sablys A 
Cheveron silver grailed thre Castellis of the same garnysshed wt. 
dores and wyndows of the feld in the Cheveron or Cumpas of 
Black of Blak "; it is the authority (if any) for all later armorial 
bearings having a chevron and castles, assumed by other masonic 



organizations. This precious document was only discovered in 
1871, having been missing for a long time, thus doubtless account- 
ing for the erroneous representations met with, not having the 
correct blazon to follow. The oldest masonic motto known 
is " God is our Guide " on Kerwin's tomb in St Helen's church, 
Bishopgate, of 1594; that of " In the Lord is all our trust " 
not being traced until the next century. Supporters consisting 
of two doric column#are mentioned in 1688 by Randle Holme, 
but the Grand Lodge of England in the following century used 
Beavers as operative builders. Its first motto was " In the 
beginning was the Word " (in Greek), exchanged a few years on- 
ward for " Relief and Truth," the rival Grand Lodge (Atholl 
Masons) selecting " Holiness to the Lord " (in Hebrew), and the 
final selection at the " Union of December 1813 " being Audi 
Vide Tace. 

Mr Conder's discovery of a lodge of " Accepted Masons " being 
held under the wing of the Company was a great surprise, dating 
as the records do from 1620 to 1621 (the earliest of the kind yet 
traced in England), when seven were made masons, all of whom 
were free of the Company before, three being of the Livery; 
the entry commencing " Att the making masons." The meetings 
were entitled the " Acception," and the members of the lodge 
were called Accepted Masons, being those so accepted and initiated, 
the term never otherwise being met with in the Records. An 
additional fee had to be paid by a member of the Company to 
join the " Acception," and any not belonging thereto were 
mulct in twice the sum; though even then such " acceptance " 
did not qualify for membership of the superior body; the fees 
for the " Acception " being £1 and £2 respectively. In 1638- 
1639, when Nicholas Stone entered the lodge (he was Master 
of the Company 163 2-1633) the banquet cost a considerable 
sum, showing that the number of brethren present must have 
been large. 

Elias Ashmole (who according to his diary was " made a Free 
Mason of Warrington with Colonel Henry Mainwaring," seven 
brethen being named as in attendance at the lodge, 16th of 
October 1646) states that he " received a summons to appear at 
a Lodge to be held next day at Masons' Hall, London." Accord- 
ingly on the nth of March 1682 he attended and saw six gentle- 
men " admitted into the Fellowship of Free Masons," of whom 
three only belonged to the Company; the Master, however, 
Mr Thomas Wise, the two wardens and six others being present 
on the occasion as members in their dual capacity. Ashmole 
adds: " We all dyned at the Halfe Moone Tavern in Cheapside 
at a noble dinner prepaired at the charge of the new-accepted 

It is almost certain that there was not an operative mason 
present at the Lodge held in 1646, and at the one which met 
in 1682 there was a strong representation of the speculative 
branch. Before the year 1654 the Company was known as that 
of the Freemasons for some time, but after then the old title 
of Masons was reverted to, the terms " Acception " and 
" Accepted " belonging to the speculative Lodge, which, however, 
in all probability either became independent or ceased to work 
soon after 1682. It is very interesting to note that subsequently 
(but never before) the longer designation is met with of " Free 
and Accepted Masons," and is thus a combination of operative 
and speculative usage. 

Mr Conder is of opinion that in the Records " there is no 
evidence of any particular ceremony attending the position of 
Master Mason, possibly it consisted of administering a different 
oath from the one taken by the apprentices on being entered." 
There is much to favour this supposition, and it may provide 
the key to the vexata quaestio as to the plurality of degrees prior 
to the Grand Lodge era. The fellow-crafts were recruited from 
those apprentices who had served their time and had their essay 
(or sufficient trial of their skill) duly passed; they and the 
Masters, by the Schaw Statutes of 1598, being only admitted in 
the presence of " sex Maisteris and twa enterit prenteissis." - As 
a rule a master mason meant one who was master of his trade, i.e. 
duly qualified; but it sometimes described employers as distinct 
from journeymen Freemasons; being also a compliment con- 

ferred on honorary members during the 17th century in 

In Dr Plot's History of Staffordshire (1686) is a remarkable 
account of the " Society of Freemasons," which, being by an 
unfriendly critic, is all the more valuable. He states that the 
custom had spread " more or less all over the nation "; persons 
of the most eminent quality did not disdain to enter the Fellow- 
ship; they had " a large parchment volum containing the History 
and Rules of the Craft of Masonry "; St Amphibal, St Alban, 
King Athelstan and Edwin are mentioned, and these " charges 
and manners " were " after perusal approved by King Hen. 6 
and his council, both as to Masters and Fellows of this right 
Worshipfull craft." It is but fair to add that notwithstanding 
the service he rendered the Society by his lengthy description, 
that credulous historian remarks of its history that there is 
nothing he ever " met with more false or incoherent." 

The author of the Academie of Armory, previously noted, 
knew better what he was writing about in that work of 1688 in 
which he declares: " I cannot but Honor the Fellowship of 
the Masons because of its Antiquity; and the more, as being a 
member of that Society, called Free Masons " Mr Rylands states 
that in Harl. MS. 5955 is a collection of the engraved plates for a 
second volume of this important work, one being devoted to the 
Arms of the Society, the columns, as supporters, having globes 
thereon, from which possibly are derived the two pillars, with 
such ornaments or additions seen in lodge rooms at a later period. 
In the same year " A Tripos or Speech delivered at a commence- 
ment in the University of Dublin held there July n, 1688, by 
John Jones, then A.B., afterwards D.D.," contained " notable 
evidence concerning Freemasonry in Dublin." The Tripos was 
included in Sir Walter Scott's edition of Dean Swift's works 
(1814), but as Dr Chetwode Crawley points out, though noticed 
by the Rev. Dr George Oliver (the voluminous Masonic author), 
he failed to realize its historical importance. The satirical and 
withal amusing speech was partly translated from the Latin by 
Dr Crawley for his scholarly introduction to the Masonic Re- 
prints, &c, by Henry Sadler. " The point seems to be that 
Ridley (reputed to have been an informer against priests under 
the barbarous penal laws) was, or ought to have been, hanged; 
that his carcase, anatomized and stuffed, stood in the library; 
and that frath scoundrellus discovered on his remains the Free- 
masons' Mark." The importance of the references to the craft in 
Ireland is simply owing to the year in which they were made, 
as illustrative of the influence of the Society at that time, of which 
records are lacking. 

It is primarily to Scotland, however, that we have to look 
for such numerous particulars of the activity of the fraternity 
from 1 S99 to the establishment of its Grand Lodge in 1736, 
for an excellent account of which we are indebted to Lyon, the 
Scottish masonic historian. As early as 1600 (8th of June) the 
attendance of John Boswell, Esq., the laird of Auchinleck, is 
entered in the minutes of the Lodge of Edinburgh; he attested 
the record and added his mark, as did the other members; so 
it was not his first appearance. Many noblemen and other 
gentlemen joined this ancient atelier, notably Lord Alexander, 
Sir Anthony Alexander and Sir Alexander Strachan in 1634, 
the king's Master of Work (Herrie Alexander) in 1638, General 
Alexander Hamilton in 1640, Dr Hamilton in 1647, and many 
other prominent and distinguished men later; "James Neilsone, 
Master Sklaitter to His Majestie," who was " entered and past 
in the Lodge of Linlithgow, being elected a joining member," 
2nd March 1654. Quarter-Master General Robert Moray (or 
Murray) was initiated by members of the Lodge of Edinburgh, 
at Newcastle on the 20th of May 1641, while the Scottish army 
was in occupation. On due report to their Alma Mater such 
reception was allowed, the occurrence having been considered 
the first of its kind in England until the ancient Records of the 
Masons' Company were published. 

The minute-books of a number of Scottish Lodges, which are 
still on the register, go back to the 17th century, and abundantly 
confirm the frequent admission of speculatives as members and 
officers, especially those of the venerable " Mother Lodge 



Kilwinning," of which the.earl of Cassillis was the deacon in 1672, 
who was succeeded by Sir Alexander Cunningham, and the earl 
of Eglinton, who like the first of the trio was but an apprentice. 
There were three Head Lodges according to the Scottish Code of 
1590, Edinburgh being " the first and principall," Kilwinning 
" the secund," and Stirling" the third fudge." 

The Aberdeen Lodge (No. 1 tris) has records preserved from 
1670, in which year what is known as the Mark Book begins, 
containing the oldest existing roll of members, numbering 49, 
all of whom have their marks registered, save two, though only 
ten were operatives. The names of the earls of Finlater, Enroll 
and Dunfermline, Lord Forbes, several ministers and professional 
men are on the list, which was written by a glazier, all of whom 
had been enlightened as to the " benefit of the measson word," 
and inserted in order as they " were made fellow craft." The 
Charter (Old Charges) had to be read at the " entering of everie 
prenteise," and the officers included a master and two wardens. 
The lodge at Melrose (No. 1 bis) with records back to 1674 did 
not join the Grand Lodge until 1891, and was the last of those 
working (possibly centuries before that body was formed) to 
accept the modern system of government. Of the many note- 
worthy lodges mention should be made of that of " Canongate 
Kilwinning No. 2," Edinburgh, the first of the numerous pendicles 
of" Mother Lodge Kilwinning, No. o," Ayrshire, started in 1677; 
and of the Journeymen No 8, formed in 1707, which was a secession 
from the Lodge of Edinburgh ; the Fellow Crafts or Journeymen 
not being satisfied with their treatment by the Freemen Masters 
of the Incorporation of Masons, &c. This action led to a trial 
before the Lords of Council and Session, when finally a " Decreet 
Arbitral " was subscribed to by both parties, and the junior 
organization was permitted " to give the mason word as it is 
called " in a separate lodge. The presbytery of Kelso 1 in 1652 
sustained the action of the Rev. James Ainslie in becoming a 
Freemason, declaring that "there is neither sinne nor scandale 
in that word " {i.e. the " Mason Word "), which is often alluded 
to but never revealed in the old records already referred to. 2 
One Scottish family may be cited in illustration of the continuous 
working of Freemasonry, whose membership is enshrined in 
the records of the ancient Lodge of " Scoon and Perth No. 3 " 
and others. A venerable document, lovingly cared for by No. 3, 
bears date 1658, and recites how John Mylne came to Perth from 
the " North Countrie," and was the king's Master Mason and 
VV.M. of the Lodge, his successor being his son, who entered 
" King James the sixt as fireman measOne and fellow craft "; 
his third son John was a member of Lodge No. 1 and Master 
Mason to Charles I., 1631-1630, and his eldest son was a deacon 
of No. 1 eleven times during thirty years. To him was 
apprenticed his nephew, who .vas warden in 1663-1664 and 
deacon several times. William Mylne was a warden in 1695, 
Thomas (eldest son) was Master in 1735, and took part in the 
formation of the Grand Lodge of Scotland. Others of the family 
continued to join the Lodge No. 1, until Robert, the last of the 
Mylnes as Freemasons, was initiated in 1754, died in 1811, and 
" was buried in St Paul's cathedral, having been Surveyor to 
that Edifice for fifty years," and the last of the masonic Mylnes 
for five generations. The " St John's Lodge," Glasgow (No. 3 
bis), has some valuable old records and a " Charter Chest " 
with the words carved thereon " God save the King and Masons 
Craft, 1684." Loyalty and Charity are the watchwords of the 

The Craft Gilds {Corps d'Etat) of France, and their progeny 
the Companionage, have been fully described by Mr Gould, 
and the Steinmetzen of Germany would require too detailed 
notice if we were to particularize its rules, customs and general 

'The Associate Synod which met at Edinburgh, March 1755, 
just a century later, took quite an opposite view, deciding to depose 
from office any of their brethren who would not give up their masonic 
membership (Scots Mag., 1755, p. 158). Papal Bulls have also 
been issued against the craft, the first being in 1738; but neither 
interdicts nor anathemata have any influence with the fraternity, 
and fall quite harmless. 

1 " We have the Mason Word and second sight, 
Things for to come we can fortell aright." 
(The Muses Threnodie, by H. Adamson, Edin., 1638.) 

character, from about the 12th century onward. Much as there 
was in common between the Stonemasons of Germany and the 
Freemasons of Great Britain and Ireland, it must be conceded 
that the two societies never united and were all through this 
long period wholly separate and independent; a knowledge of 
Freemasonry and authority to hold lodges in Germany being 
derived from the Grand Lodge of England during the first half 
of the 18th century. The theory of the derivation of the Free- 
masons from the Steinmetzen was first propounded in 1779 by 
the abbe 1 Grandidier, and has been maintained by more modern 
writers, such as Fallou, HeidelofI and Schneider, but a thorough 
examination of their statements has resulted in such an origin 
being generally discredited. Whether the Steinmetzen had secret 
signs of recognition or not, is not quite clear, but that the Free- 
masons had, for centuries, cannot be doubted, though precisely 
what they were may be open to question, and also what portions 
of the existing ceremonies are reminiscent of the craft anterior 
to the Revival of 17 17. Messrs Speth and Gould favour the 
notion that there were two distinct and separate degrees prior to 
the third decade of the 18th century {Ars Q.C., 1898 and 1903), 
while other authorities have either supported the One degree 
theory, or consider there is not sufficient evidence to warrant 
a decision. Recent discoveries, however, tend in favour of the 
first view noted, such as the Trinity College MS., Dublin (" Free 
Masonry, Feb. 171 1 "), and the invaluable 3 Chetwode Crawley 
MS. (Grand Lodge Library, Dublin); the second being read in 
connexion with the Haughfoot Lodge Records, beginning 1702 
{Hist, of Freemasonry, by W. F. Vernon, 1893). 

Two of the most remarkable lodges at work during the period 
of transition (1717-1723), out of the many then existing in 
England, assembled at Alnwick and at York. The origin of the 
first noted is not known, but there are minutes of the meetings 
from 1703, the Rules are of 1701, signed by quite a number of 
members, and a transcript of the Old Charges begins the volume. 
In 1 708-1 709 a minute provided for a masonic procession, at 
which the brethren were to walk " with their aprons on and 
Comon Square." The Lodge consisted mainly of operative 
" free Brothers," and continued for many years, a code of by- 
laws being published in 1763, but it never united with the Grand 
Lodge, giving up the struggle for existence a few years further on. 
The other lodge, the most noteworthy of all the English 
predecessors of the Grand Lodge of England, was long held at 
York, the Mecca of English Freemasons. 4 Its origin is unknown, 
but there are traces of its existence at an early date, and possibly 
it was a survival of the Minster Lodge of the 14th century. 
Assuming that the York MS. No. 4 of 1693 was the property 
of the lodge in that year (which Roll was presented by George 
Walker of Wetherby in 1777), the entry which concludes that 
Scroll is most suggestive, as it gives " The names of the Lodge " 
(members) and the " Lodge Ward(en)." Its influence most 
probably may be also noted at Scarborough, where " A private 
Lodge " was held on the 10th of July 1705, at which the president 
" William Thompson, Esq., and severall others brethren ffree 
Masons " were present, and six gentlemen (named) " were then 
admitted into the said ffraternity." These particulars are en- 
dorsed on the Scarborough MS. of the Old Charges, now owned 
by the Grand Lodge of Canada at Toronto. " A narrow folio 
manuscript Book beginning 7th March 1705-1706," which was 
quoted from in 1778, has long been missing, which is much to be 
regretted, as possibly it gave particulars of the lodge which 
assembled at Bradford, Yorkshire, " when 18 Gentlemen of the 
first families in that neighbourhood were made Masons." There 
is, however, another roll of records from 1712 to 1730 happily 
preserved of this " Ancient Honble. Society and Fraternity 
of Free Masons," sometimes styled " Company " or " Society of 
Free and Accepted Masons." 

Not to be behind the London fratres, the York brethren formed 
a Grand Lodge on the 27th of December 1725 (the " Grand 

3 The Chetwode Crawley MS., by W. J. Hughan (Ars. Q.C., 1904). 

4 The York Grand Lodge, by Messrs. Hughan and Whytehead 
(Ars Q.C., 1900), and Masonic Sketches and Reprints (1871), by the 

8 4 


Lodge of all England" was its modest title), and was flourishing 
for years, receiving into their company many county men of great 
influence. Some twenty years later there was a brief period 
of somnolence, but in 1761 a revival took place, with Francis 
Drake, the historian, as Grand Master, ten lodges being chartered 
in Yorkshire, Cheshire and Lancashire, 1762-1790, and a Grand 
Lodge of England, south of the Trent, in 1779, at London, 
which warranted two lodges. Before the century ended all these 
collapsed or joined the Grand Lodge of England, so there was 
not a single representative of " York Masonry " left on the advent 
of the next century. 

The premier Grand Lodge of England soon began to constitute 
new Lodges in the metropolis, and to reconstitute old ones that 
applied for recognition, one of the earliest of 1720-17 21 being 
still on the Roll as No. 6, thus having kept company ever since 
with the three " time immemorial Lodges," Nos. 2, 4 and 12. 
Applications for constitution kept coming in, the provinces 
being represented from 1723 to 1724, before which time it is likely 
the Grand Lodge of Ireland 1 had been started, about which the 
most valuable Caementaria Hibernica by Dr Chetwode Crawley 
may be consulted with absolute confidence. Provincial Grand 
Lodges were formed to ease the authorities at headquarters, 
and, as the society spread, also for the Continent, and gradually 
throughout the civilized globe. Owing to the custom prevailing 
before the 18th century, a few brethren were competent to form 
lodges on their own initiative anywhere, and hence the registers 
of the British Grand Lodges are not always indicative of the first 
appearance of the craft abroad. In North America 2 lodges were 
held before what is known as the first " regular " lodge was 
formed at Boston, Mass., in 1733, and probably in Canada 3 
likewise. The same remark applies to Denmark, France, Ger- 
many, Holland, Italy, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden and other 
countries. Of the many scores of military lodges, the first war- 
rant was granted by Ireland in 1732. To no other body of 
Freemasons has the craft been so indebted for its prosperity in 
early days as to their military brethren. There were rivals to 
the Grand Lodge of England during the 18th century, one of 
considerable magnitude being known as the Ancients or Atholl 
Masons, formed in 1751, but in December 1813 a junction was 
effected, and from that time the prosperity of the United Grand 
Lodge of England, with few exceptions, has been extraordinary. 
Nothing but a volume to itself could possibly describe the 
main features of the English Craft from 17 17, when Anthony 
Sayer was elected the first Grand Master of a brilliant galaxy 
of rulers. The first nobleman to undertake that office was the 
duke of Montagu in 1721, the natural philosopher J. T. 
Desaguliers being his immediate predecessor, who has been 
credited (and also the Rev. James Anderson) with the honour of 
starting the premier Grand Lodge; but like the fable of Sir 
Christopher Wren having been Grand Master, evidence is entirely 
lacking. Irish and Scottish peers share with those of England 
the distinction of presiding over the Grand Lodge, and from 
1782 to 1813 their Royal Highnesses the duke of Cumberland, 
the prince of Wales, or the duke of Sussex occupied the masonic 
throne. From 1753 to 1813 the rival Grand Lodge had been 
busy, but ultimately a desire for a united body prevailed, and 
under the " ancient " Grand Master, H.R.H. the duke of Kent, 
it was decided to amalgamate with the original ruling organiza- 
tion, H.R.H. the duke of Sussex becoming the Grand Master of 
the United Grand Lodge. On the decease of the prince in 1843 
the earl of Zetland succeeded, followed by the marquess of Ripon 
in 1874, on whose resignation H.R.H. the prince of Wales 
became the Grand Master. Soon after succeeding to the throne, 
1 The celebrated " Lady Freemason," the Hon. Mrs Aldworth 
(nee Miss St Leger, daughter of Lord Doneraile), was initiated in, 
Ireland, but at a much earlier date than popularly supposed; 
certainly not later than 1713, when the venturesome lady was 
twenty. All early accounts of the occurrence must be received with 
caution, as there are no contemporary records of the event. 

1 History of Freemasonry, by Dr A. G. Mackey (New York, 1898), 
and the History of the Fraternity Publishing Company, Boston, 
Mass., give very full particulars as to the United States. 

•See History of Freemasonry in Canada (Toronto, 1899), by J. 
Ross Robertson. 

King Edward VII. ceased to govern the English craft, and was 
succeeded by H.R.H. the duke of Connaught. From 1737 to 
1907 some sixteen English princes of the royal blood joined the 

From 1723 to 1813 the number of lodges enrolled in England 
amounted to 1626, and from 1814 to the end of December 1909 
as many as 3352 were warranted, making a grand total of 4978, 
of which the last then granted was numbered 3185. There were 
in 1909 still 2876 on the register, notwithstanding the many 
vacancies created by the foundation of new Grand Lodges in the 
colonies and elsewhere. 4 

Distribution and Organization. — The advantage of the cosmo- 
politan basis of the fraternity generally (though some Grand 
Lodges still preserve the original Christian foundation) has been 
conspicuously manifested and appreciated in India and other 
countries where the votaries of numerous religious systems 
congregate; but the unalterable basis of a belief in the Great 
Architect of the Universe remains, for without such a recognition 
there can be no Freemasonry, and it is now, as it always has been, 
entirely free from party politics. The charities of the Society in 
England, Ireland and Scotland are extensive and well organized, 
their united cost per day not being less than £500, an d with those 
of other Grand Lodges throughout the world must amount to 
a very large sum, there being over two millions of Freemasons. 
The vast increase of late years, both of lodges and members, 
however, calls for renewed vigilance and extra care in selecting 
candidates, • that numbers may not be a source of weakness 
instead of strength. 

In its internal organization, the working of Freemasonry 
involves an elaborate system of symbolic ritual, 6 as carried out 
at meetings of the various lodges, uniformity as to essentials 
being the rule. The members are classified in numerous degrees, 
of which the first three are " Entered Apprentice," " Fellow 
Craft " and " Master Mason," each class of which, after initia- 
tion, can only be attained after passing a prescribed ordeal or 
examination, as a test of ' proficiency, corresponding to the 
" essays " of the operative period. 

The lodges have their own by-laws for guidance, subject to 
the Book of Constitutions of their Grand Lodge, and the regula- 
tions of the provincial or district Grand. Lodge if located in 
counties or held abroad. 

It is to be regretted that on the continent of Europe Free- 
masonry has sometimes developed on different lines from that 
of the " Mother Grand Lodge " and Anglo-Saxon Grand Lodges 
generally, and through its political and anti-religious tendencies 
has come into contact or conflict with the state authorities 6 
or the Roman Catholic church. The " Grand Orient of France " 
(but not the Supreme Council 33°, and its Grand Lodge) is an 
example of this retrograde movement, by its elimination of 
the paragraph referring to a belief in the " Great Architect of 
the Universe " from its Statuts et riglements gSneraux. This 
deplorable action has led to the withdrawal of all regular Grand 
Lodges from association with that body, and such separation 
must continue until a return is made to the ancient and inviolable 
landmark of the society, which makes it impossible for an atheist 
either to join or continue a member of the fraternity. 

The Grand Lodge of England constituted its first lodge in 
Paris in the year 1732, but one was formed still earlier on the 
continent at Gibraltar 17 28-1 7 29. Others were also opened in 
Germany 1733, Portugal 1735, Holland 1735, Switzerland 1740, 
Denmark 1745, Italy 1763, Belgium 1765, Russia 1771, and 

4 The Masonic Records 1717-1894, by John Lane, and the ex- 
cellent Masonic Yearbook, published annually by the Grand Lodge 
of England, are the two standard works on Lodge enumeration, 
localization and nomenclature. For particulars of the Grand Lodges, 
and especially that of England, Gould's History is most useful and 
trustworthy; and for an original contribution to the history of the 
rival Grand Lodge or Atholl Masons, Sadler's Masonic Facts and 

6 " A peculiar system of Morality, veiled in Allegory and illus- 
trated by Symbols " (old definition of Freemasonry). 

6 The British House of Commons in 1799 and 1817, in acts of 
parliament, specifically recognized the laudable character of the 
society and provided for its continuance on definite lines. 



Sweden 1773. In most of these countries Grand Lodges were 
subsequently created and continue to this date, save that in 
Austria (not Hungary) and Russia no masonic lodges have for 
some time been permitted to assemble. There is a union of Grand 
Lodges of Germany, and an annual Diet is held for the transaction 
of business affecting the several masonic organizations in that 
country, which works well. H.R.H. Prince Frederick Leopold 
was in 1909 Protector, or the " Wisest Master " (Vicarius 
Salomonis). King Gustav V. was the Grand Master + of the 
freemasons in Sweden, and the sovereign of the " Order of Charles 
XIII.," the only one of the kind confined to members of the 

Lodges were constituted in India from 1730 (Calcutta), 1752 
(Madras), and r758 (Bombay); in Jamaica 1742, Antigua 1738, 
and St Christopher 1739; soon after which period the Grand 
Lodges of England, Ireland and Scotland had representatives 
at work throughout the civilized world. 

In no part, however, outside Great Britain has the craft 
flourished so much as in the United States of America, where the 
first "regular" lodge (i.e. according to the new regime) was 
opened in 1733 at Boston, Mass. Undoubtedly lodges had 
been meeting still earlier, one of which was held at Philadelphia, 
Penna., with records from 1731, which blossomed into a Grand 
Lodge, but no authority has yet been traced for its proceedings, 
save that which may be termed " time immemorial right," 
which was enjoyed by all lodges and brethren who were at work 
prior to the Grand Lodge era (1716-1717) or who declined to 
recognize the autocratic proceedings of the premier Grand Lodge 
of England, just as the brethren did in the city of York. A 
" deputation " was granted to Daniel Coxe, Esq. of New Jersey, 
by the duke of Norfolk, Grand Master, 5th of June 1730, as 
Prov. Grand Master of the " Provinces of New York, New Jersey 
and Pensilvania," but there is no evidence that he ever constituted 
any lodges or exercised any masonic authority in virtue thereof. 
Henry Price as Prov. Grand Master of New England, and his 
lodge, which was opened on the 31st of August 1733, in the city 
of Boston, so far as is known, began " regular " Freemasonry in 
the United States, and the older and independent organization 
was soon afterwards " regularized." Benjamin Franklin (an 
Initiate of the lodge of Philadelphia) printed and published the 
Book of Constitutions, 1723 (of London, England), in the " City 
of Brotherly Love " in 1734, being the oldest masonic work in 
America. English and Scottish Grand Lodges were soon after 
petitioned to grant warrants to hold lodges, and by the end of 
the 18th century several Grand Lodges were formed, the Craft 
becoming very popular, partly no doubt by reason of so many 
prominent men joining the fraternity, of whom the chief was 
George Washington, initiated in a Scottish lodge at Fredericks- 
burg, Virginia, in 1752-1753. In 1907 there were fifty Grand 
Lodges assembling in the United States, with considerably over 
a million members. 

In Canada in 1909 there were eight Grand Lodges, having 
about 64,000 members. Freemasonry in the Dominion is be- 
lieved to date from 1 740. The Grand Lodges are all of com- 
paratively recent organization, the oldest and largest, with 
40,000 members, being for Ontario; those of Manitoba, Nova 
Scotia and Quebec numbering about 5000 each. There are 
some seven Grand Lodges in Australia; South Australia coming 
first as a " sovereign body," followed closely by New South 
Wales and Victoria (of 1884-1889 constitution), the whole of 
the lodges in the Commonwealth probably having fully 50,000 
members on the registers. 

There are many additional degrees which may be taken or not 
(being quite optional), and dependent on a favourable ballot; 
the difficulty, however, of obtaining admission increases as pro J 
gress is made, the numbers accepted decreasing rapidly with each 
advancement. The chief of these are arranged in separate 
classes and are governed either by the " Grand Chapter of the 
Royal Arch," the " Mark Grand Lodge," the " Great Priory of 
Knights Templars " or the " Ancient and Accepted Rite," these 
being mutually complementary and intimately connected as 
respects England, and more or less so in Ireland, Scotland, 

North America and wherever worked on a similar basis; the 
countries of the continent of Europe have also their own Hauies 
Grades. (W. J. H. *). 

FREEPORT, a city and the county-seat of Stephenson county, 
Illinois, in the N.W. part of the state, on the Pecatonica river, 
30 m. from its mouth and about ioo v m. N.W. of Chicago. Pop. 
(1890) 10,189; (1900) 13,258, of whom 2264 were foreign-born; 
(1910 census) 17,567. The city is served by the Chicago & 
North-Western, the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul, and the 
Illinois Central railways, and by the Rockford & Interurban 
electric railway. The Illinois Central connects at South Free- 
port, about 3 m. S. of Freeport, with the Chicago Great Western 
railway. Among Freeport 's manufactures are foundry and 
machine shop products, carriages, hardware specialties, patent 
medicines, windmills, engines, incubators, organs, beer and 
shoes. The Illinois Central has large railway repair shops here. 
The total value of the city's factory product in 1905 was 
$3,109,302, an increase of 14-8% since 1900. In the sur- 
rounding country cereals are grown, and swine and poultry are 
raised. Dairying is an important industry also. The city 
has a Carnegie library (1901). In the Court House Square is 
a monument, 80 ft. high, in memory of the soldiers who died 
in the Civil War. At the corner of Douglas Avenue and 
Mechanic Street a granite boulder commemorates the famous 
debate between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas, 
held in Freeport on the 27th of August 1858. In that debate 
Lincoln emphasized the differences between himself and the 
radical anti-slavery men, and in answer to one of Lincoln's 
questions Douglas declared that the people of a territory, through 
" unfriendly " laws or denial of legislative protection, could 
exclude slavery, and that " it matters not what way the Supreme 
Court may hereafter decide on the abstract question whether 
slavery may or may not go into a territory under the Constitu- 
tion." This, the so-called " Freeport doctrine," greatly weakened 
Douglas in the presidential election of i860. Freeport was 
settled in 1835, was laid out and named Winneshiek in 1836, 
and in 1837 under its present name was made the county-seat 
of Stephenson county. * It was incorporated as a town in 1850 
and chartered as a city in 1855. 

FREE PORTS, a term, strictly speaking, given to localities 
where no customs duties are levied, and where no customs super- 
vision exists. In these ports (subject to payment for specific 
services rendered, wharfage, storage, &c, and to the observance 
of local police and sanitary regulations) ships load and unload,, 
cargoes are deposited and handled, industries are exercised, 
manufactures are carried on, goods are bought and sold, without 
any action on the part of fiscal authorities. Ports are likewise 
designated " free " where a space or zone exists within which 
commercial operations are conducted without payment of import 
or export duty, and without active interference on the part of 
customs authorities. The French and German designations 
for these two descriptions of ports are — for the former La Ville 
franche, Freihsfen; for the latter Le Port franc, Freibezirk or 
Freilager. The English phrase free port applies to both. 1 The 
leading conditions under which free ports in Europe derived their 
origin were as follows: — (1) When public order became re- 
established during the middle ages, trading centres were gradually 
formed: Marts for the exchange and purchase of goods arose in 
different localities. Many Italian settlements, constituting free 
zones, were established in the Levant. The Hanseatic towns 
arose in the 12th century. Great fairs became recognized — 
the Leipzig charter was granted in 1268. These localities were 
free as regards customs duties, although dues of the nature of 
octroi charges were often levied. (2) Until the 19th century 
European states were numerous, and often of small size. Accord- 
ingly uniform customs tariffs of wide application did not exist. 

1 In China at the present time (1902) certain ports are designated 
" free and open." This phrase means that the ports in question are 
(1) open to foreign trade, and (2) that vessels engaged in oversea 
voyages may freely resort there. Exemption from payment of 
customs duties is not implied, which is a matter distinct from the 
permission granted under treaty engagements to foreign vessels to 
carry cargoes to and from the " treaty ports." 



Uniform rates of duty were fixed in England by the Subsidy Act 
of 1660. In France, before the Revolution (besides the free 
ports), Alsace and the Lorraine Bishoprics were in trade matters 
treated as foreign countries. The unification of the German 
customs tariff began in 1834 with the Steuerverein and the 
Zollverein. The Spanish fiscal system did not include the Basque 
provinces until about 1850. The uniform Italian tariff dates from 
1861. Thus until very recent times on the Continent free ports 
were compatible with the fiscal policy and practice of different 
countries. (3) Along the Mediterranean coast, up to the 19th 
century, convenient shelter was needed from corsairs. In other 
continental countries the prevalent colonial and mercantile 
policy sought to create trans-oceanic trade. Free ports were 
advantageous from all these points of view. 

In following the history of these harbours in Europe, it is to be 
observed that in Great Britain free ports have never existed. In 
1552 it was contemplated to place Hull and Southampton on this 
footing, but the design was abandoned. Subsequently the bonding 
and not the free port system was adopted in the United Kingdom. 

Austria-Hungary. — Fiume and Trieste were respectively free ports 
during the periods 1722-1893 and 1719-1893. 

Belgium. — The emperor Joseph II. during his visit to the Austrian 
Netherlands in June 1781 endeavoured to create a direct trade 
between that country and India. Ostend was made a free port, 
and large bonding facilities were afforded at Bruges, Brussels, Ghent 
and Lou vain. In 1796, however, the revolutionary government 
abolished the Ostend privileges. 

Denmark. — In November 1894 an area of about 150 acres at 
Copenhagen was opened as a free port, and great facilities are 
afforded for shipping and commercial operations in order that the 
Baltic trade may centre there. 

France. — Marseilles was a free port in the middle ages, and so 
was Dunkirk when it formed part of Flanders. In 1669 these privi- 
leges were confirmed, and extended to Bayonne. In 1784 there was 
a fresh confirmation, and Lorient and St Jean de Luz were included 
in the ordonnance. The National Assembly in 1790 maintained 
this policy, and created free ports in the French West Indies. In 
1795, however, all such privileges were abolished, but large bonding 
facilities were allowed at Marseilles to favour the Leva nt trade. The 
government of Louis XVIII. in 1814 restored, and in 1871 again 
revoked, the free port privileges of Marseilles. There are now no 
free ports in France or in French possessions; the bonding system 
is in force. 

Germany. — Bremen, Hamburg and Liibeck were reconstituted 
free towns and ports under the treaties of 1814-1815. Certain minor 
ports, and several landing-stages on the Rhine and the Neckar, 
were also designated free. As the Zollverein policy became accepted 
throughout Germany, previous privileges were gradually lessened, 
and since 1888 only Hamburg remains a free port. There an area 
of about 2500 acres is exempt from customs duties and control, 
and is largely used for shipping and commercial purposes. Bremer- 
haven has a similar area of nearly 700 acres. Brake, Bremen, Cux- 
haven, Emden, Geestemiinde, Neufahrwasser and Stettin possess 
Freibezirke areas, portions of the larger port. Heligoland is outside 
the Zollverein — practically a foreign country. 

In Italy free ports were numerous and important, and possessed 
privileges which varied at different dates. They were — Ancona, 
during the period 1696-1868; Brindisi, 1 845-1 862; Leghorn (in 
the 17th and 18th centuries a very important Mediterranean har- 
bour), 1675-1867; Messina, 1695-1879; Senigallia, 1821-1868, 
during the month of the local fair. Venice possessed warehouses, 
equivalent to bonded stores, for German and Turkish trade during 
the Republic, and was a free port 1851-1873. Genoa was a free port 
in the time of the Republic and under the French Empire, and was 
continued as such by the treaties of 1814-1815. The free port was, 
however, changed into a " deposito franco " by a law passed in 1865, 
and only storing privileges now remain. 

Rumania. — Braila, Galatz and Kustenji were free ports (for a 
period of about forty years) up to 1883, when bonded warehouses 
were established by the Rumanian government. Sulina remains free. 
Russia. — Archangel was a free port, at least for English goods, 
from 1553 to 1648. During this period English products were 
admitted into Russia via Archangel without any customs payment 
for internal consumption, and also in transit to Persia. The tsar 
Alexis revoked this grant on the execution of Charles I. Free 
ports were opened in 1895 at Kola, in Russian Lapland. Dalny, 
adjoining Port Arthur, was a free port during the Russian occupation ; 
and Japan after the war decided to renew this privilege as soon as 

The number of free ports outside Europe has also lessened. The 
administrative policy of European countries has been gradually 
adopted in other parts of the world, and customs duties have become 
almost universal, conjoined with bonding and transhipment facilities. 
In British colonies and possessions, under an act of parliament 
passed in 1766, and repealed in 1867, two ports in Dominica and four 
in Jamaica were free, Malacca, Penang and Singapore have been 

free ports since 1824, Hong-Kong since 1842, and Weihaiwei since 
it was leased to Great Britain in 1898. Zanzibar was a free port 
during 1892-1899. Aden, Gibraltar, St Helena and St Thomas 
(West Indies) are sometimes designated free ports. A few duties 
are, however, levied, which are really octroi rather than customs 
charges. These places are mainly stations for coaling and awaiting 

Some harbours in the Netherlands East Indies were free ports 
between 1829 and 1899 ; but these privileges were withdrawn by laws 
passed in 1898-1899, in order to establish uniformity of customs 
administration. Harbours where custom houses are not maintained 
will be practically closed to foreign trade, though the governor- 
general may in special circumstances vary the application of the 
new regulations. 

Macao has been a free port since 1845. Portugal has no other 
harbour of this character. 

The American Republics have adopted the bonding system. In 
1896 a free wharf was opened at New Orleans in imitation of the 
recent European plan. Livingstone (Guatemala) was a free port 
during the period 1882-1888. 

The privileges enjoyed under the old free port system benefited 
the towns and districts where they existed; and their aboli- 
tion has been, locally, injurious. These places were, however, 
" foreign " to their own country, and their inland intercourse 
was restricted by the duties levied on their products, and by the 
precautions adopted to prevent evasion of these charges. With 
fiscal usages involving preferential and deferential treatment 
of goods and places, the drawbacks thus arising did not attract 
serious attention. Under the limited means of communication 
within and beyond the country, in former times, these con- 
veniences were not much felt. But when finance departments 
became more completely organized, the free port system fell out 
of favour with fiscal authorities: it afforded opportunities for 
smuggling, and impeded uniformity of action and practice. 
It became, in fact, out of harmony with the administrative and 
financial policy of later times. Bonding and entrepot facilities, 
on a scale commensurate with local needs, now satisfy trade 
requirements. In countries where high customs duties are levied, 
and where fiscal regulations are minute and rigid, if an extension 
of foreign trade is desired, and the competition which it involves 
is a national aim, special facilities must be granted for this pur- 
pose. In these circumstances a free zone sufficiently large to 
admit of commercial operations and transhipments on a scale 
which will fulfil these conditions (watched but not interfered with 
by the customs) becomes indispensable. The German govern- 
ment have, as we have seen, maintained a free zone of this nature 
at Hamburg. And when the free port at Copenhagen was opened , 
counter measures were adopted at Danzig and Stettin. An 
agitation has arisen in France to provide at certain ports free 
zones similar to those at Copenhagen and Hamburg, and to open 
free ports in French possessions. A bill to this effect was sub- 
mitted to the chamber of deputies on the 12th of April 1905. 
Colonial free ports, such as Hong-Kong and Singapore, do not 
interfere -with the uniformity of the home customs and excise 
policy. These two harbours in particular have become great 
shipping resorts and distributing centres. The policy which led 
to their establishment as free ports has certainly promoted 
British commercial interests. 

See the Parliamentary Paper on " Continental Free Ports," 1904. 

(C. M. K. ) 

FREE REED VIBRATOR (Fr. anche libre, Ger. durchschlagende 
Zunge, Ital. ancia or lingua libera), in musical instruments, a 
thin metal tongue fixed at one end and vibrating freely either 
in surrounding space, as in the accordion and concertina, or 
enclosed in a pipe or channel, as in certain reed stops of the 
organ or in the harmonium. The enclosed reed, in its typical 
and theoretical form, is fixed over an aperture of the same shape 
but just large enough to allow it to swing freely backwards and 
forwards, alternately opening and closing the aperture, when 
driven by a current of compressed air. We have to deal with 
air under three different conditions in considering the phenome- 
non of the sound produced by free reeds. (1) The stationary 
column or stratum in pipe or channel containing the reed, which 
is normally at rest. (2) The wind or current of air fed from the 
bellows with a variable velocity and pressure, which is broken 
up into periodic air puffs as its entrance into pipe or channel is 



alternately checked or allowed by the vibrator. (3) The disturbed 
condition of No. 1 when acted upon by the metal vibrator and 
by No 2, whereby the air within the pipe is forced into alternate 
pulses of condensation and rarefaction. The free reed is there- 
fore not the tone-producer but only the exciting agent, that is 
to say, the sound is not produced by the communication of 
the free reed's vibrations to the surrounding air, 1 as in the case 
of a vibrating string, but by the series of air puffs punctuated by 
infinitesimal pauses, which it produces by alternately opening 
and almost closing the aperture. 2 A musical sound is thus 
produced the pitch of which depends on the length and thick- 
ness of the metal tongue; the greater the length, the slower 
the vibrations and the lower the pitch, while on the contrary, 
the thicker the reed near the shoulder at the fixed end, the 
higher the pitch. It must be borne in mind that the periodic 
vibrations of the reed determine the pitch of the sound solely 
by the frequency per second they impose upon the pulses of 
rarefaction and condensation within the pipe. 

The most valuable characteristic of the free reed is its power 
of producing all the delicate gradations of tone between forte and 
piano by virtue of a law of acoustics 
governing the vibration of free reeds, 
whereby increased pressure of wind pro- 
duces a proportional increase in the 
volume of tone. The pitch of any sound 
depends upon the frequency of the 
sound-waves, that is, the number per 
second which reach the ear; the fullness 
of sound depends upon the amplitude 
of the waves, or, more strictly speaking, 
of the swing of the transmitting particles 
of the medium — greater pressure in the 
air current (No. 2 above) which sets the 
vibrator in motion producing amplitude 
of vibration in the air within the re- 
ceptacle (No. 3 above) serving as reson- 
ating medium. The sound produced by 
the free reed itself is weak and requires 
to be reinforced by means of an ad- 
ditional stationary column or stratum of 
air. Free reed instruments are therefore 
classified according to the nature of the 
resonant medium provided: — (1) Free 
reeds vibrating in pipes, such as the reed 
stops of church organs on the continent 
of Europe (in England the reed pipes are generally provided 
with beating reeds, see Reed Instruments and Clarinet). 
(2) Free reeds vibrating in reed compartments and reinforced 
by air chambers of various shapes and sizes as in the har- 
monium (q.v.). (3) Instruments like the accordion and con- 
certina having the free reed set in vibration through a valve, 
but having no reinforcing medium. 

The arrangement of the free reed in an organ pipe is simple, 
and does not differ greatly from that of the beating reed shown 
in fig. 2 for the purpose of comparison. The reed-box, a rect- 
angular wooden pipe, is closed at the bottom and covered on one 
face with a thin plate of copper having a rectangular slit over 
which is fixed the thin metal vibrating tongue or reed as described 
above. The reed-box, itself open at the top, is enclosed in a feed 
pipe having a conical foot pierced with a small hole through 
which the air current is forced by the action of the bellows. 
The impact of the incoming compressed air against the reed 
tongue sets it swinging through the slit, thus causing a disturb- 
ance or series of pulsations within the reed-box. The air then 
finds an escape through the resonating medium of a pipe fitting 
over the reed-box and terminating in an inverted cone covered 
with a cap in the top of which is pierced a small hole or vent. 
The quality of tone of free reeds is due to the tendency of air set 
'See H. Hclmholtz, Die Lehre von den Tonempfindungen (Bruns- 
wick. 1877), p. 166. 

! See also Ernst Heinrich and Wilhelm Weber, Wellenlehre 
(Leipzig, 1825), where a particularly lucid explanation of the pheno- 
menon is given, pp. 526-530. 

From J- B. Biof, Traiti de 
Physique experimentaie. 

Fig. 1. — Grenie's 

organ pipe fitted with 

free-reed vibrator. 

A, Tuning wire. 

D, Free reed. 

R, Reed-box. 

B,C, Feed pipe with 
conical foot. 

T, Part of resonating 
pipe, the upper end 
with cap and vent 
hole being shown 
separately at the 

in periodic pulsations to divide into aliquot vibrations or loops, 

producing the phenomenon known as 

harmonic overtones or upper partials, 

which may, in the highly composite 

clang of free reeds, be discerned as far 

as the 1 6th or 20th of the series. The 

more intermittent and interrupted the 

air current becomes, the greater the 

number of the upper partials produced. 3 

The power of the overtones and their 

relation to the fundamental note depend 

greatly upon the form of the tongue, its 

position and the amount of the clearance 

left as it swings through the aperture. 

Free reeds not associated with reson- 
ating media as in the concertina are 
peculiarly rich in harmonics, but as the 
higher harmonics lie very close together, 
disagreeable dissonances and a harsh 
tone result. The resonating pipe or 
chamber when suitably accommodated 
to the reed greatly modifies the tone by 
reinforcing the harmonics proper to itself, 
the others sinking into comparative insignificance. 

Fig. 2. — Organ pipe 
fitted with beatingreed. 
AL, Beating reed. 
R, Reed box. 
F/, Tuning wire. 
TV, Feed pipe. 
VV, Conical foot. 
S, Hole through 

which compressed 

air is fed. 

In order to 

produce a full rich tone, a resonator should be chosen whose 
deepest note coincides with the fundamental tone of the reed. 
The other upper partials will also be reinforced thereby, but to 
a less degree the higher the harmonics. 4 

For the history of the application of the free reed to keyboard 
instruments see Harmonium. (K. S.) 

FREESIA, in botany, a genus of plants belonging to the Iris 
family (Iridaceae), and containing a single species, F. refracta, 
native at the Cape of Good Hope. The plants grow from a corm 
(a solid bulb, as in Gladiolus) which sends up a tuft of long 
narrow leaves and a slightly branched stem bearing a few leaves 
and loose one-sided spikes of fragrant narrowly funnel-shaped 
flowers. Several varieties are known in cultivation, differing 
in the colour of the flower, which is white, cream or yellow. 
They form pretty greenhouse plants which are readily increased 
from seed. They are extensively grown for the market in 
Guernsey, England and America. By potting successively 
throughout the autumn a supply of flowers is obtained through 
winter and spring. Some very fine large-flowered varieties, 
including rose-coloured ones, are now being raised by various 
growers in England, and are a great improvement on the older 

FREE SOIL PARTY, a political party in the United States, 
which was organized in 1847-1848 to oppose the extension of 
slavery into the Territories. It was a combination of the political 
abolitionists — many of whom had formerly been identified with 
the more radical Liberty party — the anti-slavery Whigs, and the 
faction of the Democratic party in the state of New York, called 
" Barnburners," who favoured the prohibition of slavery, in 
accordance with the " Wilmot Proviso " (see Wilmot, David), 
in the territory acquired from Mexico. The party was prominent 
in the presidential campaigns of 1848 and 1852. At the national 
convention held in Buffalo, N.Y., on the oth and 10th of August 
1848, they secured the nomination to the presidency of ex- 
President Martin Van Buren, who had failed to secure nomination 
by the Democrats in 1844 because of his opposition to the annexa- 
tion of Texas, and of Charles Francis Adams, of Massachusetts, 
for the vice-presidency, taking as their "platform " a Declaration 
that Congress, having " no more power to make a slave than to 
make a king," was bound to restrict slavery to the slave states, 
and concluding, " we inscribe on our banner 'Free Soil, Free 
Speech,Free Labor and Free Man,' and under it we will fight on and 
fight ever, until a triumphant victory shall reward our exertions." 
The Liberty party had previously, in November 1847, nominated 

3 See Helmholtz, op. cit, p. 167. 

4 These phenomena are clearly explained at greater length by 
Sedley Taylor in Sound and Music (London, 1896), pp. 134-153 and 
pp. 74-86. See also Friedrich Zamminer, Die Musik und die musika- Instrument*, &c. (Giessen, 1855), p. 261. 



John P. Hale and Leicester King as president and vice-president 
respectively, but in the spring of 1848 it withdrew its candidates 
and joined the "free soil" movement. Representatives of 
eighteen states, including Delaware, Maryland and Virginia, 
attended the Buffalo convention. In the ensuing presidential 
election Van Buren and Adams received a popular vote of 
291,263, of which 120,510 were cast in New York. They re- 
ceived no electoral votes, all these being divided between the 
Whig candidate, Zachary Taylor, who was elected, and the 
Democratic candidate, Lewis Cass. The " free soilers," however, 
succeeded in sending to the thirty-first Congress two senators 
and fourteen representatives, who by their ability exercised an 
influence out of proportion to their number. 

Between 1848 and 1852 the " Barnburners " and the " Hunkers," 
their opponents, became partially reunited, the former returning 
to the Democratic ranks, and thus greatly weakening the Free 
Soilers. The party held its national convention at Pittsburg, 
Pennsylvania, on the nth of August 1852, delegates being 
present from all the free states, and from Delaware, Maryland, 
Virginia and Kentucky; and John P. Hale, of New Hampshire, 
and George W. Julian of Indiana, were nominated for the 
presidency and the vice-presidency respectively, on a platfqrm 
which declared slavery " a sin against God and a crime against 
man," denounced the Compromise Measures of 1850, the fugitive 
slave law in particular, and again opposed the extension of 
slavery in the Territories. These candidates, however, received 
no electoral votes and a popular vote of only 156,149, of 
which but 25,329 were polled in New York. By 1856 they aban- 
doned their separate organization and joined the movement 
which resulted in the formation of the powerful Republican 
party (g.v.), of which the Free Soil party was the legitimate 

FREE-STONE (a translation of the O. Fr. franche pere or pierre, 
i.e. stone of good quality; the modern French equivalent is 
pierre de taille, and Ital. pietra molle), stone used in architecture 
for mouldings, tracery and other work required to be worked 
with the chisel. The oolitic stones are generally so called, 
although in some countries soft sandstones are used; in some 
churches an indurated chalk called " clunch " is employed for 
internal lining and for carving. 

FREETOWN, capital of the British colony of Sierra Leone, 
West Africa, on the south side of the Sierra Leone estuary, about 
5 m. from the cape of that name, in 8° 29' N., 13° 10' W. Pop. 
(1901) 34,463. About 500 of the inhabitants are Europeans. 
Freetown is picturesquely situated on a plain, closed in behind 
by a succession of wooded hills, the Sierra Leone, rising to a height 
of 1700 ft. As nearly every house is surrounded by a courtyard 
or garden, the town covers an unusually large area for the number 
of its inhabitants. It possesses few buildings of architectural 
merit. The principal are the governor's residence and govern- 
ment offices, the barracks, the cathedral, the missionary institu- 
tions, the fruit market, Wilberforce Hall, courts of justice, 
the railway station and the grammar school. Several of these 
institutions are built on the slopes of the hills, and on the highest 
point, Sugar Loaf Mountain, is a sanatorium. The botanic 
gardens form a pleasant and favourite place of resort. The roads 
are wide but badly kept. Horses do not live, and all wheeled 
traffic is done by manual labour — hammocks and sedan-chairs 
are the customary means of locomotion. Notwithstanding that 
Freetown possesses an abundant and pure water-supply, drawn 
from the adjacent hills, it is enervating and unhealthy, and it 
was particularly to the capital, often spoken of as Sierra Leone, 
that the designation "White Man's Grave" applied. Since the 
beginning of the 20th century strenuous efforts have been made 
to improve the sanitary condition by a new system of drainage, 
a better water service, the filling up of marshes wherein the 
malarial mosquito breeds, and in other directions. A light 
railway 6 m. long, opened in 1904, has been built to Hill Station 
(900 ft. high), where, on a healthy site, are the residences of the 
government officials and of other Europeans. As a consequence 
the public health has improved, the highest death-rate in the 
years 1901-1907 being 29-6 per 1000. The town is governed 

by a municipality (created in 1893) with a mayor and councillors, 
the large majority being elective. Freetown was the first place 
in British West Africa granted local self-government. 

Both commercially and strategically Freetown is a place of 
importance. Its harbour affords ample accommodation for the 
largest fleets, it is a coaling station for the British navy, the head- 
quarters of the British military forces in West Africa, the sea 
terminus of the railway to the rich oil-palm regions of Mendiland, 
and a port of call for all steamers serving West Africa. Its 
inhabitants are noted for their skill as traders; the town itself 
produces nothing in the way of exports. 

In consequence of the character of the original settlement 
(see Sierra Leone), 75% of the inhabitants are descended from 
non-indigenous Negro races. As many as 150 different tribes 
are represented in the Sierra Leonis of to-day. Their semi- 
Europeanization is largely the result of missionary endeavour. 
The only language of the lower class is pidgin-English — quite 
incomprehensible to the. newcomer from Great Britain, — but 
a large proportion of the inhabitants are highly educated men 
who excel as lawyers, clergymen, clerks and traders. Many 
members of the upper, that is, the best-educated, class have 
filled official positions of great responsibility. The most noted 
citizens are Bishop Crowther and Sir Samuel Lewis, chief justice 
of Sierra Leone 1882-1894. Both were full-blooded Africans. 
The Kru-men form a distinct section of the community, living 
in a separate quarter and preserving their tribal customs. 

Since 1861-1862 there has been an independent Episcopal 
Native Church; but the Church Missionary Society, which in 
1804 sent out the first missionaries to Sierra Leone, still maintains 
various agencies. Furah Bay College, built by the society on 
the site of General Charles Turner's estate (1 J m. E. of Freetown), 
and opened in 1828 with six pupils, one of whom was Bishop 
Crowther, was affiliated in 1876 to Durham University and has 
a high-class curriculum. The Wesleyans have a high school, a 
theological college, and other educative agencies. The Moslems, 
who are among the most law-abiding and intelligent citizens of 
Freetown, have several state-aided primary schools. 

FREE TRADE, an expression which has now come to be 
appropriated to the economic policy of encouraging the greatest 
possible commercial intercourse, unrestricted by " protective " 
duties (see Protection), between any, one country and its neigh- 
bours. This policy was originally advocated in France, and it 
has had its adherents in many countries, but Great Britain 
stands alone among the great commercial nations of the world 
in having adopted it systematically from 1846 onwards as the 
fundamental principle of her economic policy. 

In the economic literature of earlier periods, it may be noted 
that the term " free trade " is employed in senses which have no 
relation to modern usage. The term conveyed no suggestion 
of unrestricted trade or national liberty when it first appeared 
in controversial pamphlets; 1 it stood for a freedom conferred 
and maintained by authority — like that of a free town. The 
merchants desired to have good regulations for trade so that they 
might be free from the disabilities imposed upon them by 
foreign princes or unscrupulous fellow-subjects. After 1640 the 
term seems to have been commonly current in a different sense. 
When the practice which had been handed down from the middle 
ages — of organizing the trade with particular countries by means 
of privileged companies, which professed to regulate the trade 
according to the state of the market so as to secure its steady 
development in the interest of producers and traders — was 
seriously called in question under the Stuarts and at the Revolu- 
tion, the interlopers and opponents of the companies insisted 
on the advantages of a " Free Trade "; they meant by this 
that the various branches of commerce should not be confined 
to particular persons or limited in amount, but should be thrown 
open to be pursued by any Englishman in the way he thought 
most profitable himself. 2 Again, in the latter half of the 18th 

1 E. Misselden, Free Trade or the Meanes to make Trade Flourish 
(1622), p. 68; G. Malynes, The Maintenance of Free Trade (1622), 
p. 105. 

2 H. Parker, Of a Free Trade (1648), p. 8. 



century, till Pitt's financial reforms ' were brought into operation, 
the English customs duties on wine and brandy were excessive; 
and those who carried on a remunerative business by evading 
these duties were known as Fair Traders or Free Traders. 2 
Since 1846 the term free trade has been popularly used, in 
England, to designate the policy of Cobden {q.v.) and others who 
advocated the abolition of the tax on imported corn (see Corn 
Laws) ; this is the only one of the specialized senses of the term 
which is at all likely to be confused with the economic doctrine. 
The Anti-Corn Law movement was, as a matter of fact, a special 
application of the economic principle; but serious mistakes have 
arisen from the blunder of confusing the part with the whole, 
and treating the remission of one particular duty as if it were the 
essential element of a policy in which it was only an incident. 
W. E. Gladstone, in discussing the effect of improvements in 
locomotion on British trade, showed what a large proportion of 
the stimulus to commerce during the 19th century was to be 
credited to what he called the " liberalizing legislation " of the 
free-trade movement in the wide sense in which he used the term. 
" I rank the introduction of cheap postage for letters, docu- 
ments, patterns and printed matter, and the abolition of all taxes 
on printed matter, in the category of Free Trade Legislation. 
Not only thought in general, but every communication, and every 
publication, relating to matters of business, was thus set free. 
These great measures, then, may well take their place beside the 
abolition of prohibitions and protective duties, the simplifying 
of revenue laws, and the repeal of the Navigation Act, as forming 
together the great code of industrial emancipation. Under this 
code, our race, restored to freedom in mind and hand, and braced 
by the powerful stimulus of open competition with the world, has 
upon the whole surpassed itself and every other, and has won for 
itself a commercial primacy more evident, more comprehensive, 
and more solid than it had at any previous time possessed." 3 
In this large sense free trade may be almost interpreted as the 
combination of the doctrines of the division of labour and of 
laissez-faire in regard to the world as a whole. The division of 
labour between different countries of the world — so that each 
concentrates its energies in supplying that for the production 
of which it is best fitted — appears to offer the greatest possi- 
bility of production; but this result cannot be secured unless 
trade and industry are treated as the primary elements in the 
welfare of each community, and political considerations are not 
allowed to hamper them. 

Stated in its simplest form, the principle which underlies the 
doctrine of free trade is almost a truism; it is directly deducible 
from the very notion of exchange (q.v.). Adam Smith and his 
successors have demonstrated that in every case of voluntary 
exchange each party gains something that is of greater value-in- 
use to him than that with which he parts, and that consequently 
in every exchange, either between individuals or between 
nations, both parties are the gainers. Hence it necessarily 
follows that, since both parties gain through exchanging, the more 
facilities there are for exchange the greater will be the advantage 
to every individual all round. 4 There is no difficulty in translat- 
ing this principle into the terms of actual life, and stating the 
conditions in which it holds good absolutely. If, at any given 
moment, the mass of goods in the world were distributed among 
the consumers with the minimum of restriction on interchange, 
each competitor would obtain the largest possible share of the 
things he procures in the world's market. But the argument 
is less conclusive when the element of time is taken into account; 
what is true of each moment separately is not necessarily true 
of any period in which the conditions of production, or the 
requirements of communities, may possibly change. Each 
individual is likely to act with reference to his own future, but 

1 (1787), 27 Geo. III. c. 13. 

* Sir Walter Scott, Guy Mannering, chapter v. 

3 Gladstone, " Free Trade, Railways and Commerce," in Nine- 
teenth Century (Feb. 1880), vol. vii. p. 370. 

1 Parker states a similar argument in the form in which it suited 
the special problem of his day. " If merchandise be good for the 
commonweal, then the more common it is made, the more open it is 
laid, the more good it will convey to us." Op. cit. 20. 

it may often be wise for the statesman to look far ahead, beyond 
the existing generation. 5 Owing to the neglect of this element of 
time, and the allowance which must be made for it, the reasoning 
as to the advantages of free trade, which is perfectly sound in 
regard to the distribution of goods already in existence, may 
become sophistical, 6 if it is put forward as affording a complete 
demonstration of the benefits of free trade as a regular policy. 
After all, human society is very complex, and any attempt to 
deal with its problems off-hand by appealing to a simple principle 
raises the suspicion that some important factor may have been 
left out of account. When there is such mistaken simplification, 
the reasoning may seem to have complete certainty, and yet it 
fails to produce conviction, because it does not profess to deal 
with the problem in all its aspects. When we concentrate atten- 
tion on the phenomena of exchange, we are viewing society as a 
mechanism in which each acts under known laws and is impelled 
by one particular force— that of self-interest; now, society is, 
no doubt, in this sense a mechanism, but it is also an organism, 7 
and it is only for very short periods, and in a very limited way, 
that we can venture to neglect its organic character without 
running the risk of falling into serious mistakes. 

The doctrine of free trade maintains that in order to secure 
the greatest possible mass of goods in the world as a whole, and 
the greatest possibility of immediate comfort for the consumer, 
it is expedient that there should be no restriction on the exchange 
of goods and services either between individuals or communities. 
The controversies in regard to this doctrine have not turned on 
its certainty as a hypothetical principle, but on the legitimacy 
of the arguments based upon it. It certainly supplies a principle 
in the light of which all proposed trade regulations should be 
criticized. It gives us a basis for examining and estimating the 
expense at which any particular piece of trade restriction is 
carried out; but thus used, the principle does not necessarily 
condemn the expenditure; the game may be worth the candle 
or it may not, but at least it is well that we should know how 
fast the candle is being burnt. It was in this critical spirit that 
Adam Smith examined the various restrictions and encourage- 
ments to trade which were in vogue in his day; he proved of each 
in turn that it was expensive, but he showed that he was conscious 
that the final decision could not be taken from this standpoint, 
since he recognized in regard to the Navigation Acts that " defence 
is more than opulence." 8 In more recent times, the same sort 
of attitude was taken by Henry Sidgwick, 9 who criticizes various 
protective expedients in turn, in the light of free trade, but does 
not treat it as conveying an authoritative decision on their merits. 
But other exponents of the doctrine have not been content 
to employ it in this fashion. They urge it in a more positive 
manner, and insist that free trade pure and simple is the founda- 
tion on which the economic life of the community ought to be 
based. By men who advocate it in this way, free trade is set 
forward as an ideal which it is a duty to realize, and those who 
hold aloof from it or oppose it have been held up to scorn as if 
they were almost guilty of a crime. 10 The development of the 
material resources of the world is undoubtedly an important 
element in the welfare of mankind; it is an aim which is common 
to the whole race, and may be looked upon as contributing to the 
greatest happiness of the greatest number. Competition in the 
open market seems to secure that each consumer shall obtain the 
best possible terms; and again, since all men are consumers 
whether they produce or not, or whatever they produce, the 
greatest measure of comforts for each seems likely to be attainable 
on these lines. For those who are frankly cosmopolitan, and who 
regard material prosperity as at all events the prime object at 
which public policy should aim, the free-trade doctrine is readily 

6 Schmoller, Grundriss der allgemeinen Volkswirtschaftslehre 
(1904), ii. 607. 

6 Byles, Sophisms of Free Trade; L. S. Amery, Fundamental 
Fallacies of Free Trade, 13. 

' W. Cunningham, Rise and Decline of the Free Trade Movement, 
pp. 5-11. 

s Wealth of Nations, book iv. chap. ii. 

8 Principles of Political Economy, 485. 

10 J. Morley, Life of Cobden, i. 230. 



transformed, from a mere principle of criticism, till it comes to 
be regarded as the harbinger of a possible Utopia'. It was in this 
fashion that it was put forward by French economists and proved 
attractive to some leading American statesmen in the 18th century. 
Turgot regarded the colonial systems of the European countries 
as at once unfair to their dependencies and dangerous to the peace 
of the world. " It will be a wise and happy thing for the nation 
which shall be the first to modify its policy according to the new 
conditions, and be content to regard its colonies as if they were 
allied provinces and not subjects of the mother country." It 
will be a wise and happy thing for the nation which is the first 
to be convinced that the secret of " success, so far as commercial 
policy is concerned, consists in employing all its land in the 
manner most profitable for the proprietary, all the hands in the 
manner most advantageous to the workman personally, that is 
to say, in the manner in which each would employ them, if we 
could let him be simply directed by his own interest, and that 
all the rest of the mercantile policy is vanity and vexation of 
spirit. When the entire separation of America shall have forced 
the whole world to recognize this truth and purged the European 
nations of commercial jealousy there will be one great cause of 
war less in the world." 1 Pitt, under the influence of Adam 
Smith, was prepared to admit the United States to the benefit 
of trade with the West Indian Colonies; and Jefferson, accepting 
the principles of his French teachers, would (in contradistinction 
to Alexander Hamilton) have been willing to see his country re- 
nounce the attempt to develop manufactures of her own. 2 It 
seemed as if a long step might be taken towards realizing the free- 
trade ideal for the Anglo-Saxon race; but British shipowners 
insisted on the retention of their privileges, and the propitious 
moment passed away with the failure of the negotiations of 
1783. 3 Free trade ceased to be regarded as a gospel, even in 
France, till the idea! was revived in the writings of Bastiat, 
and helped to mould the enthusiasm of Richard Cobden. 4 
Through his zealous advocacy, the doctrine secured converts in 
almost every part of the world; though it was only in Great 
Britain that a great majority of the citizens became so far 
satisfied with it that they adopted it as the foundation of the 
economic policy of the country. 

It is not difficult to account for the conversion of Great Britain 
to this doctrine; in the special circumstances of the first half of 
the 19th century it was to the interest of the most vigorous 
factors in the economic life of the country to secure the greatest 
possible freedom for commercial intercourse. Great Britain had, 
through her shipping, access to all the markets of the world; 
she had obtained such a lead in the application of machinery to 
manufactures that she had a practical monopoly in textile 
manufactures and in the hardware trades; by removing every 
restriction, she could push her advantage to its farthest extent, 
and not only undersell native manufactures in other lands, 
but secure food, and the raw materials for her manufactures, on 
the cheapest possible terms. Free trade thus seemed to offer the 
means of placing an increasing distance between Britain and her 
rivals, and of rendering the industrial monopoly which she had 
attained impregnable. The capitalist employer had superseded 
the landowner as the mainstay of the resources and revenue 
of the realm, and insisted that the prosperity of manufactures 
was the primary interest of the community as a whole. The 
expectation, that a thoroughgoing policy of free trade would not 
only favour an increase of employment, but also the cheapening 
of food, could only have been roused in a country which was 

1 " Memoire," 6 April 1776, in CEuvres, viii. 460. 

2 Jefferson, Notes on Virginia, 275. See also the articles on 
Jefferson and Hamilton, Alexander. 

9 One incidental effect of the failure to secure free trade was that 
the African slave trade, with West Indies as a depot for supplying 
the American market, ceased to be remunerative, and the opposition 
to the abolition of the trade was very much weaker than it would 
otherwise have been; see Hochstetter, " Die wirtschaftlichen und 
politischen Motive fur die Abschaffung des britischen Sklaven- 
handels," in Schmoller, Stoats und Sozialwissenschaftliche For- 
schungen, xxv. i. 37. 

4 J. Welsford, " Cobden's Foreign Teacher," in National Review 
(December 1905). 

obliged to import a considerable amount of corn. The exceptional 
weakness, as well as the exceptional strength, of Great Britain, 
among European countries, made it seem desirable to adopt the 
principle of unrestricted commercial intercourse, not merely 
in the tentative fashion in which it had been put in operation 
by Huskisson, but in the thoroughgoing fashion in which 
it at last commended itself to the minds of Peel and Gladstone. 
The " Manchester men " saw clearly where their interest lay; 
and the fashionable political economy was ready to demonstrate 
that in pursuing their own interest they were conferring the 
benefit of cheap clothing on all the most poverty-stricken races 
of mankind. It seemed probable, in the 'forties and early 'fifties, 
that other countries would take a similar view of their own 
interests and would follow the example which Great Britain had 
set. 5 That they have not done so, is partly due to the fact that 
none of them had such a direct, or such a widely diffused, interest 
in increased commercial intercourse as existed in Great Britain; 
but their reluctance has been partly the result of the criticism 
to which the free-trade doctrine has been subjected. The 
principles expressed in the writings of Friedrich List have taken 
such firm hold, both in America and in Germany, that these 
countries have preferred to follow on the lines by which Great 
Britain successfully built up her industrial prosperity in the 17th 
and 1 8th century, rather than on those by which they have seen 
her striving to maintain it since 1846. 

Free trade was attractive as an ideal, because it appeared 
to offer the greatest production of goods to the world as a whole, 
and the largest share of material goods to each consumer; it is 
cosmopolitan, and it treats consumption, and the interest of the 
consumer, as such, as the end to be considered. Hence it lies 
open to objections which are partly political and partly economic. 
As cosmopolitan, free-trade doctrine is apt to be indifferent 
to national tradition and aspiration. In so far indeed as 
patriotism is a mere aesthetic sentiment, it may be tolerated, 
but in so far as it implies a genuine wish and intention to preserve 
and defend the national habits and character to the exclusion 
of alien elements, the cosmopolitan mind will condemn it as 
narrow and mischievous. In the first half of the 19th century 
there were many men who believed that national ambitions 
and jealousies of every kind were essentially dynastic, and that if 
monarchies were abolished there would be fewer occasions of 
war, so that the expenses of the business of government would 
be enormously curtailed. For Cobden and his contemporaries 
it was natural to regard the national administrative institutions 
as maintained for the benefit of the " classes " and without much 
advantage to the " masses." But in point of fact, modern times 
have shown the existence in democracies of a patriotic sentiment 
which is both exclusive and aggressive; and the burden of 
armaments has steadily increased. It was by means of a civil 
war that the United States attained to a consciousness of national 
life; while such later symptoms as the recent interpretations 
of the Monroe doctrine, or the war with Spain, have proved that 
the citizens of that democratic country cannot be regarded as 
destitute of self -aggrandizing national ambition. 

In Germany the growth of militarism and nationalism have 
gone on side by side under constitutional government, and 
certainly in harmony with predominant public opinion. Neither 
of these communities is willing to sink its individual conception 
of progress in those of the world at large; each is jealous of the 
intrusion of alien elements which cannot be reconciled with its 
own political and social system. And a similar recrudescence 
of patriotic feeling has been observable in other countries, such 
as Norway and Hungary: the growth of national sentiment 
is shown, not only in the attempts to revive and popularize the 
use of a national language, but still more decidedly in the deter- 
mination to have a real control over the economic life of the 
country. It is here that the new patriotism comes into direct 
conflict with the political principles of free trade as advocated 
by Bastiat and Cobden; for them the important point was that 
countries, by becoming dependent on one another, would be 
prevented from engaging in hostilities. The new nations are 
5 Compatriot Club Lectures (1905), p. 306. 


9 1 

determined that they will not allow other countries to have such 
control over their economic condition, as to be able to exercise 
a powerful influence on their political life. Each is determined 
to be the master in his own house, and each has rejected free 
trade because of the cosmopolitanism which it involves. 

Economically, free trade lays stress on consumption as the 
chief criterion of prosperity. It is, of course, true that goods are 
produced with the object of being consumed, and it is plausible 
to insist on taking this test ; but it is also true that consumption 
and production are mutually interdependent, and that in some 
ways production is the more important of the two. Consumption 
looks to the present, and the disposal of actual goods; production 
looks to the future, and the conditions under which goods can 
continue to be regularly provided and thus become available for 
consumption in the long run. As regards the prosperity of the 
community in the future it is important that goods should be 
consumed in such a fashion as to secure that they shall be replaced 
or increased before they are used up; it is the amount of pro- 
duction rather than the amount of consumption that demands 
consideration, and gives indication of growth or of decadence. 
In these circumstances there is much to be said for looking at 
the economic life of a country from the point of view which free- 
traders have abandoned or ignore. It is not on the possibilities 
of consumption in the present, but on the prospects of production 
in the future, that the continued wealth of the community depends ; 
and this principle is the only one which conforms to the modern 
conception of the essential requirements of sociological science 
in its wider aspect (see Sociology). This is most obviously true 
in regard to countries of which the resources are very imperfectly 
developed. If their policy is directed to securing the greatest 
possible comfort for each consumer in the present, it is certain 
that progress will be slow; the planting of industries for which 
the country has an advantage may be a tedious process; and 
in order to stimulate national efficiency temporary protection — 
involving what is otherwise unnecessary immediate cost to the 
consumer — may seem to be abundantly justified. Such a free 
trader as John Stuart Mill himself admits that a case may be 
made out for treating " infant industries " as exceptions; 1 
and if this exception be admitted it is likely to establish a pre- 
cedent. After all, the various countries of the world are all in 
different stages of development; some are old and some are 
new; and even the old countries differ greatly in the progress they 
have made in distinct arts. The introduction of machinery 
has everywhere changed the conditions of production, so that 
some countries have lost and others have gained a special advan- 
tage. Most of the countries of the world are convinced that the 
wisest economy is to attend to the husbanding of their resources 
of every kind, and to direct their policy not merely with a view 
to consumption in the present, but rather with regard to the 
possibilities of increased production in the future. 

This deliberate rejection of the doctrine of free trade between 
nations, both in its political and economic aspects, has not 
interfered, however, with the steady progress of free commercial 
intercourse within the boundaries of a single though composite 
political community. " Internal free trade," though the* name 
was not then current in this sense, was one of the burning questions 
in England in the 17th century; it was perhaps as important a 
factor as puritanism in the fall of Charles I. Internal free trade 
was secured in France in the 18th century; thanks to Hamilton, 2 
it was embodied in the constitution of the United States; it 
was introduced into Germany by Bismarck; and was firmly 
established in the Dominion of Canada and the Commonwealth 
of Australia. It became in consequence, where practicable, a 
part of the modern federal idea as usually interpreted. There 
are thus great areas, externally self-protecting, where free trade, 
as between internal divisions, has been introduced with little, 
if any, political difficulty, and with considerable economic 
advantage. These cases are sometimes quoted as justifying 
the expectation that the same principle is likely to be adopted 
sooner or later in regard to external trading relations. There 

1 T. S. Mill, Principles of Political Economy, book v. chapter x. § 1. 

2 F. S. Oliver, Alexander Hamilton, 142. 

is some reason, however, for raising the question whether free 
trade has been equally successful, not only in its economic, but 
in its social results, in all the large political communities where 
it has been introduced. In a region like the United States of 
America, it is probably seen at its best; there is an immense 
variety of different products throughout that great zone of the 
continent, so that the mutual co-operation of the various parts 
is most beneficial, while the standard of habit and comfort is so 
far uniform 3 throughout the whole region, and the facilities for 
the change of employment are so many, that there is little in- 
jurious competition between different districts. In the British 
empire the conditions are reversed; but though the great self- 
governing colonies have withdrawn from the circle, in the hope 
of building up their own economic life in their own way, free 
trade is still maintained over a very large part of the British 
empire. Throughout this area, there are very varied physical 
conditions; there is also an extraordinary variety of races, each 
with its own habits, and own standard of comfort; and in these 
circumstances it may be doubted whether the free competition, 
involved in free trade, is really altogether wholesome. Within 
this sphere the ideal of Bastiat and his followers is being realized. 
England, as a great manufacturing country, has more than held 
her own; India and Ireland are supplied with manufactured 
goods by England, and in each case the population is forced to 
look to the soil for its means of support, and for purchasing 
power. In each case the preference for tillage, as an occupation, 
has rendered it comparatively easy to keep the people on the 
land ; but there is some reason to believe that the law of diminish- 
ing returns is already making itself felt, at all events in India, 
and is forcing the people into deeper poverty. 4 It may be doubtful 
in the case of Ireland how far the superiority of England in in- 
dustrial pursuits has prevented the development of manufactures; 
the progress in the last decades of the 18th century was too short- 
lived to be conclusive; but there is at least a strong impression 
in many quarters that the industries of Ireland might have 
flourished if they had had better opportunities allowed them. 5 
In the case of India we know that the hereditary artistic skill, 
which had been built up in bygone generations, has been stamped 
out. It seems possible that the modern unrest in India, and the 
discontent in Ireland, may be connected with the economic 
conditions in these countries, on which free trade has been imposed 
without their consent. So far the population which subsists on 
the cheaper food, and has the lower standard of life, has been 
the sufferer; but the mischief might operate in another fashion. 
The self-governing colonies at all events feel that competition in 
the same market between races with different standards of comfort 
has infinite possibilities of mischief. It is easy to conjure up 
conditions under which the standard of comfort of wage-earners 
in England would be seriously threatened. 

Since the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica was 
published it has become clear that the free-trade doctrines of 
Bastiat and Cobden have not been gaining ground in the world 
at large, and at the opening of the 20th century it could hardly 
be said with confidence that the question was " finally settled " 
so far as England was concerned. As to whether the interests of 
Great Britain still demanded that she should continue on the 
line she adopted in the exceptional conditions of the middle of the 
19th century, expert opinion was conspicuously divided; 6 but 
there remained no longer the old enthusiasm for free trade as 

3 The standard is, of course, lower among the negroes and mean 
whites in the South than in the North and West. 

4 F. Beauclerk, "Free Trade in India," in Economic Review 
(July 1907), xvii. 284. 

6 A. E. Murray, History of the Commercial and Financial Relations 
between England and Ireland, 294. 

6 For the tariff reform movement in English politics see the article 
on Chamberlain, J. Among continental writers G. Schmoller 
(Grundriss der allgemeinen Volkswirtschaftslekre, ii. 641) and A. 
Wagner (Preface to M. Schwab's Chamberlains Handelspolitik) 
pronounce in favour of a change, as Fuchs did by anticipation. 
Schulze-Gaevernitz (Britischer Imperialisms und englischer Frei- 
handel), Aubry (Etude critique de la politique commercials de VAngle- 
terre & I'egard de ses colonies) , and Blondel (La politique Protectionniste 
en Angleterre un nouveau danger pour la France) are against it. 

9 2 


the harbinger of an Utopia. The old principles of the bourgeois 
manufacturers had been taken up by the proletariat and shaped 
to suit themselves. Socialism, like free trade, is cosmopolitan in 
its aims, and is indifferent to patriotism and hostile to militarism. 
Socialism, like free trade, insists on material welfare as the 
primary object to be aimed at in any policy, and, like free 
trade, socialism tests welfare by reference to possibilities of con- 
sumption. In one respect there is a difference; throughout 
Cobden's attack on the governing classes there are signs of his 
jealousy of the superior status of the landed gentry, but socialism 
has a somewhat wider range of view and demands '" equality of 
opportunity " with the capitalist as well. 

Bibliography. — Reference has already been made to the prin- 
cipal works which deal critically with the free-trade policy. Pro- 
fessor Fawcett's Free Trade is a good exposition of free-trade 
principles; so also is Professor Bastable's Commerce of Nations. 
Among authors who have restated the principles with special 
reference to the revived controversy on the subject may be men- 
tioned Professor W. Smart, The Return to Protection, being a Re- 
statement of the Case for Free Trade (2nd ed., 1906), and A. C. Pigou, 
Protective and Preferential Import Duties (1906). (W. Cu.) 

FREGELLAE, an ancient town of Latium adiectum, situated 
on the Via Latina,i 1 m. W. N. W. of Aquinum, near the left branch 
of the Liris. It is said to have belonged in early times to the 
Opici or Oscans, and later to the Volscians. It was apparently 
destroyed by the Samnites a little before 330 B.C., in which year 
the people of Fabrateria Vetus (mod. Ceccano) besought the help 
of Rome against them, and in 328 B.C. a Latin colony was estab- 
lished there. The place was taken in 320 B.C. by the Samnites, 
but re-established by the Romans in 313 B.C. It continued hence- 
forward to be faithful to Rome; by breaking the bridges over the 
Liris it interposed an obstacle to the advance of Hannibal on 
Rome in 212 B.C., and it was a native of Fregellae who headed the 
deputation of the non-revolting colonies in 209 B.C. It appears to 
have been a very important and flourishing place owing to its 
command of the crossing of the Liris, and to its position in a 
fertile territory, and it was here that, after the rejection of the 
proposals of M. Fulvius Flaccus for the extension of Roman 
burgess-rights in 125 B.C., a revolt against Rome broke out. 
It was captured by treachery in the same year and destroyed; 
but its place was taken in the following year by the colony of 
Fabrateria Nova, 3 m. to the S.E. on the opposite bank of the 
Liris, while a post station Fregellanum (mod. Ceprano) is 
mentioned in the itineraries: Fregellae itself, however, continued 
to exist as a village even under the empire. The site is clearly 
traceable about \ m. E. of Ceprano, but the remains of the city 
are scanty. 

See G. Colasanti, Fregellae, storia e topografia (1906). (T. As.) 

FREIBERG, or Freyberg, a town of Germany in the kingdom 
of Saxony, on the Munzbach, near its confluence with the Mulde, 
19 m. S.W. of Dresden on the railway to Chemnitz, with a branch 
to Nossen. Pop. (1905) 30,896. Its situation, on the rugged 
northern slope of the Erzgebirge, is somewhat bleak and uninvit- 
ing, but the town is generally well built and makes a prosperous 
impression. A part of its ancient walls still remains; the other 
portions have been converted into public walks and gardens. 
Freiberg is the seat of the general administration of the mines 
throughout the kingdom, and its celebrated mining academy 
(Bergakademie), founded in 1765, is frequented by students 
from all parts of the world. Connected with it are extensive 
collections of minerals and models, a library of 50,000 volumes, 
and laboratories for chemistry, metallurgy and assaying. Among 
its distinguished scholars it reckons Abraham Gottlob Werner 
(1750-1817), who was also a professor there, and Alexander von 
Humboldt. Freiberg has extensive manufactures of gold and 
silver lace, woollen cloths, linen and cotton goods, iron, copper 
and brass wares, gunpowder and white-lead. It has also several 
large breweries. In the immediate vicinity are its famous silver 
and lead mines, thirty in number, and of which the principal ones 
passed into the property of the state in 1886. The castle of 
Freudenstein or Freistein, as rebuilt by the elector Augustus 
in 1572, is situated in one of the suburbs and is now used as a 
military magazine. In its grounds a monument was erected 
to Werner in 1851. The cathedral, rebuilt in late Gothic style 

after its destruction by fire in 1484 and restored in 1893, was 
founded in the 12 th century. Of the original church a magnifi- 
cent German Romanesque doorway, known as the Golden Gate 
(Goldene Pforte), survives. The church contains numerous 
monuments, among others one to Prince Maurice of Saxony. 
Adjoining the cathedral is the mausoleum (Begrabniskapelle) , 
built in 1 594 in the Italian Renaissance style, in which are buried 
the remains of Henry the Pious and his successors down to John 
George IV., who died in 1694. Of the other four Protestant 
churches the most noteworthy is the Peterskirche which, 
with its three towers, is a conspicuous object on the highest 
point of the town. Among the other public buildings are the old 
town-hall, dating from the 15th century, the antiquarian museum, 
and the natural history museum. There are a classical and 
modern, a commercial and an agricultural school, and numerous 
charitable institutions. 

Freiberg owes its origin to the discovery of its silver mines 
(c. 1163). The town, with the castle of Freudenstein, was built 
by Otto the Rich, margrave of Meissen, in 117 5, and its name, 
which first appears in 1 221, is derived from the extensive mining 
franchises granted to it about that time. In all the partitions of 
the territories of the Saxon house of Wettin, from the latter part 
of the 13th century onward, Freiberg always remained common 
property, and it was not till 1485 (the mines not till 1537) that 
it was definitively assigned to the Albertine line. The Reforma- 
tion was introduced into Freiberg in 1536 by Henry the Pious, 
who resided here. The town suffered severely during the Thirty 
Years' War, and again during the French occupation from 1806 
to 1 8 14, during which time it had to support an army of 700,000 
men and find forage for 200,000 horses. 

See H. Gerlach, Kleine Chronik von Freiberg (2nd ed., Freiberg, 
1898); H. Ermisch, Das Freiberger Stadtrecht (Leipzig, 1889); 
Errnisch and O. Posse, Urkundenbuch der Stadt Freiberg, in Codex 
diplom. Sax. reg. (3 vols., Leipzig, 1883-1891); Freibergs Berg- und 
Hiittenwesen, published by the Bergmannischer Verein (Freiberg, 
1883); Ledebur, liber die Bedeutung der Freiberger Bergakademie 
(ib. 1903) ; Steche, Bau- und Kunstdenkmdler der Amtshauptmann- 
schaft Freiberg (Dresden, 1884). 

FREIBURG, a town of Germany in Prussian Silesia, on the 
Polsnitz, 35 m. S.W. of Breslau, on the railway to Halbstadt. 
Pop. (1905) 9917. It has an Evangelical and Roman Catholic 
church, and its industries include watch-making, linen-weaving 
and distilling. In the neighbourhood are the old and modern 
castles of the Fiirstenstein family, whence the town is sometimes 
distinguished as Freiburg unter dem Fiirstenstein. At Freiburg, 
on the 22nd of July 1762, the Prussians defended themselves 
successfully against the superior forces of the Austrians. 

FREIBURG IM BREISGAU, an archiepiscopal see and city of 
Germany in the grand duchy of Baden, 12 m. E. of the Rhine, 
beautifully situated on the Dreisam at the foot of the Schlossberg, 
one of the heights of the Black Forest range, on the railway 
between Basel and Mannheim, 40 m. N. of the former city. 
Pop. (1905) 76,285. The town is for the most part well built, 
having several wide and handsome streets and a number of 
spacious squares. It is kept clean and cool by the waters of 
the river, which flow through the streets in open channels; and 
its old fortifications have been replaced by public walks, and, 
what is more unusual, by vineyards. It possesses a famous 
university, the Ludovica Albertina, founded by Albert VI., 
archduke of Austria, in 1457, and attended by about 2000 
students. The library contains upwards of 250,000 volumes and 
600 MSS., and among the other auxiliary establishments are 
an anatomical hall and museum and botanical gardens. The 
Freiburg minster is considered one of the finest of all-the Gothic 
churches of Germany, being remarkable alike for the symmetry 
of its proportions, for the taste of its decorations, and for the 
fact that it may more correctly be said to be finished than almost 
any other building of the kind. The period of its erection pro- 
bably lies for the most part between n 22 and 1252; but the 
choir was not built till 15 13. The tower, which rises above the 
western entrance, is 386 ft. in height, and it presents a skilful 
transition from a square base into an octagonal superstructure, 
which in its turn is surmounted by a pyramidal spire of the most 



exquisite open work in stone. In the interior of the church are 
some beautiful stained glass windows, both ancient and modern, 
the tombstones of several of the dukes of Zahringen, statues of 
archbishops of Freiburg, and paintings by Holbein and by 
Hans Baldung (c. 1470-1545), commonly called Griin. Among the 
other noteworthy buildings of Freiburg are the palaces of the 
grand duke and the archbishop, the old town-hall, the theatre, 
the Kaufhaus or merchants' hall, a 16th-century building with 
a handsome facade, the church of St Martin, with a graceful 
spire restored 1880-1881, the new town-hall, completed 1001, 
in Renaissance style, and the Protestant church, formerly the 
church of the abbey of Thennenbach, removed hither in 1839. 
In the centre of the fish-market square is a fountain surmounted 
by a statue of Duke Berthold III. of Zahringen; in the Franzis- 
kaner Platz there is a monument to Berthold Schwarz, the 
traditional discoverer here, in 1259, of gunpowder; the Rotteck 
Platz takes its name from the monument of Karl Wenzeslaus 
von Rotteck (1775-1840), the historian, which formerly stood 
on the site of the Schwarz statue; and in Kaiser Wilhelm 
Strasse a bronze statue was erected in 1876 to the memory of 
Herder, who in the early part of the 10th century founded in 
Freiburg an institute for draughtsmen, engravers and litho- 
graphers, and carried on a famous bookselling business. On the 
Schlossberg above the town there are massive ruins of two 
castles destroyed by the French in 1744; and about 2 m. 
to the N.E. stands the castle of Zahringen, the original seat of 
the famous family of the counts of that name. Situated on the 
ancient road which runs by the Hollenpass between the valleys 
of the Danube and the Rhine, Freiburg early acquired com- 
mercial importance, and it is still the principal centre of the 
trade of the Black Forest. It manufactures buttons, chemicals, 
starch, leather, tobacco, silk thread, paper, and hempen goods, 
as well as beer and wine. 

Freiburg is of uncertain foundation. In 11 20 it became a 
free town, with privileges similar to those of Cologne; but in 
1 2 iq it fell into the hands of a branch of the family of Urach. 
After it had vainly attempted to throw off the yoke by force 
of arms, it purchased its freedom in 1366; but, unable to 
reimburse the creditors who had advanced the money, it was, 
in 1368, obliged to recognize the supremacy of the house of 
Hapsburg. In the 17th and 18th centuries it played a consider- 
able part as a fortified town. It was captured by the Swedes 
in 1632, 1634 and 1638; and in 1644 it was seized by the 
Bavarians, who shortly after, under General Mercy, defeated in 
the neighbourhood the French forces under Enghien and Turenne. 
The French were in possession from 1677 to 1697, and again in 
1713-1714 and 1744; and when they left the place in 1748, at 
the peace of Aix-!a-Chapelle, they dismantled the fortifications. 
The Baden insurgents gained a victory at Freiburg in 1848, and 
the revolutionary government took refuge in the town in June 
1849, but in the following July the Prussian forces took possession 
and occupied it until 1851. Since 1821 Freiburg has been the 
seat of an archbishop with jurisdiction over the sees of Mainz, 
' Rottenberg and Limburg. 

See Schreiber, Geschichte und Beschreibung des Miinslers zu Frei- 
burg (1820 and 1825); Geschichte der Stadt und Universitat Frei- 
burgs (1857-1859); Der Schlossberg bei Freiburg (i860); and Albert, 
Die Geschichtsschreibung der Stadt Freiburg (1902). 

Battles of Freiburg, yd, fjth and 10th of August 1644. — During 
the Thirty Years' War the neighbourhood of Freiburg was the 
scene of a series of engagements between the French under 
Louis de Bourbon, due d'Enghien (afterwards called the great 
Conde), and Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne, vicomte de Turenne, 
and the Bavarians and Austrians commanded by Franz, Freiherr 
von Mercy. 

At the close of the campaign of 1643 the French " Army of 
Weimar," having been defeated and driven into Alsace by the 
Bavarians, had there been reorganized under the command of 
Turenne, then a young general of thirty-two and newly promoted 
to the marshalate. In May 1644 he opened the campaign by 
recrossing the Rhine and raiding the enemy's posts as far as 
Uberlingen on the lake of Constance and Donaueschingen on 

the Danube. The French then fell back with their booty and 
prisoners to Breisach, a strong garrison being left in Freiburg. 
The Bavarian commander, however, revenged himself by besieging 
Freiburg (June 27th), and Turenne's first attempt to relieve the 
place failed. During July, as the siege progressed, the French 
government sent the due d'Enghien, who was ten years younger 
still than Turenne, but had just gained his great victory of 
Rocroy, to take over the command. Enghien brought with him 
a veteran army, called the " Army of France," Turenne remaining 
in command of the Army of Weimar. The armies met at Breisach 
on the 2nd of August, by which date Freiburg had surrendered. 
At this point most commanders of the time would have decided 
not to fight, but to manoeuvre Mercy away from Freiburg; 
Enghien, however, was a fighting general, and Mercy's entrenched 
lines at Freiburg seemed to him a target rather than an obstacle. 
A few hours after his arrival, therefore, without waiting for the 
rearmost troops of his columns, he set the combining armies in 
motion for Krozingen, a village on what was then the main road 
between Breisach and Freiburg. The total force immediately 
available numbered only 16,000 combatants. Enghien and 
Turenne had arranged that the Army of France was to move 
direct upon Freiburg by Wolfenweiter, while the Army of Weimar 
was to make its way by hillside tracks to Wittnau and thence 
to attack the rear of Mercy's lines while Enghien assaulted 
them in front. Turenne's march (August 3rd, 1644) was slow 
and painful, as had been anticipated, and late in the afternoon, 
on passing Wittnau, he encountered the enemy. The Weimarians 
carried the outer lines of defence without much difficulty, but 
as they pressed on towards Merzhausen the resistance became 
more and more serious. Turenne's force was little more than 
6000, and these were wearied with a long day of marching and 
fighting on the steep and wooded hillsides of the Black Forest. 
Thus the turning movement came to a standstill far short of 
Uffingen, the village on Mercy's line of retreat that Turenne 
was to have seized, nor was a flank attack possible against 
Mercy's main line, from which he was separated by the crest 
of the Schonberg. Meanwhile, Enghien's army had at the 
prearranged hour (4 p.m.) attacked Mercy's position on the 
Ebringen spur. A steep slope, vineyards, low stone walls and 
abatis had all to be surmounted, under a galling fire from the 
Bavarian musketeers, before the Army of France found itself, 
breathless and in disorder, in front of the actual entrenchments 
of the crest. A first attack failed, as did an attempt to find an 
unguarded path round the shoulder of the Schonberg. The 
situation was grave in the extreme, but Enghien resolved on 
Turenne's account to renew the attack, although only a quarter 
of his original force was still capable of making an effort. He 
himself and all the young nobles of his staff dismounted and led 
the infantry forward again, the prince threw his baton into the 
enemy's lines for the soldiers to retrieve, and in the end, after 
a bitter struggle, the Bavarians, whose reserves had been taken 
away to oppose Turenne in the Merzhausen defile, abandoned 
the entrenchments and disappeared into the woods of the 
adjoining spur. Enghien hurriedly re-formed his troops, fearing 
at every moment to be hurled down the hill by a counterstroke; 
but none came. The French bivouacked in the rain, Turenne 
making his way across the mountain to confer with the prince, 
and meanwhile Mercy quietly drew off his army in the dark to 
a new set of entrenchments on the ridge on which stood the 
Loretto Chapel. On the 4th of August the Army of France and 
the Army of Weimar met at Merzhausen, the rearmost troops of 
the Army of France came in, and the whole was arranged by 
the major-generals in the plain facing the Loretto ridge. This 
position was attacked on the 5th. Enghien had designed his 
battle even more carefully than before, but as the result of a 
series of accidents the two French armies attacked prematurely 
and straight to their front, one brigade after another, and though 
at one moment Enghien, sword in hand, broke the line of defence 
with his last intact reserve, a brilliant counterstroke, led by 
Mercy's brother Kaspar (who was killed) , drove out the assailants. 
It is said that Enghien lost half his men on this day and Mercy 
one-third of his, so severe was the battle. But the result could 



not be gainsaid; it was for the French a complete and costly- 

For three days after this the armies lay in position without 
fighting, the French well supplied with provisions and comforts 
from Breisach, the Bavarians suffering somewhat severely from 
want of food, and especially forage, as all their supplies had to 
be hauled from Villingen over the rough roads of the Black 
Forest. Enghien then decided to make use of the Glotter Tal 
to interrupt altogether this already unsatisfactory line of supply, 
and thus to force the Bavarians either to attack him at a serious 
disadvantage, or to retreat across the hills with the loss of their 
artillery and baggage and the disintegration of their army by 
famine and desertion. With this object, the Army of Weimar 
was drawn off on the morning of the oth of August and marched 
round by Betzenhausen and Lehen to Langen Denzling. The 
infantry of the Army of France, then the trains, followed, while 
Enghien with his own cavalry faced Freiburg and the Loretto 

Before dawn on the ioth the advance guard of Turenne's 
army was ascending the Glotter Tal. But Mercy had divined his 

English Miles 
J 3 J_ 

French .1 — I Bavarians B 

tt.B. Positions shown art thing o/ 
3rd. August. 1644. 

adversary's plan, and leaving a garrison to hold Freiburg, the 
Bavarian army had made a night march on the 9/ioth to the Abbey 
of St Peter, whence on the morning of the ioth Mercy fell back 
to Graben, his nearest magazine in the mountains. Turenne's 
advanced guard appeared from the Glotter Tal only to find a 
stubborn rearguard of cavalry in front of the abbey. A sharp 
action began, but Mercy hearing the drums and fifes of the 
French infantry in the Glotter Tal broke it off and continued his 
retreat in good order. Enghien thus obtained little material 
result from his manceuvre. Only two guns and such of Mercy's 
wagons that were unable to keep up fell into the hands of the 
French. Enghien and Turenne did not continue the chase farther 
than Graben, and Mercy fell back unmolested to Rothenburg on 
the Tauber. 

The moral results of this sanguinary fighting were, however, 
important and perhaps justified the sacrifice of so many valuable 
soldiers. Enghien's pertinacity had not achieved a decision 
with the sword, but Mercy had been so severely punished that 
he was unable to interfere with his opponent's new plan of cam- 
paign. This, which was carried out by the united armies and by 
reinforcements from France, while Turenne's cavalry screened 
them by bold demonstrations on the Tauber, led to nothing less 
than the conquest of the Rhine Valley from Basel to Coblenz, 
a task which was achieved so rapidly that the Army of France 
and its victorious young leader were free to return to France in 
two months from the time of their appearance in Turenne's 
quarters at Breisach. 

FREIDANK (VrIdanc), the name by which a Middle High 
German didactic poet of the early 13th century is known. It has 
been disputed whether the word, which is equivalent to " free- 
thought," is to be regarded as the poet's real name or only as a 
pseudonym; the latter is probably the case. Little is known of 
Freidank's life. He accompanied Frederick II. on his crusade 
to the Holy Land, where, in the years 12 28-1 2 29, a portion at 
least of his work was composed; and it is said that on his tomb 
(if indeed it was not the tomb of another Freidank) at Treviso 
there was inscribed, with allusion to the character of his style, 
" he always spoke and never sang." Wilhelm Grimm originated 
the hypothesis that Freidank was to be identified with Walther 
von der Vogelweide; but this is no longer tenable. Freidank's 
work bears the name of Bescheidenheit, i.e. " practical wisdom," 
" correct judgment," and consists of a collection of proverbs, 
pithy sayings, and moral and satirical reflections, arranged under 
general heads. Its popularity till the end of the 16th century is 
shown by the great number of MSS. extant. 

Sebastian Brant published the Bescheidenheit in a modified form 
in 1508. Wilhelm Grimm's edition appeared in 1834 (2nd ed. i860), 
H. F. Bezzenberger's in 1872. A later edition is by F. Sandvoss 
(1877). The old Latin translation, Fridangi Discretio, was printed 
by C. Lemcke in 1868; and there are two translations into modern 
German, A. Bacmeister's (1861) and K. Simrock's (1867). See also 
F. Pfeiffer, Uber Freidank (Zur deutschen Liter aturgeschichte, 1855), 
and H. Paul, Vber die ursprungliche Anordnung von Freidanks Be- 
scheidenheit (1870). 

FREIENWALDE, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of 
Prussia, on the Oder, 28 m. N.E. of Berlin, on the Frankfort- 
Angermunde railway. Pop. (1905) 7995. It has a small palace, 
built by the Great Elector, an Evangelical and a Roman Catholic 
church, and manufactures of furniture, machinery, &c. The 
neighbouring forests and its medicinal springs make it a favourite 
summer resort of the inhabitants of Berlin. A new tower com- 
mands a fine view of the Oderbruch (see Oder). Freienwalde, 
which must be distinguished from the smaller town of the same 
name in Pomerania, first appears as a town in 1364. 

FREIESLEBENITE, a rare mineral consisting of sulphanti- 
monite of silver and lead, (Pb, Ag 2 ) 5 Sb 4 Sii. The monoclinic 
crystals are prismatic in habit, with deeply striated prism and 
dome faces. The colour is steel-grey, and the lustre metallic; 
hardness 2§, specific gravity 6-2. It occurs with argentite, 
chalybite and galena in the silver veins of the Himmelsfurst 
mine at Freiberg, Saxony, where it has been known since 1720. 
The species was named after J. K. Freiesleben, who had earlier 
called it Schilf-Glaserz. Other localities are Hiendelaencina 
near Guadalajara in Spain, Kapnik-Banya in Hungary, and 
Guanajuato in Mexico. A species separated from freieslebenite 
by V. von Zepharovich in 187 1, because of differences in crystal- 
line form, is known as diaphorite (from 5ia<£op<i, " difference") ; 
it is very similar to freieslebenite in appearance and has perhaps 
the same chemical composition (or possibly Ag 2 PbSb 2 S 5 ), but 
is orthorhombic in crystallization. A third mineral also very 
similar to freieslebenite in appearance is the orthorhombic 
andorite, AgPbSb 3 S6, which is mined as a silver ore at Oruro in • 

FREIGHT, (pronounced like "weight"; derived from the 
Dutch vracht or vrecht, in Fr. fret, the Eng. " fraught " being the 
same word, and formerly used for the same thing, but now 
only as an adjective = " laden "), the lading or cargo of a ship, 
and the hire paid for their transport (see Affreightment); 
from the original sense of water-transport of goods the word has 
also come to be used for land-transit (particularly in America, 
by railroad) , and by analogy for any load or burden. 

FREILIGRATH. FERDINAND (1810-1876), German poet, 
was born at Detmold on the 17th of June 1810. He was educated 
at the gymnasium of his native town, and in his sixteenth year 
was sent to Soest, with a view to preparing him for a commercial 
career. Here he had also time and opportunity to acquire a 
taste for French and English literature. The years from 1831 
to 1836 he spent in a bank at Amsterdam, and 1837 to 1839 in 
a business house at Barmen. In 1838 his Gedichte appeared 
and met with such extraordinary success that he gave up the 



idea of a commercial life and resolved to devote himself entirely 
to literature. His repudiation of the political poetry of 1841 
and its revolutionary ideals attracted the attention of the king 
of Prussia, Frederick William IV., who, in 1842, granted him 
a pension of 300 talers a year. He married, and, to be near his 
friend Emanuel Geibel, settled at St Goar. Before long, however, 
Freiligrath was himself carried away by the rising tide of liberal- 
ism. In the poem Ein Glaubensbekennlnis (1844) he openly 
avowed his sympathy with the political movement led by his old 
adversary, Georg Herwegh; the day, he declared, of his own 
poetic trifling with Romantic themes was over; Romanticism 
itself was dead. He laid down his pension, and, to avoid the 
inevitable political persecution, took refuge in Switzerland. 
As a sequel to the Glaubensbekenntnis he published Ca iral (1846), 
which strained still further his relations with the German 
authorities. He fled to London, where he resumed the com- 
mercial life he had broken off seven years before. When the 
Revolution of 1848 broke out, it seemed to Freiligrath, as to all 
the liberal thinkers of the time, the dawn of an era of political 
freedom; and, as may be seen from the poems in his collection of 
Politische und soziale Gedichte (1840-1851J, he welcomed it with 
unbounded enthusiasm. He returned to Germany and settled 
in Diisseldorf; but it was not long before he had again called 
down upon himself the ill-will of the ruling powers by a poem, 
Die Toten an die Lebenden (1848). He was arrested on a charge 
of lese-majeste, but the prosecution ended in his acquittal. New 
difficulties arose; his association with the democratic movement 
rendered him an object of constant suspicion, and in 1851 he 
judged it more prudent to go back to London, where he remained 
until 1868. In that year he returned to Germany, settling first in 
Stuttgart and in 1875 in the neighbouring town of Cannstatt, 
where he died on the 18th of March 1876. 

As a poet, Freiligrath was the most gifted member of the 
German revolutionary group. Coming at the very close of the 
Romantic age, his own purely lyric poetry re-echoes for the most 
part the familiar thoughts and imagery of his Romantic pre- 
decessors; but at an early age he had been attracted by the work 
of French contemporary poets, and he reinvigorated the German 
lyric by grafting upon it the orientalism of Victor Hugo. In this 
reconciliation of French and German romanticism lay Freiligrath's 
significance for the development of the lyric in Germany. His 
remarkable power of assimilating foreign literatures is also to 
be seen in his translations of English and Scottish ballads, of 
the poetry of Burns, Mrs Hemans, Longfellow and Tennyson 
(Englische Gedichte aus neuerer Zeit, 1846; The Rose, Thistle 
and Shamrock, 1853, 6th ed. 1887); he also translated Shake- 
speare's Cymbeline, Winter's Tale and Venus and Adonis, as well 
as Longfellow's Hiawatha (1857). Freiligrath is most original 
in his revolutionary poetry. His poems of this class suffer, 
it is true, under the disadvantage of all political poetry — purely 
temporary interest and the unavoidable admixture of much that 
has no claim to be called poetry at all — but the agitator Freili- 
grath, when he is at his best, displays a vigour and strength, a 
power of direct and cogent poetic expression, not to be found in 
any other political singer of the age. 

Freiligrath's Gedichte have passed through some fifty editions, and 
his Gesammelte Dichtungen, first published in 1870, have reached a 
sixth edition (1898). (including a translation of 
Byron's Mazeppa) was published in 1883. A selection of Freili- 
grath's best-known poems in English translation was edited by his 
daughter, Mrs Freiligrath-Kroeker, in 1869; also Songs of a Revolu- 
tionary Epoch were translated by T- L. Joynes in 1888. Cp. E. 
Schmidt-Weissenfels, F. Freiligrath, eine Biographie (1876); W. 
Buchner, F. Freiligrath, ein Dichterleben in Briefen (2 vols., 1881); 
G. Freiligrath, Erinnerungen an F. Freiligrath (1889); P. Besson, 
Freiligrath (Paris, 1899); K. Richter, Freiligrath als Vberselzer 
(I899)- U- G. R.) 

FREIND, JOHN (1675-1728), English physician, younger 
brother of Robert Freind (1667-1751), headmaster of West- 
minster school, was born in 1675 at Croton in Northamptonshire. 
He made great progress in classical knowledge under Richard 
Busby at Westminster, and at Christ Church, Oxford, under 
Dean Aldrich, and while still very young, produced, along with 
Peter Foulkes, an excellent edition of the speeches of Aeschines 

and Demosthenes on the affair of Ctesiph&n. After this he began 
the study of medicine, and having proved his scientific attain- 
ments by various treatises was appointed a lecturer on chemistry 
at Oxford in 1704. In the following year he accompanied the 
English army, under the earl of Peterborough, into Spain, and 
on returning home in 1707, wrote an account of the expedition, 
which attained great popularity. Two years later he published 
his Prelectiones chimicae, which he dedicated to Sir Isaac Newton. 
Shortly after his return in 1713 from Flanders, whither he had 
accompanied the British troops, he took up his residence in 
London, where he soon obtained a great reputation as a physician. 
In 1 7 16 he became fellow of the college of physicians, of which 
he was chosen one of the censors in 17 18, and Harveian orator 
in 1 7 20. In 1 7 2 2 he entered parliament as member for Launceston 
in Cornwall, but, being suspected of favouring the cause of the 
exiled Stuarts, he spent half of that year in the Tower. During 
his imprisonment he conceived the plan of his most important 
work, The History of Physic, of which the first part .appeared 
in 1725, and the second in the following year. In the latter year 
he was appointed physician to Queen Caroline, an office which he 
held till his death on the 26th of July 1728. 

A complete edition of his Latin works, with a Latin translation of 
the History of Physic, edited by Dr John Wigan, was published in 
London in 1732. 

FREINSHEIM [Freinshemius], JOHANN (1608-1660), German 
classical scholar and critic, was born at Ulm on the 16th of 
November 1608. After studying at the universities of Marburg, 
Giessen and Strassburg, he visited France, where he remained 
for three years. He returned to Strassburg in 1637, and in 
1642 was appointed professor of eloquence at Upsala. In 1647 
he was summoned by Queen Christina to Stockholm as court 
librarian and historiographer. In 1650 he resumed his professor- 
ship at Upsala, but early in the following year he was obliged 
to resign on account of ill-health. In 1656 he became honorary 
professor at Heidelberg, and died on the 31st of August 1660. 
Freinsheim's literary activity was chiefly devoted to the Roman 
historians. He first introduced the division into chapters and 
paragraphs, and by means of carefully compiled indexes illus- 
trated the lexical peculiarities of each author. He is best known 
for his famous supplements to Quintus Curtius and Livy, contain- 
ing the missing books written by himself. He also published 
critical editions of Curtius and Floras, 

FREIRE, FRANCISCO JOSfc (1719-1773), Portuguese historian 
and philologist, was born at Lisbon on the 3rd of January 
1719. He belonged to the monastic society of St Philip Neri, 
and was a zealous member of the literary association known as 
the Academy of Arcadians, in connexion with which he adopted 
the pseudonym of Candido Lusitano. He contributed much 
to the improvement of the style of Portuguese prose literature, 
but his endeavour to effect a reformation in the national poetry 
by a translation of Horace's Ars poelica was less successful. The 
work in which he set forth his opinions regarding the vicious 
taste pervading the current Portuguese prose literature is entitled 
Maximas sobre a Arte Oratoria (1 745) and is preceded by a chrono- 
logical table forming almost a social and physical history of 
Portugal. His best known work, however, is his Vida do 
Infante D. Henrique (1758), which has given him a place in the 
first rank of Portuguese historians, and has been translated into 
French (Paris, 1781). He also wrote a poetical dictionary 
(Diccionario poetico) and a translation of Racine's Athalie (1762), 
and his Reflexions sur la langue portugaise was published in 1842 
by the Lisbon society for the promotion of useful knowledge. 
He died at Mafra on the 5th of July 1773. 

FREISCHtJTZ, in German folklore, a marksman who by a 
compact with the devil has obtained a certain number of bullets 
destined to hit without fail whatever object he wishes. As the 
legend is usually told, six of the Freikugeln or " free bullets " 
are thus subservient to the marksman's will, but the seventh is 
at the absolute disposal of the devil himself. Various methods 
were adopted in order to procure possession of the marvellous 
missiles. According to one the marksman, instead of swallowing 
the sacramental host, kept it and fixed it on a tree, f^ot at it 



and caused it to bleed great drops of blood, gathered the drops 
on a piece of cloth and reduced the whole to ashes, and then with 
these ashes added the requisite virtue to the lead of which his 
bullets were made. Various vegetable or animal substances had 
the reputation of serving the same purpose. Stories about the 
Freischiitz were especially common in Germany during the 14th, 
•15th and 1 6th centuries; but the first time that the legend was 
turned to literary profit is said to have been by Apel in the 
Gespensterbuch or " Book of Ghosts." It formed the subject 
of Weber's opera Der Freischiitz (1821), the libretto of which 
was written by Friedrich Kind, who had suggested Apel's story 
as an excellent theme for the composer. The name by which the 
Freischiitz is known in French is Robin des Bois. 

See Kind, Freyschiitzbuch (Leipzig, 1843) ; RevUe des deux mondes 
(February 1855); Grasse, Die Quelle des Freischiitz (Dresden, 1875). 

FREISING, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Bavaria, 
on the Isar, 16 m. by rail N.N.E. of Munich. Pop. (1905) 13,538. 
Among its eight Roman Catholic churches the most remarkable 
is the cathedral, which dates from about 1160 and is famous for 
its curious crypt. Noteworthy also are the old palace of the 
bishops, now a clerical seminary, the theological lyceum and the 
town-hall. There are several schools in the town, and there is a 
statue to the chronicler, Otto of Freising, who was bishop here 
from 1 138 to 1 1 58. Freising has manufactures of agricultural 
machinery and of porcelain, while printing and brewing are carried 
on. Near the town is the site of the Benedictine abbey of 
Weihenstephan, which existed from 725 to 1803. This is now 
a model farm and brewery. Freising is a very ancient town and 
is said to have been founded by the Romans. After being 
destroyed by the Hungarians in 955 it was fortified by the emperor 
Otto II. in 976 and by Duke Welf of Bavaria in 1082. A bishopric 
was established here in 724 by St Corbinianus, whose brother 
Erimbert was consecrated second bishop by St Boniface in 739. 
Later on the bishops acquired considerable territorial power 
and in the 17th century became princes of the Empire. In 
1802 the see was secularized, the bulk of its territories being 
assigned to Bavaria and the rest to Salzburg, of which Freising 
had been a suffragan bishopric. In 181 7 an archbishopric 
was established at Freising, but in the following year it was 
transferred to Munich. The occupant of the see is now called 
archbishop of Munich and Freising. 

See C. Meichelbeck, Historiae Frisingensis (Augsburg, 1 724-1 729, 
new and enlarged edition 1854). 

FREJUS, a town in the department of the Var in S.E. France. 
Pop. (1906) 3430. It is 285 m. S.E. of Draguignan (the chief 
town of the department), and 22^ m. S.W. of Cannes by rail. It 
is only important on account of the fine Roman remains that it 
contains, for it is now a mile from the sea, its harbour having been 
silted up by the deposits of the Argens river. Since the 4th 
century it has been a bishop's see, which is in the ecclesiastical 
province of Aix en Provence. In modern times the neighbouring 
fishing village at St Raphael (25 m. by rail S.E., and on the sea- 
shore) has become a town of 4865 inhabitants (in 1901); in 1799 
Napoleon disembarked there, on his return from Egypt, and re- 
embarked for Elba in 1814, while nowadays it is much frequented 
as a health resort, as is also Valescure (2 m. N.W. on the heights 
above). The cathedral church in part dates from the 12th cen- 
tury, but only small portions of the old medieval episcopal palace 
are now visible, as it was rebuilt about 1823. The ramparts of 
the old town can still be traced for a long distance, and there 
are fragments of two moles, of the theatre and of a gate. The 
amphitheatre, which seated 12,000 spectators, is in a better state 
of preservation. The ruins of the great aqueduct which brought 
the waters of the Siagnole, an affluent of the Siagne, to the town, 
can still be traced for a distance of nearly 19 m. The original 
hamlet was the capital of the tribe of the Oxybii, while the town 
of Forum Julii was founded on its site by Julius Caesar in order 
to secure to the Romans a harbour independent of that of 
Marseilles. The buildings of which ruins exist were mostly 
built by Caesar or by Augustus, and show that it was an important 
naval station and arsenal. But the town suffered much at the 
hands of the Arabs, of Barbary pirates, and of its inhabitants, 

who constructed many of their dwellings out of the ruined Roman 
buildings. The ancient harbour (really but a portion of the 
lagoons, which had been deepened) is now completely silted 
up. Even in early times a canal had to be kept open by perpetual 
digging, while about 1700 this was closed, and now a sandy 
and partly cultivated waste extends between the town and the 

• See J. A. Aubenas, Histoire de Frejus (Frejus, 1881) ; Ch. Lentheric, 
La Provence Maritime ancienne et moderne (Paris, 1880), chap. vii. 

(W. A. B. C.) 

American lawyer and statesman, of Dutch descent, was born at 
Millstone, New Jersey, on the 4th of August 1817. His grand- 
father, Frederick Frelinghuysen (1753-1804), was an eminent 
lawyer, one of the framers of the first New Jersey constitution, 
a soldier in the War of Independence, and a member (1778-1779 
and 1782-1783) of the Continental Congress from New Jersey, 
and in 1 793-1 796 of the United States senate; and his uncle, 
Theodore (1787-1862), was attorney-general of New Jersey 
from 1817 to 1829, was a United States senator from New 
Jersey in 1829-1835, was the Whig candidate for vice-president 
on the Clay ticket in 1844, and was chancellor of the university 
of New York in 1839-1850 and president of Rutgers College 
in 1850-1862. Frederick Theodore, left an orphan at the age of 
three, was adopted by his uncle, graduated at Rutgers in 1836, 
and studied law in Newark with his uncle, to whose practice 
he succeeded in 1839, soon after his admission to the bar. He 
became attorney for the Central Railroad of New Jersey, the 
Morris Canal and Banking Company, and other corporations, 
and from 1861 to 1867 was attorney-general of New Jersey. 
In 1861 he was a delegate to the peace congress at Washington, 
and in 1866 was appointed by the governor of New Jersey, as 
a Republican, to fill a vacancy in the United States senate. 
In the winter of 1867 he was elected to fill the unexpired term, 
but a Democratic majority in the legislature prevented his 
re-election in 1869. In 1870 he was nominated by President 
Grant, and confirmed by the senate, as United States minister 
to England to succeed John Lothrop Motley, but declined the 
mission. From 187 1 to 1877 he was again a member of the United 
States senate, in which he was prominent in debate and in com- 
mittee work, and was chairman of the committee on foreign 
affairs during the Alabama Claims negotiations. He was a strong 
opponent of the reconstruction measures of President Johnson, 
for whose conviction he voted (on most of the specific charges) 
in the impeachment trial. He was a member of the joint com- 
mittee which drew up and reported (1877) the Electoral Com- 
mission Bill, and subsequently served as a member of the com- 
mission. On the 12th of December 1881 he was appointed 
secretary of state by President Arthur to succeed James G. 
Blaine, and served until the inauguration of President Cleveland 
in 1885. Retiring, with his health impaired by overwork, to 
his home in Newark, he died there on the 20th of May, less than 
three months after relinquishing the cares of office. 

FREMANTLE, a seaport of Swan county, Western Australia, 
at the mouth of the Swan river, 12 m. by rail S.W. of Perth. 
It is the terminus of the Eastern railway, and is a town of 
some industrial activity, shipbuilding, soap-boiling, saw-milling, 
smelting-, iron-founding, furniture-making, flour-milling, brewing 
and tanning being its chief industries. The harbour, by the 
construction of two long moles and the blasting away of the rocks 
at the bar, has been rendered secure. The English, French and 
German mail steamers call at the port. Fremantle became a 
municipality in 1871; but there are now three separate munici- 
palities — Fremantle, with a population in 1901 of 14,704; 
Fremantle East (2494); and Fremantle North (3246). At Rott- 
nest Island, off the harbour, there are government salt-works 
and a residence of the governor, also penal and reformatory 

FREMIET, EMMANUEL (1824- ), French sculptor, born 
in Paris, was a nephew and pupil of Rude; he chiefly devoted 
himself to animal sculpture and to equestrian statues in armour. 
His earliest work was in scientific lithography (osteology), and 



for a while he served in times of adversity in the gruesome office 
of " painter to the Morgue." In 1843 he sent to the Salon a 
study of a " Gazelle," and after that date was very prolific in his 
works. His " Wounded Bear " and " Wounded Dog " were 
produced in 1850, and the Luxembourg Museum at once secured 
this striking example of his work. From 1855 to 1859 Fremiet 
was engaged on a series of military statuettes for Napoleon III. 
He produced his equestrian statue of " Napoleon I." in 1868, 
and of " Louis d'Orleans" in 1869 (at the Chateau de Pierrefonds) 
and in 1874 the first equestrian statue of " Joan of Arc," erected 
in the Place des Pyramides, Paris; this he afterwards (1889) 
replaced with another and still finer version. In the meanwhile 
he had exhibited his masterly " Gorilla and Woman " which won 
him a medal of honour at the Salon of 1887. Of the same 
character, and even more remarkable, is his " Ourang-Outangs 
and Borneo Savage " of 1895, a commission from the Paris 
Museum of Natural History. Fremiet also executed the statue 
of " St Michael " for the summit of the spire of the Eglise 
St Michel, and the equestrian statue of Velasquez for the Jardin 
de l'lnfante at the Louvre. He became a member of the 
Academie des Beaux-Arts in 1892, and succeeded Barye as 
professor of animal drawing at the Natural History Museum of 

FREMONT, JOHN CHARLES (1813-1890), American explorer, 
soldier and political leader, was born in Savannah, Georgia, on 
the 2 1 st of January 18 13. His father, a native of France, died 
when the boy was in his sixth year, and his mother, a member of 
an aristocratic Virginia family, then removed to Charleston, South 
Carolina. In 1828, after a year's special preparation, young 
Fremont entered the junior class of the college of Charleston, 
and here displayed marked ability, especially in mathematics; 
but his irregular attendance and disregard of college discipline 
led to his expulsion from the institution, which, however, conferred 
upon him a degree in 1836. In 1833 he was appointed teacher 
of mathematics on board the sloop of war " Natchez, " and was 
so engaged during a cruise along the South American coast 
which was continued for about two and a half years. Soon 
after returning to Charleston he was appointed professor of 
mathematics in the United States navy, but he chose instead to 
serve as assistant engineer of a survey undertaken chiefly for 
the purpose of finding a pass through the mountains for a pro- 
posed railway from Charleston to Cincinnati. In July 1838 he 
was appointed second lieutenant of Topographical Engineers in 
the United States army, and for the next three years he was 
assistant to the French explorer, Jean Nicholas Nicollet (1786- 
1843), employed by the war department to survey and map a 
large part of the country lying between the upper waters of the 
Mississippi and Missouri rivers. In 1841 Fremont surveyed, for 
the government, the lower course of the Des Moines river. In 
the same year he married Jessie, the daughter of Senator Thomas 
H. Benton of Missouri, and it was in no small measure through 
Benton's influence with the government that Fremont was 
enabled to accomplish within the next few years the exploration 
of much of the territory between the Mississippi Valley and the 
Pacific Ocean. 

When the claim of the United States to the Oregon territory 
was being strengthened by occupation, Fremont was sent, at 
his urgent request, to explore the frontier beyond the Missouri 
river, and especially the Rocky Mountains in the vicinity of the 
South Pass, through which the American immigrants travelled. 
Within four months (1842) he surveyed the Pass and ascended 
to the summit of the highest of the Wind River Mountains, since 
known as Fremont's Peak, and the interest aroused by his 
descriptions was such that in the next year he was sent on a 
second expedition to complete the survey across the continent 
along the line of travel from Missouri to the mouth of the Columbia 
river. This time he not only carried out his instructions but, 
by further explorations together with interesting descriptions, 
dispelled general ignorance with respect to the main features of 
the country W. of the Rocky Mountains: the Great Salt Lake, 
the Great Basin, the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and the fertile 
river basins of the Mexican province of California. 

xi. 4 

His report of this expedition upon his return to Washington, 
D.C., in 1844, aroused much solicitude for California, which, it 
was feared, might, in the event of war then threatening between 
the United States and Mexico, be seized by Great Britain. In 
the spring of 1845 Fremont was despatched on a third expedition 
for the professed purposes of further exploring the Great Basin 
and the Pacific Coast, and of discovering the easiest lines of 
communication between them, as well as for the secret purpose 
of assisting the United States, in case of war with Mexico, to 
gain possession of California. He and his party of sixty-two 
arrived there in January 1846. Owing to the number of American 
immigrants who had settled in California, the Mexican 
authorities there became suspicious and hostile, and ordered 
Fremont out of the province. Instead of obeying he pitched 
his camp near the summit of a mountain overlooking Monterey, 
fortified his position, and raised the United States flag. A few 
days later he was proceeding toward the Oregon border when 
new instructions from Washington caused him to retrace his 
steps and, perhaps, to consider plans for provoking war. The 
extent of his responsibility for the events that ensued is not 
wholly clear, and has been the subject of much controversy; 
his defenders have asserted that he was not responsible for the 
seizure of Sonoma or for the so-called " Bear-Flag War "■; and 
that he played a creditable part throughout. (For an opposite 
view see California.) Commodore John D. Sloat, after seizing 
Monterey, transferred his command to Commodore Robert 
Field Stockton (1795-1866), who made Fremont major of a 
battalion; and by January 1847 Stockton and Fremont completed 
the conquest of California. In the meantime General Stephen 
Watts Kearny (1 794-1848) had been sent by the Government 
to conquer it and to establish a government. This created a • 
conflict of authority between Stockton and Kearny, both of 
whom were Fremont's superior officers. Stockton, ignoring 
Kearny, commissioned Fremont military commandant and 
governor. But Kearny's authority being confirmed about the 
1st of April, Fremont, for repeated acts of disobedience, was 
sent under arrest to Washington, where he was tried by court- 
martial, found guilty (January 1847) of mutiny, disobedience 
and conduct prejudicial to military discipline, and sentenced 
to dismissal from the service. President Polk approved of the 
verdict except as to mutiny, but remitted the penalty, whereupon 
Fremont resigned. 

With the mountain-traversed region he had been exploring 
acquired by the United States, Fremont was eager for a railway 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and in October 1848 he set out 
at his own and Senator Benton's expense to find passes for such 
a railway along a line westward from the headwaters of the Rio 
Grande. But he hrd not gone far when he was led astray by a 
guide, and after the loss of his entire outfit and several of his 
men, and intense suffering of the survivors from cold and hunger, 
he turned southward through the valley of the Rio Grande and 
then westward through the valley of the Gila into southern 
California. Late in the year 1853, however, he returned to the 
place where the guide had led him astray, found passes through 
the mountains to the westward between latitudes 37 and 38 
N., and arrived in San Francisco early in May 1854. From the 
conclusion of his fourth expedition until March 1855, when he 
removed to New York city, he lived in California, and in December 
1849 was elected one of the first two United States senators from 
the new state. But as he drew the short term, he served only 
from the 10th of September 1850 to the 3rd of March 1851. 
Although a candidate for re-election, he was defeated by the 
pro-slavery party. His opposition to slavery, howeyer, together 
with his popularity — won by the successes, hardships and dangers 
of his exploring expeditions, and by his part in the conquest of 
California — led to his nomination, largely on the ground of 
" availability," for the presidency in 1856 by the Republicans 
(this being their first presidential campaign), and by the National 
Americans or " Know-Nothings." In the ensuing election he 
was defeated by James Buchanan by 174 to 114 electoral votes. 
Soon after the Civil War began, Fremont was appointed 
I major-general and placed in command of the western department 

9 8 


with headquarters at St Louis, but his lack of judgment and 
of administrative ability soon became apparent, the affairs of 
his department fell into disorder, and Fremont seems to have 
been easily duped by dishonest contractors whom he trusted. 
On the 30th of August 1861 he issued a proclamation in which 
he declared the property of Missourians in rebellion confiscated 
and their slaves emancipated. For this he was applauded by 
the radical Republicans, but his action was contrary to an act 
of congress of the 6th of August and to the policy of the Adminis- 
tration. On the nth of September President Lincoln, who 
regarded the action as premature and who saw that it might 
alienate Kentucky and other border states, whose adherence he 
was trying to secure, annulled these declarations. Impelled by 
serious charges against Fremont, the president sent Mont- 
gomery Blair, the postmaster-general, and Montgomery C. Meigs, 
the quartermaster-general, to investigate the department; they 
reported that Fremont's management was extravagant and 
inefficient; and in November he was removed. Out of con- 
sideration for the " Radicals," however, Fremont was placed in 
command of the Mountain Department of Virginia, Kentucky 
and Tennessee. In the spring and summer of 1862 he co-operated 
with General N. P. Banks against " Stonewall " Jackson in the 
Shenandoah Valley, but showed little ability as a commander, was 
defeated by General Ewell at Cross Keys, and when his troops 
were united with those of Generals Banks and McDowell to form 
the Army of Virginia, of which General John Pope was placed 
in command, Fremont declined to serve under Pope, whom he 
outranked, and retired from active service. On the 31st of May 
1864 he was nominated for the presidency by a radical faction 
of the Republican party, opposed to President Lincoln, but 
his following was so small that on the 21st of September he with- 
drew from the contest. From 1878 to 1881 he was governor of 
the territory of Arizona, and in the last year of his life he was 
appointed by act of congress a major-general and placed on the 
retired list. He died in New York on the 13th of July i8go. 

See J. C. Fremont, Report of the Exploring Expedition to the Rocky 
Mountains, 184?, and to Oregon and North California, 1843-1844 
(Washington, 184.5) ; Fremont's Memoirs of my Life (New York, 
1887); and J. Bigelow, Memoirs of the Life and Public Services 
of John C. Fremont (New York, 1856). 

FREMONT, a city and the county-seat of Dodge county, 
Nebraska, U.S.A., about 37 m. N.W. of Omaha, on the N. bank 
of the Platte river, which here abounds in picturesque bluffs 
and wooded islands. Pop. (1890) 6747; (1900) 7241 (1303 
foreign-born); (1910)8718. It is on the main line of the Union 
Pacific railway, on a branch of the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy system, and on the main western line of the Chicago & 
North- Western railway, several branches of which (including the 
formerly independent Fremont, Elkhorn & Missouri Valley and 
the Sioux City & Pacific) converge here. The city has an attrac- 
tive situation and is beautifully shaded. It has a public library 
and is the .seat of the Fremont College, Commercial Institute 
and School of Pharmacy (1875), a private institution. There is 
considerable local trade with the rich farming country of the 
Platte and Elkhorn valleys; and the wholesale grain interests are 
especially important. Among the manufactures are flour, 
carriages, saddlery, canned vegetables, furniture, incubators 
and beer. The city owns and operates its electric-lighting plant 
and water-works. Fremont was founded in 1856, and became 
the county-seat in 1 860. It was chartered as a city (second-class) 
in 1871, and became a city of the first class in 1901. 

FREMONT, a city and the county-seat of Sandusky county, 
Ohio, U.S.A., on the Sandusky river, 30 m. S.E. of Toledo. 
Pop. (1890) 7141; (1900) 8439, of whom 1074 were foreign-born; 
(1910 census) 9939. Fremont is served by the Lake Shore & 
Michigan Southern, the Lake Shore Electric, the Lake Erie 
& Western, and the Wheeling & Lake Erie railways. The river 
is navigable to this point. Spiegel Grove, the former residence of 
Rutherford B. Hayes, is of interest, and the city has a public 
library (1873) and parks, in large measure the gifts of his uncle, 
Sardis Birchard. Fremont is situated in a good agricultural 
region; oil and natural gas abound in the vicinity; and the city 
has various manufactures, including boilers, electro-carbons, 

cutlery, bricks, agricultural implements, stoves and ranges, 
safety razors, carriage irons, sash, doors, blinds, furniture, beet 
sugar, canned vegetables, malt extract, garters and suspenders. 
The total factory product was valued at $2,833,385 in 1905, 
an increase of 23-4% over that of 1900. Fremont is on the site 
of a favourite abode of the Indians, and a trading post was at 
times maintained here; but the place is best known in history as 
the site of Fort Stephenson, erected during the War of 1812, 
and on the 2nd of August 1813 gallantly and successfully defended 
by Major George Croghan (1791-1849), with 160 men, against 
about 1000 British and Indians under Brigadier-General Henry 
A. Proctor. In 1906 Croghan's remains were re-interred on the 
site of the old fort. Until 1849, when the present name was 
adopted in honour of J. C. Fremont, the place was known as 
Lower Sandusky; it was incorporated as a village in 1829 
and was first chartered as a city in 1867. 

FREMY, EDMOND (1814-1894), French chemist, was born 
at Versailles on the 29th of February 1814. Entering Gay- 
Lussac's laboratory in 183 1, he became preparateur at the Ecole 
Polytechnique in 1834 and at the College de France in 1837. 
His next post was that of r&petiteur at the Ecole Polytechnique, 
where in 1846 he was appointed professor, and in 1850 he suc- 
ceeded Gay-Lussac in the chair of chemistry at the Museum 
d'Histoire Naturelle, of which he was director, in succession to 
M. E. Chevreul, from 1879 to 1891. He died at Paris on the 3rd 
of February 1894. His work included investigations of osmic 
acid, of the ferrates, stannates, plumbates, &c, and of ozone, 
attempts to obtain free fluorine by the electrolysis of fused 
fluorides, and the discovery of anhydrous hydrofluoric acid and 
of a series of acides sulphazotis, the precise nature of which long 
remained a matter of discussion. He also studied the colouring 
matters of leaves and flowers, the composition of bone, cerebral 
matter and other animal substances, and the processes of fer- 
mentation, in regard to the nature of which he was an opponent of 
Pasteur's views. Keenly alive to the importance of the technical 
applications of chemistry, he devoted special attention as a 
teacher to the training of industrial chemists. In this field he 
contributed to our knowledge of the manufacture of iron and steel, 
sulphuric acid, glass and paper, and in particular worked at the 
saponification of fats with sulphuric acid and the utilization of 
palmitic acid for candle-making. In the later years of his life 
he applied himself to the problem of obtaining alumina in the 
crystalline form, and succeeded in making rubies identical with 
the natural gem not merely in chemical composition but also in 
physical properties. 

FRENCH, DANIEL CHESTER (1850- ), American sculptor, 
was born at Exeter, New Hampshire, on the 20th of April 1850, 
the son of Henry Flagg French, a lawyer, who for a time was 
assistant-secretary of the United States treasury. After a year 
at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, French spent a 
month in the studio of John Q. A. Ward, then began to work on 
commissions, and at the age of twenty-three received from the 
town of Concord, Massachusetts, an order for his well-known 
statue " The Minute Man," which was unveiled (April 19, 1875) 
on the centenary of the battle of Concord. Previously French 
had gone to Florence, Italy, where he spent a year with Thomas 
Ball. French's best-known work is " Death Staying the Hand of 
the Sculptor," a memorial for the tomb of the sculptor Martin 
Milmore, in the Forest Hills cemetery, Boston ; this received a 
medal of honour at Paris, in 1900. Among his other works are: 
a monument to John Boyle O'Reilly, Boston; " Gen. Cass," 
National Hall of Statuary, Washington; " Dr Gallaudet and his 
First Deaf-Mute Pupil," Washington; the colossal " Statue 
of the Republic," for the Columbian Exposition at Chicago; 
statues of Rufus Choate (Boston), John Harvard (Cambridge, 
Mass.), and Thomas Starr King (San Francisco, California), a 
memorial to the architect Richard M. Hunt, in Fifth Avenue, 
opposite the Lenox library, New York, and a large " Alma 
Mater," near the approach to Columbia University, New York. 
In collaboration with Edward C. Potter he modelled the 
" Washington," presented to France by the Daughters of the 
American Revolution; the " General Grant " in Fairmount Park, 



Philadelphia, and the " General Joseph Hooker " in Boston. 
French became a member of the National Academy of Design 
(iooi), the National Sculpture Society, the Architectural League, 
and the Accademia di San Luca, of Rome. 

FRENCH, NICHOLAS (1604-1678), bishop of Ferns, was an 
Irish political pamphleteer, who was born at Wexford. He 
was educated at Louvain, and returning to Ireland became a 
priest at Wexford, and before 1646 was appointed bishop of 
Ferns. Having taken a prominent part in the political disturb- 
ances of this period, French deemed it prudent to leave Ireland 
in 1 65 1, and the remainder of his life was 
passed on the continent of Europe. He acted 
as coadjutor to the archbishops of Santiago 
de Compostella and Paris, and to the bishop 
of Ghent, and died at Ghent on the 23rd of 
August 1678. In 1676 he published his attack 
on James Butler, marquess of Ormonde, 
entitled " The Unkinde Desertor of Loyall 
Men and True Frinds," and shortly afterwards 
" The Bleeding Iphigenia." The most im- 
portant of his other pamphlets is the "Narrative 
of the Earl of Clarendon's Settlement and Sale 
of Ireland " (Louvain, 1668). 

The Historical Works of Bishop French, corn- 
prising the three pamphlets already mentioned 
and some letters, were published by S. H. Bindon 
at Dublin in 1846. See T. D. McGee, Irish 
Writers of the 17th Century (Dublin, 1846); Sir 
J. T. Gilbert, Contemporary History of Affairs in 
Ireland, 1641-1652 (Dublin, 1879-1880); and T. 
Carte, Life of James, Duke of Ortnond (new ed., 
Oxford, 185 1). 

FRENCH CONGO, the general name of the 
French possessions in equatorial Africa. They 
have an area estimated at 700,000 sq. m., with 
a population, also estimated, of 6,000,000 to 
10,000,000. The whites numbered (1906) 1278 
of whom 502 were officials. French Congo, 
officially renamed French Equatorial Africa 
in iqio, comprises — (1) the Gabun Colony, 
(2) the Middle Congo Colony, (3) the Ubangi 
Shari Circumscription, (4) the Chad Circuni' 
scription. The two last-named divisions form 
the Ubangi-Shari-Chad Colony. 

The present article treats of French Congo 
as a unit. It is of highly irregular shape. It 
is bounded W. by the Atlantic, N. by the (Spanish) Muni 
River Settlements, the German colony of Cameroon and the 
Sahara, E. by the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, and S. by Belgian 
Congo and the Portuguese territory of Kabinda. In the greater 
part of its length the southern frontier is the middle course of 
the Congo and the Ubangi and Mbomu, the chief northern 
affluents of that stream, but in the south-west the frontier 
keeps north of the Congo river, whose navigable lower course 
is partitioned between Belgium and Portugal. The coast line, 
some 600 m. long, extends from 5° S. to i° N. The northern 
frontier, starting inland from the Muni estuary, after skirting the 
Spanish settlements follows a line drawn a little north of 2° N. 
and extending east to 16° E. North of this line the country is 
part of Cameroon, German territory extending so far inland from 
the Gulf of Guinea as to approach within 130 m. of the Ubangi. 
From the intersection of the lines named, at which point French 
Congo is at its narrowest, the frontier runs north and then east 
until the Shari is reached in 10° 40' N. The Shari then forms the 
frontier up to Lake Chad, where French Congo joins the Saharan 
regions of French West Africa. The eastern frontier, separating 
the colony from the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, is the water-parting 
between the Nile and the Congo. The Mahommedan sultanates 
of Wadai and Bagirmi occupy much of the northern part of 
French Congo (see Wadai and Bagirmi). 

Physical Features. — -The coast line, beginning in the north at 
Corisco Bay, is shortly afterwards somewhat deeply indented by 
the estuary of the Gabun, south of which the shore runs in a nearly 

straight line until the delta of the Ogow6 is reached, where Cape 
Lopez projects N.W. From this point the coast trends uniformly 
S.E. without presenting any striking features, though the Bay of 
Mayumba, the roadstead of Loango, and the Pointe Noire may be 
mentioned. A large proportion of the coast region is occupied by 
primeval forest, with trees rising to a height of 150 and 200 ft., but 
there is a considerable variety of scenery — open lagoons, mangrove 
swamps, scattered clusters of trees, park-like reaches, dense walls of 
tangled underwood along the rivers, prairies of tall grass and patches, 
of cultivation. Behind the coast region is a ridge which rises from 
3000 to 4500 ft., called the Crystal Mountains, then a plateau with 
an elevation varying from 1500 to 2800 ft., cleft with deep river- 

'4 ° C 

N^G % O - 

Longitude East 24 of Greenwich 

Emery Walker fu 

valleys, the walls of which are friable, almost vertical, and in some 
places 760 ft. high. 

The coast rivers flowing into the Atlantic cross four terraces. 
On the higher portion of the plateau their course is over bare sand ; 
on the second terrace, from 1200 to 2000 ft. high, it is over wide 
grassy tracts; then, for some 100 m., the rivers pass through virgin 
forest, and, lastly, they cross the shore region, which is about 10 m. 
broad. The rivers which fall directly into the Atlantic are generally 
unnavigable. The most important, the Ogow6 (q.v.), is, however, 
navigable from its mouth to N'Jole, a distance of 235 m. Rivers to 
the south of the Ogowe are the Nyanga, 120 m. long, and the Kwilu. 
The latter, 320 m. in length, is formed by the Kiasi and the Luete; 
it has a very winding course, flowing by turns from north to south, 
from east to west, from south to north-west and from north to south- 
west. It is encumbered with rocks and eddies, and is navigable only 
over 38 m., and for five months in the year. The mouth is 1100 ft. 
wide. The Muni river, the northernmost in the colony, is obstructed 
by cataracts in its passage through the escarpment to the coast. 

Nearly all the upper basin of the Shari (q.v.) as well as the right 
bank of the lower river is within French Congo. The greater part 
of the country belongs, however, to the drainage area of the Congo 
river. In addition to the northern banks of the Mbomu and Ubangi, 
330 m. of the north shore of the Congo itself are in the French pro- 
tectorate as well as numerous subsidiary streams. For some 100 m. 
however, the right bank of the Sanga, the most important of these 
subsidiary streams, is in German territory (see Congo). 

Geology. — Three main divisions are recognized in the French 
Congo: — (1) the littoral zone, covered with alluvium and superficial 
deposits and underlain by Tertiary and Cretaceous rocks; (2) the 
mountain zone of the Crystal Mountains, composed of granite, 
metamorphic and ancient sediments; (3) the plateau of the northern 
portion of the Congo basin, occupied by Karroo sandstones. The 
core of the Crystal Mountains consists of granite and schists. 



Infolded with them , and on the flanks, are three rock systems ascribed 
to the Silurian, Devonian and Carboniferous. These are unfossili- 
ferous, but fossils of Devonian age occur on the Congo (see Congo 
Free State). Granite covers wide areas north-west of the Crystal 
Mountains. The plateau sandstones lie horizontally and consist 
of a lower red sandstone group and an upper white sandstone group. 
They have not yielded fossils. Limestones of Lower Cretaceous age, 
with Schloenbachia inflata, occur north of the Gabun and in the Ogowe 
basin. Marls and limestones with fossils of an Eocene facies over- 
lie the Cretaceous rocks on the Gabun. A superficial iron-cemented 
sand, erroneously termed laterite, covers large areas in the littoral 
zone, on the flanks of the mountains and on the high plateau. 

Climate. — The whole of the country being in the equatorial region, 
the climate is everywhere very hot and dangerous for Europeans. 
On the coast four seasons are distinguished: the dry season (15th 
of May to 15th of September), the rainy season (15th of September 
to 15th of January), then a second dry season (15th of January to 
1st of March), and a second rainy season (1st of March to 15th of 
May). The rainfall at Libreville is about 96 in. a year. 

Flora and Fauna. — The elephant, the hippopotamus, the crocodile 
and several kinds of apes — including the chimpanzee and the rare 
gorilla — are the most noteworthy larger animals; the birds are 
various and beautiful — grey parrots, shrikes, fly-catchers, rhinoceros 
birds, weaver birds (often in large colonies on the palm-trees), ice- 
birds, from the Cecyle Sharpii to the dwarfish Alcedo cristata, butter- 
fly finches, and helmet-birds (Turacus giganteus), as well as more 
familiar types. Snakes are extremely common. The curious 
climbing-fish, which frequents the mangroves, the Protopterus or 
lung-fish, which lies in the mud in a state of lethargy during the dry 
season, the strange and poisonous Tetrodon guttifer, and the herring- 
like Pellona africana, often caught in great shoals — are the more 
remarkable of the fishes. Oysters are got in abundance from the 
lagoons, and the huge Cardisoma armatum or heart-crab is fattened 
for table. Fireflies, mosquitoes and sandflies are among the most 
familiar forms of insect life. A kind of ant builds very striking 
bent-house or umbrella-shaped nests rising on the tree trunks one 
above the other. 

Among the more characteristic forms of vegetation are baobabs, 
silk-cotton trees, screw-pines and palms — especially Hyphaene 
guineensis (a fan-palm), Raphia (the wine-palm), and Elaeis guineen- 
sis (the oil-palm). Anonaceous plants (notably Anona senegalensis , 
and the pallabanda, an olive-myrtle-like tree, are common in the 
prairies; the papyrus shoots up to a height of 20 ft. along the rivers; 
the banks are fringed by the cottony Hibiscus tiliaceus, ipomaeas 
and fragrant jasmines ; and the thickets are bound together in one 
inextricable mass by lianas of many kinds. In the upper Shari 
region. and that of the Kotto tributary of the Ubangi, are species of 
the coffee tree, one species attaining a height of over 60 ft. Its bean 
resembles that of Abyssinian coffee of medium quality. Among the 
fruit trees are the mango and the papaw, the orange and the lemon. 
Negro-pepper (a variety of capsicum) and ginger grow wild. 

Inhabitants and Chief Towns. — A census, necessarily imperfect, 
taken in 1906 showed a total population, exclusive of Wadai, of 
3,652,000, divided in districts as follows: — Gabun, 376,000; Middle 
Congo, 259,000; Ubangi-Shari, 2,130,000; Chad, 885,000. The 
country is peopled by diverse negro races, and, in the regions border- 
ing Lake Chad and in Wadai, by Fula, Hausa, Arabs and semi- 
Arab tribes. Among the best-known tribes living in French Congo 
are the Fang (Fans), the Bakalai, the Batekes and the Zandeh or 
Niam-Niam. Several of the tribes are cannibals and among many 
of them the fetish worship characteristic of the West African negroes 
prevails. Their civilization is of a low order. In the northern 
regions the majority of the inhabitants are Mahommedans, and it is 
only in those districts that organized and powerful states exist. 
Elsewhere the authority of a chief or " king " extends, ordinarily, 
little beyond the village in which he lives. (An account of the chief 
tribes is given under their names.) The European inhabitants are 
chiefly of French nationality, and are for the most part traders, 
officials and missionaries. 

The chief towns are Libreville (capital of the Gabun colony) with 
3000 inhabitants; Brazzaville, on the Congo on the north side of 
Stanley Pool (opposite the Belgian capital of Leopoldville) , the seat 
of the governor-general ; Franceville, on the upper Ogowe ; Loango, 
an important seaport in 4" 39' S.; N'Jole, a busy trading centre on 
the lower Ogowe ; Chekna, capital of Bagirmi, which forms part of 
the Chad territory; Abeshr, the capital of Wadai, Bangi on the 
Ubangi river, the administrative capital of the Ubangi-Shari-Chad 
colony. Kunde, Lame and Binder are native trading centres near 
the Cameroon frontier. 

Communications. — The rivers are the chief means of internal 
communication. Access to the greater part of the colony is ob- 
tained by ocean steamers to Matadi on the lower Congo, and thence 
round the falls by the Congo railway to Stanley Pool. From Brazza- 
ville on Stanley Pool there is 680 m. of uninterrupted steam navi- 
gation N.E. into the heart of Africa, 330 m. being on the Congo 
and 350 m. on the Ubangi. The farthest point reached is Zongo, 
where rapids block the river, but beyond that port there are several 
navigable stretches of the Ubangi, and for small vessels access to 
the Nile is possible by means of the Bahr-el-Ghazal tributaries. 
The Sanga, which joins the Congo, 270 m. above Brazzaville, can be 

navigated by steamers for 350 m., i.e. up to and beyond the S.E. 
frontier of the German colony of Cameroon. The Shari is also 
navigable for a considerable distance and by means of its affluent, 
the Logone, connects with the Benue and Niger, affording a waterway 
between the Gulf of Guinea and Lake Chad. Stores for government 
posts in the Chad territory are forwarded by this route. There is, 
however, no connecting link between the coast rivers — Gabun, 
Ogowe and Kwilu and the Congo system. A railway, about 500 m. 
long, from the Gabun to the Sanga is projected and the surveys for 
the purpose made. Another route surveyed for a railway is that 
from Loango to Brazzaville. A narrow-gauge line, 75 m. long, from 
Brazzaville to Mindule in the cataracts region was begun in November 
1908, the first railway to be built in French Congo. The district 
served by the line is rich in copper and other minerals. From Wadai 
a caravan route across the Sahara leads to Bengazi on the shores of 
the Mediterranean. Telegraph lines connect Loango with Brazza- 
ville and Libreville, there is telegraphic communication with Europe 
by submarine cable, and steamship communication between Loango 
and Libreville and Marseilles, Bordeaux, Liverpool and Hamburg. 

Trade and Agriculture. — The chief wealth of the colony consists in 
the products of its forests and in ivory. The natives, in addition to 
manioc, their principal food, cultivate bananas, ground nuts and 
tobacco. On plantations owned by Europeans coffee, cocoa and 
vanilla are grown. European vegetables are raised easily. Gold, 
iron and copper are found. Copper ores have been exported from 
Mindule since 1905. The chief exports are rubber and ivory, next 
in importance coming palm nuts and palm oil, ebony and other 
woods, coffee, cocoa and copal. The imports are mainly cotton and 
metal goods, spirits and foodstuffs. In the Gabun and in the basin 
of the Ogowe the French customs tariff, with some modifications, 
prevails, but in the Congo basin, that is, in the greater part of the 
country, by virtue of international agreements, no discrimination 
can be made, between French and other merchandise, whilst customs 
duties must not exceed 10% ad valorem. 1 In the Shari basin and in 
Wadai the Anglo-French declaration of March 1899 accorded for 
thirty years equal treatment to British and French goods. The 
value of the trade rose in the ten years 1896-1905 from £360,000 to 
£850,000, imports and exports being nearly equal. The bulk of the 
export trade is with Great Britain, which takes most of the rubber, 
France coming second and Germany third. The imports are in about 
equal proportions from France and foreign countries. 

Land Tenure. The Concessions Regime. — Land held by the 
natives is governed by tribal law, but the state only recognizes native 
ownership in land actually occupied by the aborigines. The greater 
part of the country is considered a state domain. Land held by 
Europeans is subject to the Civil Code of France except such estates 
as have been registered under the terms of a decree of the 28th of 
March 1899, when, registration having been effected, the title to the 
land is guaranteed by the state. Nearly the whole of the colony has 
been divided since 1899 into large estates held by limited liability 
companies to whom has been granted the sole right of exploiting the 
land leased to them. The companies holding concessions numbered 
in 1904 about forty, with a combined capital of over £2,000,000, 
whilst the concessions varied in size from 425 sq. m. to 54,000 sq. m. 
One effect of the granting of concessions was the rapid decline in the 
business of non-concessionaire traders, of whom the most important 
were Liverpool merchants established in the Gabun before the advent 
of the French. As by the Act of Berlin of 1885, to which all the 
European powers were signatories, equality of treatment in com- 
mercial affairs was guaranteed to all nations in the Congo basin, 
protests were raised against the terms of the concessions. The reply 
was that the critics confused the exercise of the right of proprietor- 
ship with the act of commerce, and that in no country was the 
landowner who farmed his land and sold the produce regarded as a 
merchant. Various decisions by the judges of the colony during 
1902 and 1903 and by the French cour de cassation in 1905 con- 
firmed that contention. The action of the companies was, however, 
in most cases, neither beneficial to the country nor financially 
successful, whilst the native cultivators resented the prohibition of 
their trading direct with their former customers. The case of the 
Liverpool traders was taken up by the British government and it 
was agreed that the dispute should be settled by arbitration. In 
September 1908 the French government issued a decree reorganizing 
and rendering more stringent the control exercised by the local 
authorities over the concession companies, especially in matters 
concerning the rights of natives and the liberty of commerce. 

History. — The Gabun was visited in the 15th century by the 
Portuguese explorers, and it became one of the chief seats of 
the slave trade. It was not, however, till well on in the 19th 
century that Europeans made any more permanent settlement 
than was absolutely necessary for the maintenance of their 
commerce. In 1839 Captain (afterwards Admiral) Bouet- 
Willaumez obtained for France the right of residence on the left 
bank, and in 1842 he secured better positions on the right bank. 
The primary object of the French settlement was to secure a 

1 Berlin Act of 1885; Brussels conference of 1890 (see Africa: 



port wherein men-of-war could revictual. The chief establish- 
ment, Libreville, was founded in 1849, with negroes taken from 
a slave ship. The settlement in time acquired importance as a 
trading port. In 1867 the troops numbered about 1000, and the 
civil population about 5000, while the official reports about the 
same date claimed for the whole colony an area of 8000 sq. m. 
and a population of 186,000. Cape Lopez had been ceded to 
France in 1862, and the colony's coast-line extended, nominally, 
to a length of 200 m. In consequence of the war with Germany 
the colony was practically abandoned in 187 1, the establishment 
at Libreville being maintained as a coaling depot merely. In 
1875, however, France again turned her attention to the Gabun 
estuary, the hinterland of which had already been partly ex- 
plored. Paul du Chaillu penetrated (1855-1859 and 1863-1865) 
to the south of the Ogowe; Walker, an English merchant, 
explored the Ngunye, an affluent of the Ogowe, in 1866. In 
1872-1873 Alfred Marche, a French naturalist, and the marquis 
de Compiegne 1 explored a portion of the Ogowe basin, but it was 
not until the expedition of 1875-1878 that the country east of 
the Ogowe was reached. This expedition was led by Savorgnan 
de Brazza (q.v.), who was accompanied by Dr Noel Eugene 
Ballay, and, for part of the time, by Marche. De Brazza's 
expedition, which was compelled to remain for many months at 
several places, ascended the Ogowe over 400 m., and beyond the 
basin of that stream discovered the Alima, which was, though the 
explorers were ignorant of the fact, a tributary of the Congo. 
From the Alima, de Brazza and Ballay turned north and finally 
reached the Gabun in November 1878, the journey being less 
fruitful in results than the time it occupied would indicate. 
Returning to Europe, de Brazza learned that Ff. M. Stanley had 
revealed the mystery of the Congo, and in his next journey, 
begun December 1879, the French traveller undertook to find a 
way to the Congo above the rapids via the Ogowe. In this he 
was successful, and in September 1880 reached Stanley Pool, 
on the north side of which Brazzaville was subsequently founded. 
Returning to the Gabun by the lower Congo, de Brazza met 
Stanley. Both explorers were nominally in the service of the 
International African Association (see Congo Free State), 

but de Brazza in reality acted solely in the interests of 
?" , France and concluded treaties with Makoko, " king 
treaties. °^ tne Batekes," and other chieftains, placing very large 

areas under the protection of that country. The con- 
flicting claims of the Association (which became the Congo Free 
State) and France were adjusted by a convention signed in 
February 1885. 2 In the meantime de Brazza and Ballay had 
more fully explored the country behind the coast regions of Gabun 
and Loango, the last-named seaport being occupied by France 
in 1883. The conclusion of agreements with Germany (December 
1885 and February-March 1894) and with Portugal (May 1886) 
secured France in the possession of the western portion of the 
colony as it now exists, whilst an arrangement with the Congo 
Free State in 1887 settled difficulties which had arisen in the 
Ubangi district. 

The extensionof French influence northward towardsLake Chad 
and eastward to the verge of the basin of the Nile followed, though 
The not without involving the country in serious disputes 

advance with the other European powers possessing rights in 
towards those regions. By creating the posts of Bangi (1890), 
f" h'd' Wesso and Abiras (1891), France strengthened her 

hold over the Ubangi and the Sanga. But at the same 
time the Congo Free State passed the parallel of 4 N. — which, 
after the compromise of 1887, France had regarded as the southern 
boundary of her possessions — and, occupying the sultanate of 
Bangasso (north of the Ubangi river), pushed on as far as 9° N. 
The dispute which ensued was only settled in 1894 and after 

1 Louis Eugene Henri Dupont, marquis de Compiegne (1846- 
'877), on his return from the West coast replaced Georg Schwein- 
furth at Cairo as president of the geographical commission. Arising 
out of this circumstance de Compiegne was killed in a duel by a 
German named Mayer. 

2 A Franco-Belgian agreement of the 23rd of Dec. 1908 defined 
precisely the frontier in the lower Congo. Bamu Island in Stanley 
Pool was recognized as French. 

the signature of the convention between Great Britain and the 
Congo State of the 12th of May of that year, against which both 
the German and the French governments protested, the last 
named because it erected a barrier against the extension of French 
territory to the Nile valley. By a compromise of the 14th of 
August the boundary was definitely drawn and, in accordance 
with this pact, which put the frontier back to about 4 N., 
France from 1895 to 1897 took possession of the upper Ubangi, 
with Bangasso, Rafai and Zemio. Then began the French 
encroachment on the Bahr-el-Ghazal; the Marchand expedition, 
despatched to the support of Victor Liotard, the lieutenant- 
governor of the upper Ubangi, reached Tambura in July 1897 
and Fashoda in July 1898. A dispute with Great Britain arose, 
and it was decided that the expedition should evacuate Fashoda. 
The declaration of the 21st of March 1899 finally terminated the 
dispute, fixing the eastern frontier of the French colony as already 
stated. Thus, after the Franco-Spanish treaty of June 1900 
settling the limits of the Spanish territory on the coast, the 
boundaries of the French Congo on all its frontiers were deter- 
mined in broad outline. The Congo-Cameroon frontier was 
precisely defined by another Franco-German agreement in 
April 1908, following a detailed survey made by joint com- 
missioners in 1905 and 1906. For a comprehensive description 
of these international rivalries see Africa, § 5, and for the con- 
quest of the Chad regions see Bagirmi and Rabah Zobeir. In 
the other portions of the colony French rule was accepted by the 
natives, for the most part, peaceably. For the relations of France 
with Wadai see that article. 

Following the acquisitions for France of de Brazza, the ancient 
Gabun colony was joined to the Congo territories. From 1886 
to 1889 Gabun was, however, separately administered. By 
decree of the nth of December 1888 the whole of the French 
possessions were created one " colony " under the style of Congo 
francais, with various subdivisions; they were placed under a com- 
missioner-general (de Brazza) having his residence at Brazzaville. 
This arrangement proved detrimental to the economic develop- 
ment of the Gabun settlements, which being outside the limits 
of the free trade conventional basin of the Congo (see Africa, 
§ 5) enjoyed a separate tariff. By decree of the 29th of December 
1903 (which became operative in July 1904) Congo francais was 
divided into four parts as named in the opening paragraph. 
The first commissioner-general under the new scheme was Emile 
Gentil, the explorer of the Shari and Chad. In 1905 de Brazza 
was sent out from France to investigate charges of cruelty and 
maladministration brought against officials of the colony, several 
of which proved well founded. De Brazza died at Dakar when 
on his way home. The French government, after considering 
the report he had drawn up, decided to retain Gentil as com- 
missioner-general, making however (decree of 15th of February 
1906) various changes in administration with a view to protect 
the natives and control the concession companies. Gentil, 
who devoted the next two years to the reorganization of the 
finances of the country and the development of its commerce, 
resigned his post in February 1908. He was succeeded by 
M. Merlin, whose title was changed (June 1908) to that of 

Administration and Revenue. — The governor-general has control 
over the whole of French Congo, but does not directly administer 
any part of it, the separate colonies being under lieutenant-governors. 
The Gabun colony includes the Gabun estuary and the whole of the 
coast-line of French Congo, together with the basin of the Ogowe 
river. The inland frontier is so drawn as to include all the hinter- 
land not within the Congo free-trade zone (the Chad district ex- 
cepted). The Middle Congo has for its western frontier the Gabun 
colony and Cameroon, and extends inland to the easterly bend of 
the Ubangi river; the two circumscriptions extend east and north 
of the Middle Congo. There is a general budget for the whole of 
French Congo ; each colony has also a separate budget and adminis- 
trative autonomy. As in other French colonies the legislative power 
is in the French chambers only, but in the absence of specific legis- 
lation presidential decrees have the force of law. A judicial service 
independent of the executive exists, but the district administrators 
also exercise judicial functions. Education is in the hands of the 
missionaries, upwards of 50 schools being established by 1909. 
The military force maintained consists of natives officered by 



Revenue is derived from taxes on land, rent paid by concession 
companies, a capitation or hut tax on natives, and customs receipts, 
supplemented by a subvention from France. In addition to defray- 
ing the military expenses, about £100,000 a year, a grant of £28,000 
yearly was made up to 1906 by the French chambers towards the 
civil expense. In 1907 the budget of the Congo balanced at about 
/2SO,ooo without the aid of this subvention. In 1909 the chambers 
sanctioned a loan for the colony of £840,000, guaranteed by France 
and to be applied to the establishment of administrative stations 
and public works. . . . 

Bibliography.— Fernand Rouget, L'Expansion colonial* au 
Congo francais (Paris, 1906), a valuable monograph, with biblio- 
graphy and maps; A. Chevalier, L'Afrique centrale francaise (Pans, 
1907) For special studies see Lacroix, Resultats miner alogiques et 
zoologiques des recentes explorations de I'Afrique occidental francaise 
et de la region du Tchad (Paris, 1905) ; M. Barrat, Sur la geologie du 
Congo francais (Paris, 1895), and Ann. des mines, ser. q. t. vn. (1895) j 
I Cornet, " Les Formations post-primaires du bassin du Congo, 
Ann. soc, geol. belg. vol. xxi. (1895). The Paris Bulletin du Museum 
for 1903 and 1904 contains papers on the zoology of the country. 
For flora see numerous papers by A. Chevalier in Comptes rendus 
de Vacademie des sciences (1902-1904), and the Journal d' 'agriculture 
pratique des pays chauds (190 1, &c). For history, besides Rouget s 
book, see J. Ancel, " Etude historique. La formation de la colome 
du Congo francais, 1843-1882," containing an annotated biblio- 
graphy, in Bull. Com. VAjrique francaise, vol. xii. (1902); the works 
cited under Brazza; and E. Gentil, La Chute Me V empire de Rabah 
(Paris, 1902). Of earlier books of travels the most valuable are- 
Paul du Chaill u, Explorations and Adventures in Equatorial Africa 
(London, 1861); A Journey to Ashonga Land (London, 1867); and 
Sir R. Burton, Two Trips to Gorilla Land (London, 1876). Of 
later works see Mary H. Kingsley, Travels in West Africa (London, 
1897)- A B. de Mezieres, Rapport de mission sur le Haut Oubangui, 
le M'Bomou el le Bahr-el-Chazal (Paris, 1903) ; and C. Maistre, A 
travers V Afrique centrale du Congo au Niger, 1892-1893 (Pans, 1895). 
For the story of the concession companies see E. D. Morel, The 
British Case in French Congo (London, 1903). (F. R. C.) 

FRENCH GUINEA, a French colony in West Africa, formerly 
known as Rivieres du Sud. It is bounded W. by the Atlantic, 
N. by Portuguese Guinea and Senegal, E. by Upper Senegal 
and the Ivory Coast, and S. by Liberia and Sierra Leone. With 
a sea-board running N.N.W. andS.S.E. from 10° 50' 9 2'N., 
a distance, without reckoning the indentations, of 170 m., the 
colony extends eastward 450 m. in a straight line and attains 
a maximum width N. toS. of nearly 300 m., covering fully 100,000 
m., and containing a population estimated at 2,000,000 to 


Physical Features.— Though in one or two places rocky headlands 
jut into the sea, the coast is in general sandy, low, and much broken 
by rivers and deep estuaries, dotted with swampy islands, giving it 
the appearance of a vast delta. In about 9 30' N., off the promon- 
tory of Konakry, lie the Los Islands (q.v.), forming part of the colony. 
The coast plain, formed of alluvial deposits, is succeeded about 30 m. 
inland by a line of cliffs, the Susu Hills, which form the first step 
in the terrace-like formation of the interior, culminating in the 
massif of Futa Jallon, composed chiefly of Archean and granite 
rocks. While the coast lands are either densely forested or covered 
with savannas or park-like country, the Futa Jallon tableland is 
mainly covered with short herbage. This tableland, the hydro- 
graphic centre of West Africa, is most elevated in its southern parts, 
where heights of 5000 ft. are found. Near the Sierra Leone frontier 
this high land is continued westward to within 20 m. of the sea, 
where Mount Kakulima rises over 3300 ft. East and south of Futa 
Jallon the country slopes to the basin of the upper Niger, the greater 
part of which is included in French Guinea. The southern frontier 
is formed by the escarpments which separate the Niger basin from 
those of the coast rivers of Liberia. Besides the Niger, Gambia and 
Senegal, all separately noticed, a large number of streams running 
direct to the Atlantic rise in Futa Jallon. Among them are the Great 
and Little Scarries, whose lower courses are in Sierra Leone, and 
the Rio Grande which enters the sea in Portuguese Guinea. Those 
whose courses are entirely in French Guinea include the Cogon (or 
Componi), the Rio Nunez, the Fatalla (which reaches the sea through 
an estuary named Rio Pongo), the Konkure, whose estuary is 
named Rio Bramaya, the Forekaria and the Melakori. The Cogon, 
Fatallah and Konkure are all large rivers which descend from the 
plateaus through deep, narrow valleys in rapids and cataracts, and 
are only navigable for a few miles from their mouth. 

Climate. — The climate of the coast district is hot, moist and un- 
healthy, with a season of heavy rain lasting from May to November, 
during which time variable winds, calms and tornadoes succeed one 
another. The mean temperature in the dry season, when the 
" harmattan " is frequent, is 62 Fahr., in the wet season 86°. 
Throughout the year the humidity of the air is very great. There is 
much rain in the Futa Jallon highlands, but the Niger basin is some- 
what drier. In that region and in the highlands the climate is fairly 
healthy for Europeans and the heat somewhat less than on the coast. 

Flora and Fauna. — The seashore and the river banks are lined with 
mangroves, but the most important tree of the coast belt is the oil- 
palm. The dense forests also contain many varieties of lianas or 
rubber vines, huge bombax and bamboos. Gum-producing and 
kola trees are abundant, and there are many fruit trees, the orange 
and citron growing well in the Susu and Futa Jallon districts. The 
cotton and coffee plants are indigenous; banana plantations 
surround the villages. The baobab and the karite (shea butter tree) 
are found only in the Niger districts. The fauna is not so varied as 
was formerly the case, large game having been to a great extent 
driven out of the coast regions. The elephant is rare save in the 
Niger regions. The lion is now only found in the northern parts of 
Futa Jallon; panthers, leopards, hyenas and wild cats are more 
common and the civet is found. Hippopotamus, otter and the wild 
boar are numerous; a species of wild ox of small size with black 
horns and very agile is also found. The forests contain many kinds 
of monkeys, including huge chimpanzees ; antelope are widespread 
but rather rare. Serpents are very common, both venomous and 
non- venomous; the pythons attain a great size. Fights between 
these huge serpents and the crocodiles which infest all the rivers are 
said to be not uncommon. Turtles are abundant along the coasts 
and in the Los Islands. Oysters are found in large numbers in the 
estuaries and fixed to the submerged parts of the mangroves. Fresh- 
water oysters, which attain a large size, are also found in the rivers, 
particularly in the Niger. Fish are abundant, one large-headed 
species, in the Susu tongue called khokon, is so numerous as to have 
given its name to a province, Kokunia. Birds are very numerous; 
they include various eagles, several kinds of heron, the egret, the 
marabout, the crane and the pelican; turacos or plantain-eaters, 
are common, as are other brilliantly plumaged birds. Green and grey 
parrots, ravens, swallows and magpies are also common. 

Inhabitants. — On the banks of the Cogon dwell the Tendas and 
Iolas, primitive Negro tribes allied to those of Portuguese Guinea 
(q.v.). All other inhabitants of French Guinea are regarded as com- 
paratively late arrivals from the interior who have displaced the 
aborigines. 1 Among the earliest of the new comers are the Baga, 
the Nalu, the Landuman and the Timni, regarded as typical Negroes 
{q.v.). This migration southward appears to have taken place before 
the 17th century. To-day the Baga occupy the coast land between 
the Cogon and the Rio Pongo, and the Landuman the country 
immediately behind that of the Baga. The other tribes named are 
but sparsely represented in French Guinea, the coast region south 
of the Nunez and all the interior up to Futa Jallon being occupied 
by the Susu, a tribe belonging to the great Mandingan race, which 
forced its way seaward about the beginning of the 1 8th century 
and pressed back the Timni into Sierra Leone. Futa Jallon is 
peopled principally by Fula {q.v.), and the rest of the country by 
Malinke and other tribes of Mandingo {q.v.). The Mandingo, the 
Fula and the Susu are Mahommedans, though the Susu retain many 
of their ancient rites and beliefs — those associated with spirit worship 
and fetish, still the religion of the Baga and other tribes. In the 
north-west part of Futa Jallon are found remnants of the aborigines, 
such as the Tiapi, Koniagui and the Bassari, all typical Negro tribes. 
The white inhabitants number a few hundreds only and are mainly 
French. Many of the coast peoples show, however, distinct traces of 
white blood, the result chiefly of the former presence of European 
slave traders. Thus at the Rio Pongo there are numerous mulattos. 
South of that river the coast tribes speak largely pidgin English. 

Towns. — The principal towns are Konakry the capital, Boke, on 
the Rio Nunez, Dubreka, on the coast, a little north of Konakry, 
Benty, on the Melakori, Timbo and Labe, the chief towns of Futa 
Jallon, Heremakono and Kindia, on the main road to the Niger, 
Kurussa and Siguiri, on a navigable stretch of that river, and Bissan- 
dugu, formerly Samory's capital, an important military station east 
of the Niger. Konakry, in 9 30' N., 13° 46' W., population about 
20,000, is the one port of entry on the coast. It is built on the little 
island of Tombo which lies off the promontory of Konakry, the town 
being joined to the mainland by an iron bridge. During the adminis- 
tration of Noel Ballay (1848-1902), governor of the colony 1890- 
1900, Konakry was transformed from a place of small importance 
to one of the chief ports on the west coast of Africa and a serious 
rival to Freetown, Sierra Leone. It has since grown considerably, 
and is provided with wharves and docks and a jetty 1066 ft. long. 
There is an ample supply of good water, and a large public garden 
in the centre of the town. In front of Government House is a statue 
of M. Ballay. Konakry is a port of call for French, British and 
German steamship companies, and is in telegraphic communication 
with Europe. It is the starting-point of a railway to the Niger (see 
below). The retail trade is in the hands of Syrians. The town is 
governed by a municipality. 

Products and Industry. — French Guinea possesses a fertile soil, 
and is rich in tropical produce. The chief products are rubber, 
brought from the interior, and palm oil and palm kernels, obtained 
in the coast regions. Cotton is cultivated in the Niger basin. Gum 
copal, ground-nuts and sesame are largely cultivated, partly for 

1 Numerous remains of a stone age have been discovered, both 
on the coast and in the hinterland. See L. Desplagnes, " L'Archeo- 
logie prehistorique en Guinee francaise," in Bull. Soc. G'eog. Comrn. 
de Bordeaux. March 1907, and the authorities there cited. 



export. Among minor products are coffee, wax and ivory. Large 
herds of cattle and flocks of sheep are raised in Futa Jallon ; these are 
sent in considerable numbers to Sierra Leone, Liberia and French 
Congo. The trade in hides is also of considerable value. The chief 
grain raised is millet, the staple food of the people. The rubber is 
mainly exported to Fngland, the palm products to Germany, and 
the ground-nuts to France. 

The principal imports are cotton goods, of which 80% come from 
Great Britain, rice, kola nuts, chiefly from Liberia, spirits, tobacco, 
building material, and arms and ammunition, chiefly " trade guns." 
The average annual value of the trade for the period 1900-1907 was 
about £1,250,000, the annual export of rubber alone being worth 
£400,000 or more. The great bulk of the trade of the colony is with 
France and Great Britain, the last-named country taking about 
45 % of the total ; Germany comes third. Since April 1905 a surtax 
of 7 % has been imposed on all goods of other than French origin. 

Communications. — The railway from Konakry to the Niger at 
Kurussa, by the route chosen a distance of 342 m., was begun in 
1900, and from 1902 has been built directly by the colony. The 
first section to Kindia, 93 m., was opened in 1904. The second 
section, to near Timbo in Futa Jallon, was completed in 1907, and 
the rails reached Kurussa in 19 10. From Kurussa the Niger is 
navigable at high water all the way to Bamako in Upper Senegal, 
whence there is communication by rail and river with St Louis and 
Timbuktu. Besides the railway there is an excellent road, about 
390 m. long, from Konakry to Kurussa, the road in its lower part 
being close to the Sierra Leone frontier, with the object of diverting 
trade from that British colony. Several other main roads have 
been built by the French, and there is a very complete telegraphic 
system, the lines having been connected with those of Senegal in 

History. — This part of the Guinea coast was made known by 
the Portuguese voyagers of the 15th century. In consequence, 
largely, of the dangers attending its navigation, it was not visited 
by the European traders of the i6th-i8th centuries so frequently 
as other regions north and east, but in the Rio Pongo, at Mata- 
kong (a diminutive island near the mouth of the Forekaria), 
and elsewhere, slave traders established themselves, and ruins of 
the strongholds they built, and defended with cannon, still exist. 
When driven from other parts of Guinea the slavers made this 
difficult and little known coast one of their last resorts, and many 
barracoons were built in the late years of the 18th century. It 
was not until after the restoration of Goree to her at the close 
of the Napoleonic wars that France evinced any marked interest 
in this region. At that time the British, from their bases at the 
Gambia and Sierra Leone, were devoting considerable attention 
to these Rivieres du Sud (i.e. south of Senegal) and also to Futa 
Jallon. Rene Caillie, who started his journey to Timbuktu from 
Boke in 1827, did much to quicken French interest in the district, 
and from 1838 onward French naval officers, Bouet-Willaumez 
and his successors, made detailed studies of the coast. About the 
time that the British government became wearied of its efforts 
to open up the interior of West Africa, General Faidherbe was 
appointed governor of Senegal (1854), and under his direction 
vigorous efforts were made to consolidate French influence. 
Already in 1848 treaty relations had been entered into with the 
Nalu, and between that date and 1865 treaties of protectorate 
were signed with several of the coast tribes. During 1876-1880 
new treaties were concluded with the chief tribes, and in 1881 
the almany (or emir) of Futa Jallon placed his country under 
French protection, the French thus effectually preventing the 
junction, behind the coast lands, of the British colonies of the 
Gambia and Sierra Leone. The right of France to the littoral as 
far south as the basin of the Melakori was recognized by Great 
Britain in 1882; Germany (which had made some attempt to 
acquire a protectorate at Konakry) abandoned its claims in 1885, 
while in 1886 the northern frontier was settled in agreement with 
Portugal, which had ancient settlements in the same region (see 
Portuguese Guinea). In 1899 the limits of the colony were 
extended, on the dismemberment of the French Sudan, to include 
the upper Niger districts. In 1904 the Los Islands were ceded by 
Great Britain to France, in part return for the abandonment 
of French fishing rights in Newfoundland waters. (See also 
Senegal: History.) 

French Guinea was made a colony independent of Senegal in 
1891, but in 1895 came under the supreme authority of the newly 
constituted governor-generalship of French West Africa. Guinea 
has a considerable measure of autonomy and a separate budget. 

It is administered by a lieutenant-governor, assisted by a 
nominated council. Revenue is raised principally from customs 
and a capitation tax, which has replaced a hut tax. The local 
budget for 1907 balanced at £205,000. Over the greater part 
of the country the native princes retain their sovereignty under 
the superintendence of French officials. The development of 
agriculture and education are objects of special solicitude to the 
French authorities. In general the natives are friendly towards 
their white masters. 

See M. Famechon, Notice sur la Guinee francaise (Paris, 1900); J. 
Chautard, Etude geophysique et geologique sur le Fouta-Djallon (Paris, 
1905); Andre Aran, La Guinie francaise (Paris, 1906), a valuable 
monograph ; J. Machat, Les Rivieres du Sud et la Fouta-Diallon (Paris, 
1906), another valuable work, containing exhaustive bibliographies. 
Consult also F. Rouget, La Guinee (Paris, 1908), an official publi- 
cation, the annual Reports on French West Africa, published by 
the British Foreign Office, and the Carte de la Guinee francaise 
by A. Meunier in 4 sheets on the scale 1 : 500,000 (Paris, 1902). 

FRENCH LANGUAGE. I. Geography.— French is the general 
name of the north-north-western group of Romanic dialects, 
the modern Latin of northern Gaul (carried by emigration to 
some places — as lower Canada — out of France) . In a restricted 
sense it is that variety of the Parisian dialect which is spoken 
by the educated, and is the general literary language of France. 
The region in which the native language is termed French 
consists of the northern half of France (including Lorraine) 
and parts of Belgium and Switzerland; its boundaries on the 
west are the Atlantic Ocean and the Celtic dialects of Brittany; 
on the north-west and north, the English Channel; on the north- 
east and east the Teutonic dialects of Belgium, Germany and 
Switzerland. In the south-east and south the boundary is to a 
great extent conventional and ill-defined, there being originally 
no linguistic break between the southern French dialects and the 
northern Provencal dialects of southern France, north-western 
Italy and south-western Switzerland. It is formed partly by 
spaces of intermediate dialects (some of whose features are 
French, others Provencal), partly by spaces of mixed dialects 
resulting from the invasion of the space by more northern and 
more southern settlers, partly by lines where the intermediate 
dialects have been suppressed by more northern (French) and 
more southern (Provencal) dialects without these having mixed. 
Starting in the west at the mouth of the Gironde, the boundary 
runs nearly north soon after passing Bordeaux; a little north of 
Angouleme it turns to the east, and runs in this direction into 
Switzerland to the north of Geneva. 

II. External History. — (a) Political. — By the Roman conquests 
the language of Rome was spread over the greater part of southern 
and western Europe, and gradually supplanted the native 
tongues. The language introduced was at first nearly uniform 
over the whole empire, Latin provincialisms and many more 
or less general features of the older vulgar language being 
suppressed by the preponderating influence of the educated 
speech of the capital. As legions became stationary, as colonies 
were formed, and as the natives adopted the language of their 
conquerors, this language split up into local dialects, the dis- 
tinguishing features of which are due, as far as can be ascertained 
(except, to some extent, as to the vocabulary), not to speakers 
of different nationalities misspeaking Latin, each with the 
peculiarities of his native language, but to the fact that linguistic 
changes, which are ever occurring, are not perfectly uniform 
over a large area, however homogeneous the speakers. As Gaul 
was not conquered by Caesar till the middle of the first century 
before our era, its Latin cannot have begun to differ from that of 
Rome till after that date; but the artificial retention of classical 
Latin as the literary and official language after the popular 
spoken language had diverged from it, often renders the chrono- 
logy of the earlier periods of the Romanic languages obscure. 
It is, however, certain that the popular Latin of Gaul had become 
differentiated from that of central Italy before the Teutonic 
conquest of Gaul, which was not completed till the latter half 
of the 5th century; the invaders graduaLly adopted the language 
of their more civilized subjects, which remained unaffected, 
except in its vocabulary. Probably by this time it had diverged 



so widely from the artificially preserved literary language that 
it could no longer be regarded merely as mispronounced Latin; 
the Latin documents of the next following centuries contain 
many clearly popular words and forms, and the literary and 
popular languages are distinguished as latina and romana. 
The term gallica, at first denoting the native Celtic language 
of Gaul, is found applied to its supplanter before the end of the 
9th century, and survives in the Breton gallek, the regular term 
for " French." After the Franks in Gaul had abandoned their 
native Teutonic language, the term francisca, by which this 
was denoted, came to be applied to the Romanic one they 
adopted, and, under the loxmfrancaise, remains its native name 
to this day; but this name was confined to the Romanic of 
northern Gaul, which makes it probable that this, at the time 
of the adoption of the name francisca, had become distinct 
from the Romanic of southern Gaul. Francisca is the Teutonic 
adjective frankisk, which occurs in Old English in the form 
frencise; this word, with its umlauted e from a with following 
*', survives under the form French, which, though purely Teutonic 
in origin and form, has long been exclusively applied to the 
Romanic language and inhabitants of Gaul. The German name 
franzose, with its accent on, and o in, the second syllable, comes 
from franqois, a native French form older than franqais, but 
later than the Early Old French franceis. The Scandinavian 
settlers on the north-west coast of France early in the 10th 
century quickly lost their native speech, which left no trace 
except in some contributions to the vocabulary of the language 
they adopted. The main feature since is the growth of the 
political supremacy of Paris, carrying with it that of its dialect; 
in 1539 Francis I. ordered that all public documents should be 
in French (of Paris), which then became the official language 
of the whole kingdom, though it is still foreign to nearly half its 

The conquest of England in 1066 by William, duke of 
Normandy, introduced into England, as the language of the rulers 
and (for a time) most of the writers, the dialects spoken in 
Normandy (see also Anglo-Norman Literature) . Confined in 
their native country to definite areas, these dialects, following 
their speakers, became mixed in England, so that their forms 
were used to some extent indifferently; and the constant com- 
munication with Normandy maintained during several reigns 
introduced also later forms of continental Norman. As the 
conquerors learned the language of the conquered, and as the 
more cultured of the latter learned that of the former, the Norman 
of England (including that of the English-speaking Lowlands of 
Scotland) became anglicized; instead of following the changes 
of the Norman of France, it followed those of English. The 
accession in n 54 of Henry II. of Anjou disturbed the Norman 
character of Anglo-French, and the loss of Normandy under John 
in 1204 gave full play to the literary importance of the French 
of Paris, majiy of whose forms afterwards penetrated to England. 
At the same time English, with a large French addition to its 
vocabulary, was steadily recovering its supremacy, and is 
officially employed (for the first time since the Conquest) in the 
Proclamation of Henry III., 1258. The semi-artificial result of 
this mixture of French of different dialects and of different periods, 
more or less anglicized according to the date or education of the 
speaker or writer, is generally termed " the Anglo-Norman 
dialect "; but the term is misleading for a great part of its 
existence, because while the French of Normandy was not a 
single dialect, the later French of England came from other 
French provinces besides Normandy, and being to a considerable 
extent in artificial conditions, was checked in the natural develop- 
ment implied by the term " dialect." The disuse of Anglo-French 
as a natural language is evidenced by English being substituted 
for it in legal proceedings in 1362, and in schools in 1387; but 
law reports were written in it up to about 1600, and, converted 
into modern literary French, it remains in official use for giving 
the royal assent to bills of parliament. 

(b) Literary. — Doubtless because the popular Latin of northern 
Gaul changed more rapidly than that of any other part of the 
empire, French was, of all the Romanic dialects, the first to be 

recognized as a distinct language, and the first to be used in 
literature; and though the oldest specimen now extant is prob- 
ably not the first, it is considerably earlier than any existing 
documents of the allied languages. In 813 the council of Tours 
ordered certain homilies to be translated into Rustic Roman or 
into German; and in 842 Louis the German, Charles the Bald, 
and their armies confirmed their engagements by taking oaths in 
both languages at Strassburg. These have been preserved to 
us by the historian Nithard (who died in 853); and though, in 
consequence of the only existing manuscript (at Paris) being 
more than a century later than the time of the author, certain 
alterations have occurred in the text of the French oaths, they 
present more archaic forms (probably of North-Eastern French) 
than any other document. The next memorials are a short poem, 
probably North-Eastern, on St Eulalia, preserved in a manuscript 
of the 10th century at Valenciennes, and some autograph frag- 
ments (also at Valenciennes) of a homily on the prophet Jonah, 
in mixed Latin and Eastern French, of the same period. To the 
same century belong a poem on Christ's Passion, apparently in 
a mixed (not intermediate) language of French and Provencal, 
and one, probably in South-Eastern French, on St Leger; both 
are preserved, in different handwritings, in a MS. at Clermont- 
Ferrand, whose scribes have introduced many Provencal forms. 
After the middle of the 1 ith century literary remains are com- 
paratively numerous; the chief early representative of the main 
dialects are the following, some of them preserved in several 
MSS., the earliest of which, however (the only ones here men- 
tioned), are in several cases a generation or two later than the 
works themselves. In Western French are a verse life of St 
Alexius (Alexis), probably Norman, in an Anglo-Norman MS. 
at Hildesheim; the epic poem of Roland, possibly also Norman, 
in an A.-N. MS. at Oxford; a Norman verbal translation of the 
Psalms, in an A.-N. MS. also at Oxford; another later one, 
from a different Latin version, in an A.-N. MS. at Cambridge; 
a Norman translation of the Four Books of Kings, in a probably 
A.-N. MS. at Paris. The earliest work in the Parisian dialect is 
probably the Travels of Charlemagne, preserved in a late Anglo- 
Norman MS. with much altered forms. In Eastern French, of 
rather later date, there are translations of the Dialogues of Pope 
Gregory, in a MS. at Paris, containing also fragments of Gregory's 
Moralities, and (still later) of some Sermons of St Bernard, in 
a MS. also in Paris. From the end of the 12th century literary 
and official documents, often including local charters, abound in 
almost every dialect, until the growing influence of Paris caused 
its language to supersede in writing the other local ones. This 
influence, occasionally apparent about the end of the 1 2th century, 
was overpowering in the 15th, when authors, though often dis- 
playing provincialisms, almost all wrote in the dialect of the 
capital; the last dialect to lose its literary independence was 
the North-Eastern, which, being the Romanic language of 
Flanders, had a political life of its own, and. (modified by Parisian) 
was used in literature after 1400. 

III. Internal History. — Though much has been done in recent 
years, in the scientific investigation of the sounds, inflexions, and 
syntax of the older stages and dialects of French, much still 
remains to be done, and it must suffice here to give a sketch, 
mainly of the dialects which were imported into England by the 
Normans — in which English readers will probably take most 
interest, and especially of the features which explain the forms 
of English words of French origin. Dates and places are only 
approximations, and many statements are liable to be modified 
by further researches. The primitive Latin forms given are 
often not classical Latin words, but derivatives from these; and 
reference is generally made to the Middle English (Chaucerian) 
pronunciation of English words, not the modern. 

(a) Vocabulary. — The fundamental part of the vocabulary 
of French is the Latin imported into Gaul, the French words being 
simply the Latin words themselves, with the natural changes 
undergone by all living speech, or derivatives formed at various 
dates. Comparatively few words were introduced from the Celtic 
language of the native inhabitants {bee, lieue from the Celtic 
words given by Latin writers as beccus, leuca), but the number 



adopted from the language of the Teutonic conquerors of Gaul 
is large (guerre =werra; laid=laidh; choisir = kausjan). The 
words were imported at different periods of the Teutonic supre- 
macy, and consequently show chronological differences in their 
sounds (hair = hatan; franqais = frankisk; ecrevisse = krebiz; 
ichine — skina). Small separate importations of Teutonic words 
resulted from the Scandinavian settlement in France, and the 
commercial intercourse with the Low German nations on the 
North Sea (friper = Norse hripa; chaloupe= Dutch sloop; esl = 
Old English edst). In the meantime, as Latin (with considerable 
alterations in pronunciation, vocabulary, &c.) continued in 
literary, official and ecclesiastical use, the popular language 
borrowed from time to time various more or less altered classical 
Latin words; and when the popular language came to be used 
in literature, especially in that of the church, these importations 
largely increased (virginitet Eulalia = virginitdlem; imagena 
Alexis = i mdginem— the popular forms would probably have been 
vergedet, emain). At the Renaissance they became very abundant, 
and have continued since, stifling to some extent the develop- 
mental power of the language. Imported words, whether 
Teutonic, classical Latin or other, often receive some modifica- 
tion at their importation, and always take part in all subsequent 
natural phonetic changes in the language (Early Old French 
adversarie, Modern French adversaire). Those French words 
which appear to contradict the phonetic laws were mostly intro- 
duced into the language after the taking place (in words already 
existing in the language) of the changes formulated by the laws 
in question; compare the late imported laique with the inherited 
lai, both from Latin laicutn. In this and many other cases the 
language possesses two forms of the same Latin word, one 
descended from it, the other borrowed (meuble and mobile from 
mobilem). Some Oriental and other foreign words were brought 
in by the crusaders (amiral from amir); in the 16th century, 
wars, royal marriages and literature caused a large number 
of Italian words (soldat = soldalo; brave = bravo; caresser = 
carezzare) to be introduced, and many Spanish ones (alc$ve= 
alcoba; hdblcr ■ = hablar) . A few words have been furnished by 
Provencal (abeille, cadenas) , and several have been adopted from 
other dialects into the French of Paris (esquiver Norman or 
Picard for the Paris- French eschiver). German has contributed 
a few (blocus = blochus; choucroute = surkrut); and recently a 
considerable number have been imported from England (drain, 
comfortable, flirter). In Old French, new words are freely 
formed by derivation, and to a less extent by composition; in 
Modern French, borrowing from Latin or other foreign languages 
is the more usual course. Of the French words now obsolete 
some have disappeared because the things they express are 
obsolete; others have been replaced by words of native forma- 
tion, and many have been superseded by foreign words generally 
of literary origin; of those which survive, many have undergone 
considerable alterations in meaning. A large number of Old 
French words and meanings, now extinct in the language of 
Paris, were introduced into English after the Norman Conquest; 
and though some have perished, many have survived — strife 
from Old French eslrif (Teutonic strit) ; quaint from cointe 
(cognitum); remember from remembrer (rememordre); chaplet 
(garland) from chapelel (Modern French "chaplet of beads" ) ; 
appointment (rendezvous) from appoinlement (now "salary" ). 
Many also survive in other French dialects. 

(b) Dialects. — The history of the French language from the 
period of its earliest extant literary memorials is that of the 
dialects composing it. But as the popular notion of a dialect 
as the speech of a definite area, possessing certain peculiarities 
confined to and extending throughout that area, is far from 
correct, it will be advisable to drop the misleading divisions into 
"Norman dialect," "Picard dialect" and the like, and take 
instead each important feature in the chronological order (as 
far as can be ascertained) of its development, pointing out roughly 
the area in which it exists, and its present state. The local terms 
used are intentionally vague, and it does not, for instance, at all 
follow that because " Eastern" and " Western" are used to 
denote the localities of more than one dialectal feature, the 

boundary line between the two divisions is the same in each case. 
It is, indeed, because dialectal differences as they arise do not 
follow the same boundary lines (much less the political divisions 
of provinces), but cross one another to any extent, that to speak 
of the dialect of a large area as an individual whole, unless that 
area is cut off by physical or alien linguistic boundaries, creates 
only confusion. Thus the Central French of Paris, the ancestor 
of classical Modern French, agrees with a more southern form 
of Romanic (Limousin, Auvergne, Forez, Lyonnais, Dauphine) 
in having Is, not tsh, for Latin k (c) before i and e; Ish, not k, for 
k (c) before a; and with the whole South in having gu, not w, 
for Teutonic w; while it belongs to the East in having oi for 
earlier ei; and to the West in having e, not ei, for Latin a; and i, 
not ei, from Latin $-\-i. It may be well to denote that Southern 
French does not correspond to southern France, whose native 
language is Provencal. " Modern French " means ordinary 
educated Parisian French. 

(c) Phonology. — The history of the sounds of a language is, 
to a considerable extent, that of its inflections, which, no less 
than the body of a word, are composed of sounds. This fact, 
and the fact that unconscious changes are much more reducible 
to law than conscious ones, render the phonology of a language 
by far the surest and widest foundation for its dialectology, the 
importance of the sound-changes in this respect depending, 
not on their prominence, but on the earliness of their date. For 
several centuries after the divergence between spoken and written 
Latin, the history of these changes has to be determined mainly 
by reasoning, aided by a little direct evidence in the misspellings 
of inscriptions the semi-popular forms in glossaries, and the 
warnings of Latin grammarians against vulgarities. With the 
rise of Romanic literature the materials for tracing the changes 
become abundant, though as they do not give us the sounds 
themselves, but only their written representations, much 
difficulty, and some uncertainty, often attach to deciphering the 
evidence. Fortunately, early Romanic orthography, that of 
Old French included (for which see next section), was phonetic, 
as Italian orthography still is; the alphabet was imperfect, as 
many new sounds had to be represented which were not provided 
for in the Roman alphabet from which it arose, but writers aimed 
at representing the sounds they uttered, not at using a fixed 
combination of letters for each word, however they pronounced it. 
The characteristics of French as distinguished from the allied 
languages and from Latin, and the relations of its sounds, in- 
flections and syntax to those of the last-named language, belong 
to the general subject of the Romanic languages. It will be well, 
however, to mention here some of the features in which it agrees 
with the closely related Provencal, and some in which it differs. 
As to the latter, it has already been pointed out that the two 
languages glide insensibly into one another, there being a belt 
of dialects which possess some of the features of each. French 
and Provencal of the 10th century — the earliest date at which 
documents exist in both — agree to a great extent in the treatment 
of Latin final consonants and the vowels preceding them, a 
matter of great importance for inflections (numerous French 
examples occur in this section). (1) They reject all vowels, 
except a, of Latin final (unaccented) syllables, unless preceded 
by certain consonant combinations or followed by nt (here, 
as elsewhere, certain exceptions cannot be noticed) ; (2) they do 
not reject a similarly situated; (3) they reject final (unaccented) 
m; (4) they retain final s. French and Northern Provencal 
also agree in changing Latin u from a labio-guttural to a labio- 
palatal vowel; the modern sound (German u) of the accented 
vowel of French lune, Provencal luna, contrasting with that in 
Italian and Spanish luna, appears to have existed before the 
earliest extant documents. The final vowel laws generally apply 
to the unaccented vowel preceding the accented syllable, if it is 
preceded by another syllable, and followed by a single consonant 
— matin (mdtiUinum), dortoir (dnrmitorium) , with vowel dropped; 
canevas (cannab&ceum) , armedure, later armSure, now armttre 
(armdluram), with e—3, as explained below. 

On the other hand, French differs from Provencal: (1) in 
uniformly preserving (in Early Old French) Latin final t, which 



is generally rejected in Provencal — French aimet (Latin amat), 
Provengal ama; aiment (amant), Prov. aman; (2) in always 
rejecting, absorbing or consonantizing the vowel of the last 
syllable but one, if unaccented; in such words as angele (often 
spelt angle), the c after the g only serves to show its soft sound- 
French veintre (now vainer e, Latin vincere), Prov. veneer, with 
accent on first syllable; French esclandre (scandalum), Prov. 
escandol; French olie (dissyllabic, i = y consonant, now huile), 
Prov. oli {oleum) ; (3) in changing accented a not in position into 
ai before nasals and gutturals and not after a palatal, and else- 
where into & (West French) or ei (East French), which develops an 
i before it when preceded by a palatal — French main (Latin 
manum), Prov. man; aigre (dcrem), agre; ele (alam), East 
French eile, Prov. ala; meitie (medietdtem) , East French moitieit, 
Prov. meilat; (4) in changing a in unaccented final syllables into 
the vowel 9 , intermediate to a and e; this vowel is written a 
in one or two of the older documents, elsewhere e — French aime 
(Latin ama), Prov. ama; aimes (amas), Prov. amas; aimet (amat), 
Prov. ama; (5) in changing original au into — French or (aurum), 
Prov. aur; rober (Teutonic raubon), Prov. raubar; (6) in changing 
general Romanic &, from accented e and i not in position, into ei — 
French veine (venam), Prov. vena; peil (pilum), Prov. pel. 

As some of the dialectal differences were in existence at the 
date of the earliest extant documents, and as the existing 
materials, till the latter half of the nth century, are scanty and 
of uncertain locality, the chronological order (here adopted) 
of the earlier sound-changes is only tentative. 

(1) Northern French has tsh (written c or ch) for Latin k (c) and 
/ before palatal vowels, where Central and Southern French have ts 
(written c or 2) — North Norman and Picard chire (dram), brack 
(brachium), plache (plateam) ; Parisian, South Norman, &c, cire, 
braz, place. Before the close of the Early Old French period (12th 
century) ts loses its initial consonant, and the same happened to tsh 
a century or two later; with this change the old distinction is 
maintained — Modern Guernsey and Picard chire, Modern Picard 
plache (in ordinary Modern French spelling); usual French cire, 
place. English, having borrowed from North and South Norman 
(and later Parisian), has instances of both tsh and s, the former 
• in comparatively small number — chisel (Modern French ciseau = 
(?) caesellum), escutcheon (ecusson, scutionem); city (cite, clvitatem), 
place. (2) Initial Teutonic w is retained in the north-east and along 
the north coast; elsewhere, as in the other Romance languages, g 
was prefixed — Picard, &c, warde (Teutonic warda), werre (werra) ; 
Parisian, &c, guarde, guerre. In the I2th century the u or w of 
gu dropped, giving the Modern French garde, guerre (with gu = g); 
w remains in Picard and Walloon, but in North Normandy it 
becomes v — Modern Guernsey vdson, Walloon wazon, Modern French 
gazon (Teutonic wason). English has bbth forms, sometimes in 
words originally the same — wage and gage (Modern French gage, 
Teutonic wadi) ; warden and guardian (gardien, warding). (3) 
Latin b after accented o in the imperfect of the first conjugation, 
which becomes v in Eastern French, in Western French further 
changes to w, and forms the diphthong ou with the preceding vowel 
— Norman amowe (am&bam), porlout (portabat); Burgundian ameve, 
portevet. -eve is still retained in some places, but generally the im- 
perfect of the first conjugation is assimilated to that of the others — 
amoit, like avoit (habebat). (4) The palatalization of every then exist- 
ing k and g (hard) when followed by a, i or e, after having caused 
the development of i before the e (East French ei) derived from 
a not in position, is abandoned in the north, the consonants returning 
to ordinary k or g, while in the centre and south they are assibilated 
to tsh or dzh — North Norman and Picard cachier (captidre), kier 
(carum), cose (causam), eskiver (Teutonic skiuhan), wikel (Teutonic 
wik + ittwn), gal (gallum), gardin (from Teutonic gard); South 
Norman and Parisian chacier, chier, chose, eschiver, guichet, jal, jardin. 
Probably in the 14th century the initial consonant of tsh, dzh dis- 
appeared, giving the modern French chasser, jardin with ch = sh 
and j = zh; but tsh is retained in Walloon, and dzh in Lorraine. 
The Northern forms survive — Modern Guernsey cachier, gardin; 
Picard cacher, gardin. English possesses numerous examples of both 
forms, sometimes in related words — catch and chase; wicket, eschew; 
garden, jaundice (jaunisse, from galbanum). (5) For Latin accented 
a not in position Western French usually has e, Eastern French ei, 
both of which take an i before them when a palatal precedes — 
Norman and Parisian per (parem), oiez (audidtis); Lorraine peir, 
oieis. In the 17th and 1 8th centuries close 6 changed to open e, 
except when final or before a silent consonant — amer (amdrum) now 
having e, aimer (amare) retaining L English shows the Western 
close e- — peer (Modern French pair, Old French per), chief (chef, 
caput) ; Middle High German the Eastern ei — lameir (Modern French 
I'amer, V aimer, la mer = Latin mare). (6) Latin accented e not in 
position, when it came to be followed in Old French by i unites with 
this to form i in the Western dialects, while the Eastern have the 

diphthongs ei — Picard, Norman and Parisian pire (pejor), piz 
{pectus) ; Burgundian peire, peiz. The distinction is still preserved 
— Modern French pire, pis ; Modern Burgundian peire, pei. English 
words show always i — price (prix, pretium) spite (dSpit, despectum). 
(7) The nasalization of vowels followed by a nasal consonant did not 
take place simultaneously with all the vowels. A and e before n 
(guttural n, as in sing), ft (palatal n), n and m were nasal in the nth 
century, such words as lant (tantum) and gent (gentem) forming in the 
Alexis assonances to themselves, distinct from the assonances with 
a and e before non-nasal consonants. In the Roland umbre (ombre, 
untbram) and culchet (couche, collocal) , fier (ferum) and chiens (canes), 
dit (dictum) and vint (venit), ceinte (cinctam) and veie (vote, viam), 
brun (Teutonic brun) and fut(fuit) assonate freely, though o (u) before 
nasals shows a tendency to separation. The nasalization of i and u 
( = Modern French u) did not take place till the 16th century; and 
in all cases the loss of the following nasal consonant is quite modern, 
the older pronunciation of tant, ombre being tant, ombr9, not as now 
IS, obrh. The nasalization took place whether the nasal consonant 
was or was not followed by a vowel, femme (feminam), honneur 
(honorem) being pronounced with nasal vowels m the first syllable 
till after the 16th century, as indicated by the doubling of the nasal 
consonant in the spelling and by the phonetic change (in femme and 
other words) next to be mentioned. English generally has au (now 
often reduced to a) for Old French a — vaunt (vanter, vdnitdre), tawny 
(tanne (?) Celtic). (8) The assimilation of e (nasal e) to a (nasal a) 
did not begin till the middle of the nth century, and is not yet 
universal, in France, though generally a century later. In the 
Alexis nasal a (as in tant) is never confounded with nasal e (as in 
gent) in the assonances, though the copyist (a century later) often 
writes a for nasal e in unaccented syllables, as in amfant (enfant, 
infantem) ; in the Roland there are several cases of mixture in the 
assonances, gent, for instance, occurring in ant stanzas, tant in enl 
ones. English has several words with a for e before nasals — rank 
(rang. Old French renc, Teutonic hringa) , pansy (pensee, pensdtam) ; 
but the majority show e — enter (entrer, intrare), fleam (flamme, 
Old French fleme, phlebotomum) . The distinction is still preserved 
in the Norman of Guernsey, where an and en, though both nasal, 
have different sounds — Idnchier (lancer, lancedre), but mentrie (Old 
French menterie, from mentiri). (9) The loss of s, or rather 2, before 
voiced consonants began early, s being often omitted or wrongly 
inserted in 12th century MSS. — Earliest Old French masle (mas- 
culum), sisdre (sTceram); Modern French mdle, cidre. In English 
it has everywhere disappeared — male, cider; except in two words, 
where it appears, as occasionally in Old French, as d — meddle (mtler, 
misculare), medlar (neflier, Old French also meslier, mespildrium) . 
The loss of .j before voiceless consonants (except /) is about two 
centuries later, and it is not universal even in Parisian — Early Old 
French feste (festam), escuier (scutdrium); Modern French fete, 
icuyer, but esperer (sperdre). In the north-east s before / is still 
retained — Walloon chestai (chdteau, castelhtm), fiess (fete). English 
shows s regularly — feast, esquire. (10) Medial dh (soft th, as in 
then), and final th from Latin / or d between vowels, do not begin 
to disappear till the latter half of the nth century. In native 
French MSS. dh is generally written d, and th written t; but the 
German scribe of the Oaths writes adjudha (adjutam), cadhuna 
(Greek katd and unam) ; and the English one of the Alexis cuntretha 
(contrdtam), lothet (laud&tum), and that of the Cambridge Psalter 
heriteth (hereditdtem). Medial dh often drops even in the last-named 
MSS., and soon disappears; the same is true for final th in Western 
French — Modern French contree, loue. But in Eastern French final 
th, to which Latin t between vowels had probably been reduced 
through d and dh, appears in the 12th century and later as t, rhyming 
on ordinary French final / — Picard and Burgundian pechiet (pecedtum) 
apeleit (appelldtum) . In Western French some final ths were 
saved by being changed to / — Modern French soif (sitim), mozuf 
(obsolete, modum). English has one or two instances of final th, none 
of medial dh — faith (foi, fidem) ; Middle English caritep (chariti, 
caritdtem), drutS (Old French dru, Teutonic drild); generally the 
consonant is lost — country, charity. Middle High German shows 
the Eastern French final consonant — moraliteit (moralite, mordli- 
titem). (n) T from Latin final t, if in an Old French unaccented 
syllable, begins to disappear in the Roland, where sometimes aimet 
(amat), sometimes aime, is required by the metre, and soon drops in 
all dialects. The Modern French t of aime-t-il and similar forms 
is an analogical insertion from such forms as dort-il (dormil), where 
the / has always existed. (12) The change of the diphthong ai to ei 
and afterwards to ie (the doubling indicates length) had not taken 
place in the earliest French documents, words with -a* assonating 
only on words with a; in the Roland such assonances occur, but 
those of ai on e are more frequent — faire (facere) assonating on 
parastre (patraster) and on estes (estis) ; and the MS. (half a century 
later than the poem) occasionally has ei and e for ai — recleimet 
(recldmat), desfere (disfacere), the latter agreeing with the Modern 
French sound. Before nasals (as in laine — lanam) and ie (as in paye = 
pdedtum), ai remained a diphthong up to the 1 6th century, being 
apparently ei, whose fate in this situation it has followed. English 
shows ai regularly before nasals and when final, and in a few other 
words — vain (vain, vdnum), pay (payer, pdedre), wait (guetter, 
Teutonic wahten) ; but before most consonants it has usually iee — 
peace (pais, pacum),feat (fait, factum). (13) The loss or transposition 



of i ( = y-consonant) following the consonant ending an accented 
syllable begins in the 12th century — Early Old French glorie 
(gloriam), estudie (studium), olie (oleum); Modern French gloire, 
etude, huile. English sometimes shows the earlier form — glory, study; 
sometimes the later — dower (douaire, Early Old French doarie, 
dotarium), oil (huile). (14) The vocalization of I preceded by a vowel 
and followed by a consonant becomes frequent at the end of the 12th 
century; when preceded by open e, an a developed before the / 
while this was a consonant — nth century salse (salsa), beltet (belli- 
tatem), solder (solidare) ; Modern French sauce, beaute, souder. In 
Parisian, final el followed the fate of el before a consonant, becoming 
the triphthong eau, but in Norman the vocalization did not take 
place, and the I was afterwards rejected — Modern French ruisseau, 
Modern Guernsey russe (rivicellum) . English words of French origin 
sometimes show / before a consonant, but the general form is u — 
— scald (echauder, excaliddre), Walter (Gaulier, Teutonic Waldhari); 
sauce, beauty, soder. Final el is kept — veal (veau, vitellum), seal 
(sceau, sigillum). (15) In the east and centre ei changes to bi, while 
the older sound is retained in the north-west and west — Norman 
estreit (etroit, strictum), preie (proie, praedam), 12th century Picard, 
Parisian, &c, estroit, proie. But the earliest (10th century) specimens 
of the latter group of dialects have U — pleier (ployer, plicare) Eulalia, 
mettreiet (mettrait, mittere habebat) Jonah. Parisian bi, whether from 
ei or from Old French bi, Si, became in the 15th century ue (spellings 
with one or oe are not uncommon — mirouer for miroir, miratorium) , 
and in the following, in certain words, i, now written ai — francais, 
connatlre, from francois (franceis, franciscum), conoistre (conuistre, 
cognbscere) ; where it did not undergo the latter change it is now ua 
or via — roi (rei, regent), croix (cruis, crucem). Before nasals and 
palatal /, ei (now=«) was kept — veine (vena), veille (vigila), and it 
everywhere survives unlabialized in Modern Norman — Guernsey 
itelle (etoile, Stella) with e, ser (soir, serum) with e. English shows 
generally ei (or ai) for original ei — strait (estreit), prey (preie); but 
in several words the later Parisian oi — coy (coi, qvietum), loyal (loyal, 
ligalem). (16) The splitting of the vowel-sound from accented 
Latin or u not in position, represented in Old French by o and « 
indifferently, into u, (before nasals), and eu (the latter at first a 
diphthong, now = German 6), is unknown to Western French till 
the 12th century, and is not general in the east. The sound in nth 
century Norman was much nearer to u (Modern French ou) than to 
(Modern French 6), as the words borrowed by English show uu (at 
first written u, afterwards ou or ow), never 66; but was probably 
not quite u, as Modern Norman shows the same splitting of the 
sound as Parisian. Examples are — Early Old French espose or 
espuse (sponsam), nom or num (nbmen) , flor or flur (florem) ; Modern 
French epouse, nom, fleur; Modern Guernsey goule (gueide, gulam), 
nom,flleur. Modern Picard also shows u, which is the regular sound 
before r — flour; but Modern Burgundian often keeps the original 
Old French 6 — vo (vous, vos). English shows almost always uu — 
spouse, noun, flower (Early Middle English spuse, nun, flur) ; but 
nephew with eu (neveu, nepotem). (17) The loss of the u (or w) of qu 
dates from the end of the 12th century — Old French quart (qvartum), 
quilier (qvietare) with qu = kw, Modern French quart, quitter with qu = 
k. In Walloon the w is preserved — coudr (quart), cuitter; as is 
the case in English — quart, quit. The w of gw seems to have been 
lost rather earlier, English having simple g — gage (gage, older guage, 
Teutonic wadi), guise (guise, Teutonic wisa). (18) The change of 
the diphthong bu to uu did not take place till after the 12th century, 
such words as Anjou (Andegavum) assonating in the Roland on 
fort (fortem) ; and did not occur in Picardy, where bu became au 
cans from older cbus, cols (cous, collos) coinciding with caus from 
calz (chauds, calidos). English keeps bu distinct from uu — vault for 
vaut (Modern French voile, volvitam), soder (souder, solidare). (19) 
The change of the diphthong ie to simple e is specially Anglo-Norman , 
in Old French of the Continent these sounds never rhyme, in that 
of England they constantly do, and English words show, with rare 
exceptions, the simple vowel — fierce (Old French fiers, ferus), chief 
(chief, caput), with ie=ee; but pannier (panier, panarium). At the 
beginning of the modern period, Parisian dropped the i of ie when 
preceded by ch or j — chef, abreger (Old French abregier, abbrevidre) : 
elsewhere (except in verbs) ie is retained — fier (ferum) , pitii(pietatem). 
Modern Guernsey retainsieaftercA — ap' rchierlapprocher ,adpropeare) . 
(20) Some of the Modern French changes have found their places 
under older ones; those remaining to be noticed are so recent that 
English examples of the older forms are superfluous. In the 16th 
century the diphthong au changed to ao and then to 6, its present 
sound, rendering, for instance, maux (Old French mals, maids) 
identical with mots (muttos). The au of eau underwent the same 
change, but its e was still sounded as 3 (the e of que) ; in the next 
century this was dropped, making veaux (Old French v'eels, vitellos) 
identical with vaux (vols, valles). (21) A more general and very 
important change began much earlier than the last; this is the loss 
of many final consonants. In Early Old French every consonant 
was pronounced as written; by degrees many of them disappeared 
when followed by another consonant, whether in the same word (in 
which case they were generally omitted in writing) or in a following 
one. This was the state of things in the 16th century; those final 
consonants which are usually silent in Modern French were still 
sounded, if before a vowel or at the end of a sentence or a line 
of poetry, but generally not elsewhere. Thus a large number of 

French words had two forms ; the Old French fort appeared as for 
(though still written fort) before a consonant, fort elsewhere. At a 
later period final consonants were lost (with certain exceptions) 
when the word stood at the end of a sentence or of a line of poetry ; 
but they are generally kept when followed by a word beginning 
with a vowel. (22) A still later change is the' general loss of the 
vowel (written e) of unaccented final syllables; this vowel preserved 
in the 16th century the sound 3, which it had in Early Old French. 
In later Anglo-Norman final 3 (like every other sound) was treated 
exactly as the same sound in Middle English ; that is, it came to be 
omitted or retained at pleasure, and in the 15th century disappeared. 
In Old French the loss of final 3 is confined to a few words and forms ; 
the 10th century saveiet (sapebat for sapiebat) became in the Uth 
saveit, and ore (ad horam), ele (Mam) develop the abbreviated or, el. 
In the 15th century 3 before a vowel generally disappears — mur, Old 
French meur (malurum) ; and in the 16th, though still written, 3 
after an unaccented vowel, and in the syllable ent after a vowel, 
does the same — vraiment, Old French vraiement (verblca mente) ; 
avoient two syllables, as now (avaient), in Old French three syllables 
(as habebant). These phenomena occur much earlier in the anglicized 
French of England — 13th century aveynt (Old French aveient). But 
the universal loss of final e, which has clipped a syllable from half 
the French vocabulary, did not take place till the 18th century, after 
the general loss of final consonants; fort and forte, distinguished 
at the end of a sentence or line in the 16th century as fort and forts, 
remain distinguished, but as for and fort. The metre of poetry is 
still constructed on the obsolete pronunciation, which is even revived 
in singing; " dites, la jeune belle," actually four syllables (dit, 
la zhoen bel), is considered as seven, fitted with music accordingly, 
and sung to fit the music (dits, la zhasna bela). (23) In Old French, 
as in the other Romanic languages, the stress (force, accent) is on the 
syllable which was accented in Latin; compare the treatment of 
the accented and unaccented vowels in latro, amds, giving Ure, 
dime, and in latronem, amatis, giving laron, amkz, the accented vowels 
being those which rhyme or assonate. At present, stress in French 
is much less marked than in English, German or Italian, and is to a 
certain extent variable ; which is partly the reason why most native 
French scholars find no difficulty in maintaining that the stress in 
living Modern French is on the same syllable as in Old French. 
The fact that stress in the French of to-day is independent of length 
(quantity) and pitch (tone) largely aids the confusion ; for though 
the final and originally accented syllable (not counting the silent e 
as a syllable) is now generally pronounced with less force, it very 
often has a long vowel with raised pitch. In actual pronunciation 
the chief stress is usually on the first syllable (counting according 
to the sounds, not the spelling), but in many polysyllables it is on 
the last but one; thus in caution the accented (strong) syllable 
eau, in occasion it is ca. Poetry is still written according to the 
original place of the stress; the rhyme-syllables of larron, aimez 
are still ron and mez, which when set to music receive an accented 
(strong) note, and are sung accordingly, though in speech the la 
and at generally have the principal stress. In reading poetry, as 
distinguished from singing, the modern pronunciation is used, both 
as to the loss of the final 9 and the displacement of the stress, the 
result being that the theoretical metre in which the poetry is 
written disappears. (24) In certain cases accented vowels were 
lengthened in Old French, as before a lost s; this was indicated in 
the 16th century by a circumflex — bete, Old French beste (bestiam), 
dme, Old French anme (anima). The same occurred in the plural of 
many nouns, where a consonant was lost before the s of the flection ; 
thus singular coc with short vowel, plural cos with long. The plural 
cos, though spelt cogs instead of co ( = koo), is still sometimes to be 
heard, but, like other similar ones, is generally refashioned after 
the singular, becoming kbk. In present French, except where a 
difference of quality has resulted, as in cote (Old French coste, coslam) 
with and cotte (Old French cote), with 0, short and long vowels 
generally run together, quantity being now variable and uncertain; 
but at the beginning of this century the Early Modern distinctions 
appear to have been generally preserved. 

(d) Orthography. — The history of French spelling is based on 
that of French sounds; as already stated, the former (apart 
from a few Latinisms in the earliest documents) for several 
centuries faithfully followed the latter. When the popular Latin 
of Gaul was first written, its sounds were represented by the letters 
of the Roman alphabet; but these were employed, not in the 
values they had in the time of Caesar, but in those they had ac- 
quired in consequence of the phonetic changes that had meantime 
taken place. Thus, as the Latin sound u had become 6 (close 0) 
and u had become y (French u, German u), the letter u was used 
sometimes to denote the sound 6, sometimes the sound y; as 
Latin k (written c) had become tsh or ts, according to dialect, 
before e and i, c was used to represent those sounds as well as 
that of k. The chief features of early French orthography 
(apart from the specialities of individual MSS., especially the 
earliest) are therefore these: — c stood for k and tsh or ts; d for d 



and dh (soft th); e for i, b, and 9; g for g and dzh; h was often 
written in words of Latin origin where not sounded; i (J) stood 
for i, y consonant, and dzh; o for 6 (Anglo-Norman u) and o; 
s for 5 and z; t for t and th; u (») for 6 (Anglo-Norman «), y and 
»; y (rare) for *; z for dz and to. Some new sounds had also 
to be provided for: where tsh had to be distinguished from non- 
final to, ch — at first, as in Italian, denoting k before i and e (chi= 
ki from qvi) — was used for it; palatal / was represented by ill, 
which when final usually lost one /, and after i dropped its i; 
palatal n by gn, ng or ngn, to which i was often prefixed; and 
the new letter w, originally uu {w), and sometimes representing 
merely uv or mi, was employed for the consonant-sound still 
denoted by it in English. All combinations of vowel-letters 
represented diphthongs; thus ai denoted a followed by i, ou 
either 6u or ou, ui either 6i (Anglo-Norman ui) or yi, and similarly 
with the others — ei, eu, oi, iu, ie, ue (and oe), and the triphthong 
ieu. Silent letters, except initial h in Latin words, are very rare; 
though MSS. copied from older ones often retain letters whose 
sounds, though existing in the language of the author, had dis- 
appeared from that of the more modern scribe. The subsequent 
changes in orthography are due mainly to changes of sound, 
and find their explanation in the phonology. Thus, as Old 
French progresses, s, having become silent before voiced con- 
sonants, indicates only the length of the preceding vowel; e , 
before nasals, from the change of e (nasal e) to 5 (nasal (^repre- 
sents a; c, from the change of to to s, represents s ; qu 
and gu, from the loss of the w of kw and gw, represent 
k and g (hard); ai, from the change of ai to e, represents b; ou, 
from the change of ou and 6u to u, represents u; ch and g, from 
the change of tsh and dzh to sh and zh, represent sh and zh; eu 
and ue, originally representing diphthongs, represent oe (German 
0) ; z, from the change of ts and dz to s and z, represents .? and z. 
The new values of some of these letters were applied to words 
not originally spelt with them: Old French k before i and e 
was replaced by qu (evesque, eveske, Latin episcopum) ; Old 
French u and for 6, after